br Introduction For notation and graph

For notation and graph theory terminology, we in general follow  [1,2]. Specifically, let be a graph with vertex set of order  and size , and let be a vertex in . The open neighborhood of is and the closed neighborhood of is . The degree of is . If the graph is clear from the context, we simply write and rather than and , respectively. For a set , its open neighborhood is the set , and its closed neighborhood is the set . A vertex of degree one is called a leaf and its unique neighbor a support vertex. A pendant edge is an edge which one of its end-points is a leaf. A star of order is a tree that has precisely one vertex that is not a leaf. A claw-free graph is a graph with no induced subgraph isomorphic to a star of order . A double-star is a tree that has precisely two vertices that are not leaves. We refer as a double-star which its central vertices have degree and , respectively. For a subset of vertices of we denote by the subgraph of induced by . For two subsets of vertices and of , we denote by the subgraph of induced by . The diameter of a graph , denoted by , is the maximum distance between pairs of vertices of . The girth of , denoted by , is the length of a shortest T-5224 contained in .
A subset of vertices of a graph is a dominating set of if every vertex in has a neighbor in . The domination number is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of . We refer a dominating set of cardinality as a -set. A dominating set in a graph with no isolated vertex is called a total dominating set of if has no isolated vertex. The total domination number is the minimum cardinality of a total dominating set of . We refer a total dominating set of cardinality as a -set. A total dominating set in is called an efficient total dominating set if the open neighborhoods of the vertices of form a partition for . For a subset of vertices of , and a vertex , we say that a vertex is an external private neighbor ofwith respect to if . We denote by the set of all external private neighbors of respect to .
Hamid and Balamurugan  [3] initiated the study of isolate domination in graphs. A dominating set is an isolate dominating set if the induced subgraph has at least one isolated vertex. The isolate domination number is the minimum cardinality of an isolate dominating set of . The concept of isolate domination was further studied, for example in  [4–9]. Hamid et al.  [3] showed that for a cubic graph , . They presented several bounds, and properties for the isolate domination number, and proposed the following problem(s).
Problems:(1) Characterize cubic graphs with .
(2) Characterize graphs with , or .
(3) Find bounds for .
In the following we state some known results that we need for the next. The corona graph of a graph , denoted by , is the graph obtained from by adding a pendant edge to every vertex of .

In this section we show that the decision problem for the isolate domination is NP-complete, even when restricted to bipartite graphs. We use a transformation from the 3-SAT problem. A truth assignment for a set of Boolean variables is a mapping . A variable is said to be true (or false) under if (or ). If is a variable in , then and are literals over . The literal is true under if and only if the variable is true under , and the literal is true if and only if the variable is false. A clause over is a set of literals over , and it is satisfied by a truth assignment if and only if at least one of its members is true under that assignment. A collection of clauses over is satisfiable if and only if there exists some truth assignment for that simultaneously satisfies all the clauses in . Such a truth assignment is called a satisfying truth assignment for . The 3-SAT problem is specified as follows.
3-SAT problem:
Instance: A collection of clauses over a finite set of variables such that for .
Question: Is there a truth assignment for that satisfies all the clauses in ?

The most common chronic treatment related QOL complaints

The most common chronic treatment-related QOL complaints in testis cancer survivors are peripheral neuropathy, hearing loss, tinnitus, and Raynaud-like phenomena. Each of these symptoms is reported by at least 20% of patients with testis cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Studies of patients with testis cancer who received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for metastatic disease (and thus a minimum cumulative dose of 300mg/m2) report that 20% to 30% report tinnitus or hearing loss [34,35]. Audiometry reveals that 20% to 40% have measurable hearing loss. Radiation therapy has also been associated with lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy that is often progressive and irreversible [36]. Although chemotherapy-related neuropathy is typically sensory, radiation-induced neuropathy most often presents with peripheral neurogenic motor signs and symptoms such as amyotrophy and fasciculations.
The largest published study of these chronic toxicities is the Norwegian evaluation of 1,409 men with unilateral testis cancer at a median of 10.7 years (range: 4–21) after diagnosis [37]. Men were divided into 6 groups based on treatment: surveillance, retroperitoneal T-5224 node dissection, radiation therapy, 1 to 4 cycles of chemotherapy, more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy, and dose-intensive chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was associated with an increased incidence of Raynaud-like phenomena (39%), hearing impairment (21%), tinnitus (22%), and paresthesias of the hands and feet (29%). Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of paresthesias of the feet (odds ratio = 1.5, P = 0.04). Most of these side effects were dose dependent. For instance, Raynaud-like phenomena were reported as major symptoms in 12% of those managed with surveillance, 35% of those receiving 1 to 4 cycles of chemotherapy, and 61% of those who received more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy. The figures for paresthesias were 10%, 28%, and 46%, respectively. Severe hearing loss documented on audiometry was detected in 22% of men receiving no chemotherapy, 28% of those receiving 1 to 4 cycles of chemotherapy, 37% of those receiving more than 4 cycles, and 69% of those receiving dose-dense chemotherapy. However, the difference in hearing loss between those receiving up to 4 vs. more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy was not statistically significant, (P = 0.4). Similarly, a British study of 739 testis cancer survivors reported that peripheral neuropathy and Raynaud-like phenomenon were reported by 22% and 20%, respectively, of those who received chemotherapy (n = 348) compared with 9% and 2%, respectively, of those who had not (n = 355) [38]. High-grade tinnitus and difficulty in hearing were reported by 6.5% of survivors, and reduced hearing at 8,000Hz was detected in those who received chemotherapy compared with those who did not. Cisplatin dose, carboplatin dose, and age were associated with peripheral neuropathy, whereas bleomycin was associated with Raynaud-like phenomenon. Cisplatin dose and age were also associated with hearing loss.
Other smaller studies have confirmed that at least 20% of survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy experience long-term, high-pitch hearing loss and peripheral neuropathy [34,35,38–40]. For instance, a study of 666 men with good-risk metastatic testis cancer participating in a trial comparing 3 vs. 4 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy (BEP) and administration of cisplatin and etoposide over 3 vs. 5 days reported that with a 2-year follow-up, 22% reported worsening of peripheral neuropathy when compared with baseline, 24% of subjects reported Raynaud-like phenomena, 21% reported difficulty hearing, and 26% reported ringing in the ears [40]. Administering 4 cycles of chemotherapy as compared with 3 was associated with a higher risk of Raynaud-like phenomena and difficulty hearing, and the 3-day schedule was associated with a higher risk of difficulty in hearing and tinnitus.
The major culprit behind chemotherapy-related neuropathy in testis cancer survivors is cisplatin, which is used in both the first-line and the second-line settings. Paclitaxel and vinblastine also cause neuropathy but are only used in the second-line setting (except in some clinical trials), and thus far, fewer men are exposed to these agents given the low relapse rate after first-line chemotherapy. The etiology of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity appears to be owing to sensory neuron DNA damage [41]. Intrastrand and interstrand DNA adduct accumulation following cisplatin exposure has been associated with sensory nerve damage in animal models. Cisplatin-induced formation of reactive oxygen species also appears to contribute to oxidative DNA damage. Both neucleotide excision repair and base excision repair pathways appear to be important for correcting cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Histological analysis shows that cisplatin produces axonal damage in both large and small myelinated fibers [42]. Physiological studies report reduced action potential amplitude as well as conduction velocity.

br Taxonomy of the causative virus Peste des

Taxonomy of the causative virus
Peste des petits ruminants virus belongs to genus Morbillivirus, sub-family Paramyxovirinae, family Paramyxoviridae, and order Mononegavirales, alongside other important viral pathogens, e.g., Rinderpest virus, Measles virus, Canine distemper virus, Phocine distemper virus and the morbilliviruses of marine mammals, the cetacean morbilliviruses. The characterisation of novel morbilliviruses have recently been described, including Feline morbillivirus in cats (Woo et al., 2012) and numerous morbilli-like viruses in rodents or bats (Drexler et al., 2012). This viral order contains some of the most significant viral pathogens in the medical and veterinary fields (Table 1).
The majority of morbillivirus species can be divided into monophyletic lineages or clades following genetic analysis (Fig. 1). Due to the historical detection of cetacean morbilliviruses and the paucity of data available, for cetacean morbilliviruses several species were initially proposed, including viruses infecting dolphins (Dolphin morbillivirus), those infecting porpoise (Porpoise morbillivirus) and those infecting whales (Pilot Whale Morbillivirus). However, following further identification and genetic characterisation of these viruses, they were classified as a single monophyletic group, the cetacean morbilliviruses. Most recently, novel cetacean isolates have been described that cluster within the cetacean morbilliviruses, but are genetically divergent to those previously characterised, further extending the T-5224 of these viruses (Barrett et al., 1993; Taubenberger et al., 2000; Stephens et al., 2014).
In general, morbilliviruses are considered restricted in their ability to infect different species. Measles virus infections appear to occur exclusively in humans and non-human primates, rinderpest was restricted to members of the Order Artiodactyla and to date cetacean morbilliviruses have only been reported in aquatic mammals. In contrast, Peste des petits ruminants virus, whilst initially thought to be restricted to the infection of small ruminants, has recently been determined to be the cause of mass mortalities in camelids (Roger et al., 2001; El-Hakim, 2006) and has been described, on a single occasion, in felids (Balamurugan et al., 2012b), although further corroboration of this report is needed. The seemingly most promiscuous morbillivirus is Canine distemper virus. Initially thought restricted to infection of canids, the virus has been described in numerous species, including tigers, lions, hyenas, polar bears and non-human primates (Buczkowski et al., 2014). Feline Morbillivirus was initially reported in domestic cats in Hong Kong as the proposed causative agent of tubulointerstitial nephritis (Woo et al., 2012). Since this initial report, several other detections have been made in Japan (Furuya et al., 2014; Sakaguchi et al., 2014), with some isolates providing evidence of genetic recombination (Park et al., 2014).
Morbilliviruses are characterised at the molecular level most extensively through studies with the prototype virus, Measles Virus and to some extent Canine distemper virus and Rinderpest virus. Peste des petits ruminants virus remains largely uncharacterised with respect to virus replication and transcription. However, the viruses are known to be conserved across the genus with different species sharing similar characteristics. The descriptions of Peste des petits ruminants virus in this review are generalised for morbilliviruses with the inclusion of specific literature available for Peste des petits ruminants virus.

Characteristics of the causative virus

Epidemiological characteristics

Disease processes

Disease diagnosis
Peste des petits ruminants can be confused with other diseases including rinderpest, bluetongue and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, due to the similarity of these diseases in clinical signs. Diagnosis of the disease may also be complicated, as the result of secondary bacterial infections specifically caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Therefore, in addition to clinical observations, a differential diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratory diagnostic techniques.

br Our study demonstrated that

Our study demonstrated that the average excursions of the bilateral T-5224 during tidal breathing (right: 11.0 mm, 95% CI 10.4 to 11.6 mm; left: 14.9 mm, 95% CI 14.2 to 15.5 mm) were numerically less than those during forced breathing in previous studies using other modalities 2; 7 ;  8. Using fluoroscopy, Alexander reported that the average right excursion was 27.5 mm and the average left excursion was 31.5 mm during forced breathing in the standing position in 127 patients (2). Using ultrasound, Harris et al. reported that the average right diaphragm excursion was 48 mm during forced breathing in the supine position in 53 healthy adults (7). Using MR fluoroscopy, Gierada et al. reported that the average right excursion was 44 mm and the average left excursion was 42 mm during forced breathing in the supine position in 10 healthy volunteers (8). The difference in diaphragmatic excursion during tidal breathing versus forced breathing is unsurprising.

Our study showed that the excursion and peak motion speed of the left diaphragm are significantly greater and faster than those of the right. With regard to the excursion, the results of our study are consistent with those of previous reports using fluoroscopy in a standing position 2 ;  3. However, in the previous studies evaluating diaphragmatic motion in the supine position, the asymmetric diaphragmatic motion was not mentioned 7 ;  8. The asymmetric excursion of the bilateral diaphragm may be more apparent in the standing position, but may not be detectable or may disappear in the supine position. Although we cannot explain the reason for the asymmetry in diaphragmatic motion, we speculate that the presence of the liver may limit the excursion of the right diaphragm. Regarding the motion speed, to the best of our knowledge this study is the first to evaluate it. The faster motion speed of the left diaphragm compared to that of the right diaphragm would be related to the greater excursion of the left diaphragm.

We found that higher BMI and higher tidal volume were independently associated with the increased excursions of the bilateral diaphragm by both univariate and multivariate analyses, although the strength of these associations was weak. We cannot explain the exact reason for the correlation between BMI and the excursion of the diaphragm. However, a previous study showed that BMI is associated with peak oxygen consumption (23), and the increased oxygen consumption in an obese participant may affect diaphragmatic movement. Another possible reason is that lower thoracic compliance due to higher BMI may cause increased movement of the diaphragm for compensation. Regarding the correlation between tidal volume and excursion of the diaphragm, given that diaphragmatic muscle serves as the most important respiratory muscle, the result is to be expected. Considering our results, the excursion evaluated by dynamic X-ray phrenicography could potentially predict tidal volume.

Our study has several limitations. First, we included only 172 volunteers, and additional studies on larger participant populations are required to confirm these preliminary findings. Second, we evaluated only the motion of the highest point of the diaphragms for the sake of simplicity, and three-dimensional motion of the diaphragm could not be completely reflected in our results. However, we believe that this simple method would be practical and T-5224 more easily applicable in a clinical setting.


The time-resolved quantitative analysis of the diaphragms with dynamic X-ray phrenicography is feasible. The average excursions of the diaphragms are 11.0 mm (right) and 14.9 mm (left) during tidal breathing in a standing position in our health screening center cohort. The diaphragmatic motion of the left is significantly larger and faster than that of the right. Higher tidal volume and BMI are associated with increased excursions of the bilateral diaphragm.

Fig nbsp xA Simulation with regular sorting

Fig. 3. Simulation with regular sorting and hypercongestion.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
This result means that T-5224 travel times do not depend on T-5224 the departure schedule as long as there is regular sorting. In the bottleneck model, in contrast, travel times depend strongly on the departure schedule.
We shall use the following regularity condition. Condition 1.
In equilibrium, H?(a)<0,W?(b)>0 for all times a,ba,b.
This condition is trivially satisfied when the speed is constant. It remains satisfied if speed does not drop too quickly at times of departure or rise too quickly at times of arrival. It is not a primitive condition, as would have been desirable, but depends on endogenous variables. The numerical results presented below specify h and w as exponential functions: in genotype case, Proposition 1 in Appendix C translates the condition into a straightforward bound on the slope coefficients of h and w which is satisfied provided the slope coefficients are sufficiently large. By construction, Condition 1 is satisfied in Nash equilibrium in the numerical example below. As stated in the following theorem, the condition implies regular sorting. Theorem 2.

The CGT framework is applied to the Jucar

The CGT framework is applied to the Jucar River Basin (JRB) of Spain, which is a good case for studying the strategic behavior of stakeholders and policies to confront water scarcity and drought impacts from the impending climate change. The JRB region is semiarid and the river T-5224 is under severe stress with acute water scarcity problems and escalating degradation of ecosystems. Another interesting aspect of the JRB is that there have been already successful policies leading to stakeholders\’ cooperation. In particular, the curtailment of water extractions in the Eastern La Mancha aquifer that were threatening the activities of downstream stakeholders [16].
2. Cooperative game T-5224 framework
This section presents the CGT framework used to analyze water management policies addressing scarcity and drought at basin scale. Assume that a basin includes n>1 users (players in the game). The users consider a cooperative management of the basin by agreeing to share water resources. Initially, the users have predetermined administrative water allocations depending on the climate condition. Under the cooperative water sharing agreement, the agency responsible for water allocation reallocates water among uses so that the whole basin benefits are maximized. When additional benefits are obtained through calcitonin cooperative agreement compared to non-cooperation (status quo), the water agency needs to distribute these benefits among the cooperating users in a fair way that would sustain cooperation.