The sugar beet cyst nematode

The sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii was recorded in all of the surveyed sugar beet producing governorates in Syria (Table 1). Based on the mean values of frequency of occurrence (FO%) and prominence value (PV) in 2009 and 2010, the nematode was most frequent and THZ1 Hydrochloride in Homs governorate (FO=70.37% and PV=23472.37), then in Aleppo, Hamah, Dair az Zawr and Idlib, in a descending order. However, the nematode was least frequent and dominant in Ar Raqqah governorate (FO=5.88%, and PV=28.86) (Table 1).
Levels of nematode infestation also varied among the surveyed governorates. Homs again recorded the highest infestation with average nematode population density (PD) of 27,981 J2+eggs/100g soil (50,545 and 5416 J2+eggs/100g soil in 2009 and 2010, respectively) (Table 1).
Symptoms on the sugar beet plants caused by H. schachtii in the surveyed fields were characterized by uneven patches of stunted and poor growing plants. Plant leaves were pale yellowish green in color. The tap roots of infected plants also were stunted and appeared highly branched with a hairy root appearance.
All the tested sugar beet cyst nematode populations collected from the six governorates were found to be belonging to one species, H. schachtii, based on the features and morphometrics of the cyst vulvar cone structures and the second-stage juveniles (J2) (Tables 2 and 3).
The multivariate principal component analysis, based on 14 morphometric characters of the cyst vulvar cones, J2 and eggs showed that, at the high order of hierarchical cluster analysis, four populations formed one main cluster encompassing; Idlib, Hamah, Homs and Aleppo, while the Dair az Zawr and Ar Raqqah populations failed to form a cluster, and separated individually. However, at low distance value, the main cluster further subdivided to separate Aleppo population from Idlib, Hamah and Homs populations. The morphometric distance values ranged from 0.07 to 0.61. Hamah and Homs were the closest populations while Dair az Zawr showed the most diverse population (Fig. 2).
The fourteen morphometric characters of the cyst vulvar cones, J2 and eggs discriminated the populations, and 99.74% of the total variation was shown in two principle components (PC) (Table 4). The first and second PCs represented 79.33% and 20.41% of the variation, respectively. The first PC was strongly influenced by J2 body length with loading coefficient (LC) of 0.99 and egg width (LC=0.09). The second PC was strongly influenced by fenestral length with LC=0.71, egg length (LC=0.45), semi-fenestral width (LC=0.40) and number of bullae inside the cyst vulvar cone (LC=0.18) (Table 4). The graphical representation of the distribution of the six populations in the space of the two PC functions (Fig. 3) showed that function 1 has clearly separated Ar Raqqah from Aleppo, Idlib and Dair az Zawr populations. However, the second function separated Dair az Zawr and Ar Raqqah populations from Idlib, Hamah, Homs and Aleppo populations.
These results revealed the value of some characters that can be utilized for separation of the different populations within H. schachtii species, and determining the intraspecific variations between these populations. These characters include, in a descending order of importance; J2 body length, egg width, fenestral length, egg length, semi-fenestral width and number of bullae inside the vulvar cone structure.

The sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii was found to be common in the sugar beet fields of all the Syrian sugar beet producing governorates except for Ar Raqqah governorate where it was, comparatively, least frequent and dominant. There has been a considerable increase of awareness regarding the occurrence and economic importance of H. schachtii worldwide (Nielsen et al., 2003). This study, however, showed that the distribution of H. schachtii in Syria has increased considerably, and the nematode which has been previously reported to be found only in Homs and THZ1 Hydrochloride Hamah governorates in 2003–2005 (Albalkhi, 2006), has reached another extra four governorates within only 5–6years (2009–2010). This rapid dissemination of H. schachtii in the sugar beet production areas in Syria, has also been previously noted in 1920s in the western areas of the United States of America, and was attributed to poor management practices (Thorne, 1961), which might be the same case in Syria.

THZ1 Hydrochloride Now a reference signal composed

Now, a reference signal composed for steps of different amplitudes are applied, here it THZ1 Hydrochloride is possible to see the use of the model reference that makes smooth the signal to follow. At the beginning of the experiment, the over-shoot takes place for the same reason mentioned above; here the system can recuperate the reference after the disturbance in a similar way to the results in Fig. 11. The results of having this reference signal are plotted in Fig. 12, in this case the steady-state error varies between .
As the experimental results present some oscillations, now the reference is , this signal is filtered by the reference model (30) and is obtained; the same over-shoot takes place at the beginning of the experiment, in this case the steady-state error varies between . The results are shown in Fig. 13 and it can be appreciated the tracking action.
The errors criteria IAE, ISE and ITAE [11] are presented in Table 3 to have an idea about the control performance, there are shown two values, one for all the experiment time; another for the system responses after the disturbance, when the system recuperates the reference, it is due the ITAE will penalty the error criterion due the disturbance, the errors criteria are defined as follows.
From Table 3 it is possible to see that the smallest error was obtained when the reference is a constant value the set point; when the idea is tracking a desired trajectory the error increase, to get an idea about the effect of the disturbance, in the second part of Table 3, the errors criteria show the steady-state error obtained after the disturbance, here it is possible to note a smaller error than the presented above in the Table. It is also interesting to see that the ISE is smaller than the IAE when the reference is a constant value, it is due the error is a small value, thus its square is smaller; in the other hand, if the disturbance was later, the difference would be bigger between values shown in both parts of Table 3 due the effect of time in the ITAE criterion.
Finally, the control signals for the steps and the sinus reference are pretty similar, in Fig. 14 it is shown the control signal, the voltage, applied to the electromagnet in the experiment, it is possible to see the peak voltage owned by the presence of the disturbance, also it is noted that the voltage cannot be higher than 18V.

The system shows a better response by using the model reference, here, the fuzzy controller and the inverse model compute its results by using the error obtained with the difference between the model reference and the system’s output. Also, it was observed that by taking the delay of d sampling times helps to the system to improve the fuzzy rules only when a change in the output can be noted, but this action causes the over-shoot in the experiments due the delay presented.

Recently, multiphase machines have been recognized as an attractive choice for large variable speed drives due to their numerous advantages against their three-phase counterparts [1]. The stringent requirements of high power safety critical applications such as electric propulsion, tractions and the concept of more electric air craft pull the multiphase machine into focus [1,2]. Firstly, with the additional degrees of freedom offered by multiphase windings, the total power is split across the phases, which allows for lower per-phase converter ratings, a highly preferable feature in medium voltage applications. With the extensive work introduced in the literature, many other promising features have been recognized, including higher torque density, improved torque quality, lower dc link ripple current, improved air gap flux distribution, lower machine losses, and improved overall efficiency [3,4].
Of the different merits of a multiphase drive, the ability to run with some phases open without the need for additional hardware components stands as a distinguishing merit for such drive systems under either open-loop [5] or closed loop current controllers [6,7]. On one hand, the open loop controller corresponds to a higher torque ripple and unbalanced winding currents but a lower derating factor [8]. On the other hand, the optimal current control is usually preferred in the state-of-the-art to ensure certain post-fault operating conditions based on a certain optimization criterion. Usually, maximum average torque and minimum copper loss are among these main optimization criteria employed in this regard [6]. Much work can be traced in the available literature which employs different post-fault control strategies for both permanent magnet and induction machine types; including hysteresis control [9], synchronous frame current control [10], PI-resonant control [6,11], and predictive controllers [12,13]. All these previous techniques deal with one open phase due to a complete failure in one of the inverter legs. However, very limited work addresses short-circuit inverter fault cases [14]. According to conventional OCC and for some fault cases, such as open gate transistor fault in one of the upper or lower switching devices, the other healthy transistor is intentionally disconnected to avoid the flow of a unidirectional current in the machine faulty phase. The other healthy phases are controlled with some optimal reference currents to maximize the fundamental magneto motive force (MMF) component while nullifying the backward component [5]. Hence, the current magnitude of the remaining healthy phases should be increased to compensate for this phase loss at the cost of an additional stator copper loss. In a five-phase machine with one phase open, the current magnitude should be increased by 38% to obtain same pre-fault conditions [5]. This will correspond to a 53% increase in the stator copper loss. For open gate transistor faults, instead of disconnecting the other transistor in the same leg, this paper proposes an improved fault-tolerant scheme to control this healthy transistor, which enhances the converter utilization. This controller is called half cycle optimal current control (HCOCC) and is expected to reduce the extra stator copper loss obtained at rated full-load to only 26% of the rated copper loss. Consequently, the machine derating factor will be improved for a certain maximum acceptable magnitude of the machine total losses. The proposed controller is investigated using a simulation case study to a five-phase induction machine under different operating conditions. The paper is organized as follows. The conventional OCC firstly reviewed results and the main in Section 2. In Section 3, the proposed concept of HCOCC is introduced. The required reference current magnitude to reduce the total copper loss is presented in Section 4. The complete current controller based on indirect field oriented control [15] is then presented in Section 5. Finally, the simulation conclusions behind this work are given in Sections 6 and 7 respectively.

THZ1 Hydrochloride There are several potential explanations for the association between

There are several potential explanations for the association between low EPCs counts and severity of CAD. First was the presence of other cardiac risk factors. Several studies have identified an inverse relation between EPCs counts and cardiac risk factors. Second explanation was that both low EPCs and sever CAD were associated with older age. We can say that harmful processes that contribute to atherosclerosis (diabetes, aging, inflammation, etc.) can also suppress bone marrow production of EPCs, without any relationship between EPCs levels and CAD. It may be hypothesized that EPCs counts decreased with age, and that low EPCs and atherosclerosis coexist in the elderly without cause and effect relationship [25].
As regards the quantitative values of genes expression by Real-time PCR and analysis, we found that there was a significant elevation of eNOS gene expression & VEGFR-2 (KDR) gene expression in good collateral group of patients as compared to poor collateral group of patients. Murohara et al. [26] identified that cell clusters, spindle-shaped and cord-like structures could develop from cultures of CB MNCs. These THZ1 Hydrochloride have property incorporation of acetylated-LDL, released nitric oxide and expressed VEGFR-2, VE-cadherin, CD31 and vWF but not CD45. Locally transplanted cells had multiple endothelial phenotypes, survived and participated in capillary networks in the ischemic tissues of immunodeficient nude rats in vivo.
Umbilical cord blood EPCs transplanted via tail vein into nude mice, they incorporated into capillary networks in ischemic hind limb and augmented neovascularisation. In addition, in ischemic tissues, there were elevated expressions of VEGF and stromal-derived factor 1-α, both of which had chemotactic effect on EPCs [27].
In our vivo study demonstrated that intramyocardial transplantation of EPCs in canine model of AMI was associated with neovascularization and improvement of cardiac function. The localization and homing of transplanted DILDL-UEA-1human EPCs in canine cardiac tissues were identified by detection of these labeled EPCs as fluorescent collected cells between striated cardiac muscles. The survival of human EPCs in the transplanted cardiac tissue was observed as positive-DAPI cells. Immunofluorescence studies done by Silva et al. [28] identified that DAPI- and DILDL-UEA-1-positive cells were localized primarily in the anterolateral wall of cardiac tissue of canine chronic ischemia model. However, in every transplanted dog, some lateral and posterior sections showed labeled cells suggesting migration of transplanted cells.
Our in vivo results suggested that injected EPCs into ischemic myocardium improved myocardial function and increased vascularity. Histopathological cardiac tissue analysis of infarctioned cardiac muscle transplanted with human EPCs showed many congested capillaries, congested large blood vessels with budding & branching, indicating neovascularization in the area of infarction.
In vivo transplantation of bone marrow-derived cells has shown regenerated areas of infracted myocardium and new coronary capillaries formation and this led to limiting functional impairment after myocardial infarction [29]. Transendocardial injection of autologous bone marrow MNCs has shown increase in myocardial contractility and perfusion in swine [30]. In vitro study showed evidence of bone marrow stem cells differentiation into cardiomyocytes, endothelium, and smooth muscle cells [31]. Autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells transplantation in surgically induced experimental hindlimb ischemia revealed cells incorporation into the capillary network among preserved skeletal myocytes [32]. Comparative Study between transendocardial (TE) delivery of bone marrow MSCs after AMI and intracoronary (IC) delivery. The TE group showed higher cell retention (clusters even in the injury center of the infarct) with an increased vascularity and greater functional improvement than the IC group (no clusters; cells at the border of the infarct). The higher local cell density in the TE group may be important for therapeutic effectiveness [33]. Human cord blood MNCs transplantation in ischemic animal models increased the number of capillaries, angiogenic genes expression and factors [34]. Our findings suggested that EPCs express VEGFR-2, which is linked to both neoangiogenesis and stem cell homing and migration, also support a contribution of paracrine stimulation of endogenous repair.

br Methods br Results br Discussion Li et al performed



Li et al. (2013) performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic performance of SWE in the differentiation of breast lesions, yielding summary sensitivities and specificities of 0.91 and 0.82 for SSI and 0.89 and 0.91 for ARFI, respectively. Unfortunately, only a total of 9 studies, including 1888 women and 2000 breast lesions, were analyzed. Moreover, the combined results of SWE and conventional US were not evaluated in that meta-analysis. We found that SWE is a feasible tool to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions, providing quantitative information of stiffness. Moreover, our results suggest that the addition of SWE to conventional US would increase both the sensitivity and specificity. SWE is deemed a potential improvement to conventional US in the differentiation of breast lesions; it may be valuable to introduce SWE into routine clinical practice.
The studies in our meta-analysis encompassed two of the SWE modes, ARFI and SSI. Although the physical principles underlying these two elastographic techniques differ physical (Bamber et al. 2013), they are both based on shear wave propagation in soft tissues, which is induced by an ultrasound-generated THZ1 Hydrochloride force focus. Moreover, the factor of different techniques was not a significant cause of between-study heterogeneity according to meta-regression analysis. In fact, these two techniques were comparable in diagnostic performance in the differentiation of breast lesions in the subgroup analysis. Compared with ARFI, SSI improved sensitivity with a reduction in specificity, which was consistent with the meta-analysis results of Li et al. (2013). Therefore, these two SWE techniques were included in our meta-analysis. Further studies providing patient-based comparisons between SSI and ARFI are required to explain why SSI has a higher sensitivity and a lower specificity than ARFI.
Substantial heterogeneity was observed in the present meta-analysis. Theoretically, heterogeneity in meta-analyses may result from the search strategy and eligibility criteria used for inclusion, exposure constructs and outcome measures assessed, statistical methods employed and subgroup assessment (Genkinger and Terry 2014). Therefore, there are many explanations for the substantial heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. To date, no consensus of diagnostic criteria has been reached for SWE. Various elasticity measurements, such as shear wave velocity, shear wave velocity ratio, mean elasticity value, maximum elasticity value, minimum elasticity value, and ratio of elasticity value ratio, with different cutoff values are used. In addition, previous studies have found that the diagnostic performance of SWE is correlated with breast lesion size (Yao et al. 2014). SWE had a relatively low sensitivity in breast lesions <10 mm (Sadigh et al. 2013; Yao et al. 2014). Moreover, differences may exist in the breast cancers of Asian and non-Asian women, such as difference in stiffness, although further pathologic confirmation is needed. Nevertheless, all of these could not explain the heterogeneity between the studies.

Cystic fibrosis is the most widespread autosomal recessive disease among Caucasians. It is caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, which codes for an anion channel expressed in epithelial cells throughout the body (Gadsby et al. 2006).
Cystic fibrosis–related liver disease (CFLD) has a cumulative incidence of 27%–35% (Colombo et al. 2002; Lindblad et al. 1999). Most cases are detected in the first decade of life (Lindblad et al. 1999). Five to ten percent will develop multi-lobular cirrhosis, leading to portal hypertension and related complications (Debray et al. 1999; Gooding et al. 2005). As a result, CFLD remains the third-leading cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) mortality (Parisi et al. 2013). Synthetic failure, however, is rare and develops slowly over the years (Gooding et al. 2005).

In order to get a deeper insight into the

In order to get a deeper insight into the coherence degree of the registered spectra it is useful to analyze separately two different spectra ranges, namely the OH stretching band 3200<Δ<3800cm−1, and the C-H stretching band 2800<Δ<3000cm−1. In Fig. 3a, as an example, the 3000<Δ<3800cm−1 spectral range for EG, DEG, PEG 300 and PEG 600 is reported at a temperature value of T=40°C. This contribution is generally attributed to the OH end groups. The OH stretching contribution is usually treated in terms of symmetric bands designed as ωe, ωδ, ωγ, where refers to OH groups involved in the intramolecular O-H bond, i.e. when a OH, via a hydrogen-bond, is bonded with an O THZ1 Hydrochloride of an internal monomeric unit; ωδ refers to the stretching of the fully bonded hydroxylic OH group (i.e. O and H bonded respectively with H and O belonging to another polymeric unit) and ωγ refers as the O-H stretching in which only the H atoms are bonded. The IR absorbance shows that, in passing from EG to PEG 900, the three sub-bands reduce to the ωγ one in which the hydrogens of the OH groups are bonded to the oxygens of another polymeric chain. In the specific case of PEG 600, for example, the total OH stretching band can be decomposed into two bands corresponding to the ωδ and ωγ OH vibration. In addition, the OHstretching band does not depend significantly on temperature. In the insert of Fig. 3a the EG spectrum first derivative calculated using the Savitzkw-Golaw algorithm is reported. Furthermore the second-derivative analysis of the IR OH contribution contribution was calculated in order to enhance the fine spectral structure; with such an analysis, the IR spectrum shape is approximated by a Lorentzian function [48], while the peak frequency is very close to the original peak frequency; however the half-bandwidth is reduced [49]. In Fig. 3b a joint plot of band center frequency and of total OH stretching band area as a function of polymerization degree m is shown. Finally, in Fig. 3c the Wavelet Cross Correlation Coefficient (XWTC) for the spectra couples as a function of polymerization degree at T=40°C as are reported.
It should be noticed that the crossover value registered in the OH stretching band center frequency (blue curve in Fig. 3b) as a function of the polymerization degree agrees very well with the one evaluated by wavelet cross correlation coefficients (red curve in Fig. 3c). Such a comparison between the traditional spectral analysis and the XWTC approach supports the validity of this latter procedure; this agreement is quantitatively better in comparison with that obtained by standard Principal Component Analysis (PCA) [50,51]. On the other hand, the area of the intramolecular OH stretching band (magenta curve in Fig. 3b) shows a lower crossover value in respect to the above mentioned indicators due to the multimode nature of this spectral contribution which does not always allow to analyse the spectral shape changes.
Fig. 4 shows, on the left, in more detail the normalized spectra in the 2800<Δ<3000cm−1 spectral range; it clearly emerges the presence of two spectral contributions with opposite dependence when m increases. In particular, see Fig. 4 on the right, the linewidth, expressed in cm−1, of the high frequency spectral component which decreases, as a function of the chain length reaching a plateau value. XWTC Raman intensity data analysis confirms the overall picture emerging from IR data. In Table 2 the Raman XWTC values for the for EG, DEG, PEG 300, PEG 600, PEG 900 and PEG 1000 spectra couples, in the whole investigated range and at T=40°C is reported. As for IR spectra, also the calculated Raman XWTC values suggest that the Raman spectral features are strongly affected by increasing the polymer chain length, i.e. by increasing m, reaching a plateau value at about 13.
In summary, IR and Raman spectra on pure EG and pure PEGs, when analysed in different spectral ranges, show a dramatic change as a function of the polymerization degree, allowing to determine the oligomer-to-polymer regime crossover; WT, through a multiscale analysis addressed to quantify the IR and Raman spectral shape modifications, confirms that a plateau value for the XWTC is reached for m=13.

Women participating in the Mindfulness and MBCT

Women participating in the Mindfulness and MBCT interventions also reported the experience had a positive impact on behavioral alterations. In the Mindfulness intervention one women reported being able to control her reactions to negative stimulus rather than letting her reactions spiral out of control.26 In the same study, one participant reported increased levels of self-compassion.26 Participants in the MBCT intervention, 58.3% reported they were able to increase their levels of self-acceptance and able to treat themselves with kindness when faced with situations that can induce feelings of anxiety.18 In the same study, 41.7% of women reported they became more adaptable with their reactions to stressful triggers and 29.2% of participants reported they were better able to control reactions to overwhelming thoughts.18 Women experiencing distress regarding past negative experiences in the perinatal THZ1 Hydrochloride were more able to address these previous negative emotions (with the use of Mindfulness and MBCT) and bring their attention to the present with a more accepting and positive approach. Women suggested that their perceptions of the past were altered, allowing them to focus more on the present and/or future.18 and 26
Developing coping mechanisms was shown to be an additional benefit of intervention participation for some women. Breathing, practicing yoga or using body scan techniques were shown to assist with symptoms of anxiety in 83.4% of participants.18 Another coping mechanism prominent in both the Mindfulness and MBCT interventions was teaching participants to focus on the present moment to reduce levels of stress.18 and 26 Gaining insight regarding reactions to anxiety through reflection and understanding of how thoughts and feelings can trigger anxiety was a coping mechanism forebrain was reported to be beneficial in both the Mindfulness intervention and in 29.2% of women participating in a MBCT intervention.18 and 26
2.5.3. Evaluation of interventions
A number of validated tools to assess the participant\’s symptomatic levels of anxiety, depression, stress and mindfulness were used in the studies. The use of validated mental health evaluation tools pre and post-intervention allowed the researchers to establish baseline levels and measure variations in the participant\’s mental health status again post-intervention (see Table 5). Tools used to measure mental health status and other aspects of social/emotional wellbeing included – the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI),18 Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II),7 and 18 Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CES-D),26 Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS),26 Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS),24 Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7),24 Mindfulness (consisting of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire)26 and the State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI).26 However, not all of these tools were common to all four studies (see Table 6a and Table 6b).