br Succession of the pig gut microbiota Animals are thought

Succession of the pig gut microbiota
Animals are thought to be bacteria-free prior to birth. However, during the birthing process animals are exposed to a variety of bacteria in the vagina and from fecal contamination on the dam or in the environment. The concept of microbial succession in animals is an ecological principle that has been long recognized. The composition of the gut microbiota is not static and shifts over time. There is a succession of microbes over time that culminates in a “climax” community, which is more stable (Palmer et al., 2007). Many factors contribute to the succession process including the physiological changes that occur in the gut as it transitions to an Sulfo-NHS-Biotin environment. The consumption of solid foods is another major factor that triggers a shift toward a bacterial assemblage characteristic of the adult microbiota (Palmer et al., 2007). A recent study of pig fecal microbial shifts during the weaning transition has contributed to our understanding of microbial transitions that occur in this physiologically stressful time for animals (Pajarillo et al., 2014a). In that study, the fecal microbiota of 15 commercial pigs was measured during the weaning transition using pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 (pre-weaning at 4 weeks of age and post-weaning at 6 weeks of age) (Table 1). At the phylum level gut microbial communities during the pre-weaning period were primarily comprised of the phyla Firmicutes (54%), Bacteroidetes (38.7%), Proteobacteria (4.2%), Spirochaetes (0.7%) and Tenericutes (0.2%) (Fig. 1). In comparison, at the post-weaning period the compositions of the fecal microbiota of these pigs, while containing the same major phyla, show marked changes in the relative proportion of each phylum: Bacteroidetes (59.6%), Firmicutes (35.8%), Spirochaetes (2.0%), Proteobacteria (1%), and Tenericutes (1%). Overall, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla in fecal microbiota of piglets accounting for more than 90% of the fecal bacterial community at both pre-weaning and post-weaning periods. Firmicutes were most abundant in pre-weaning piglets, shifting gradually to Bacteroidetes after weaning (Pajarillo et al., 2014a). At the genus level, Bacteroides, Blautia, Dorea, Escherichia and Fusobacterium were abundant before weaning. After weaning Prevotella and Clostridium became more abundant while there was a decrease in Bacteroides (Pajarillo et al., 2014a). It was speculated that the greater abundance of Bacteroides during the pre-weaning period might be due to their ability to utilize monosaccharides and oligosaccharides present in sow\’s milk, and the increased abundance of Prevotella during the post-weaning was due to their ability to degrade hemiculluloses such as xylans in plant-based feed (Hayashi et al., 2007; Lamendella et al., 2011). It has also been suggested that microbial shifts during weaning transition might be due to a combination of multiple factors such as chemical composition of the diet, stress resulting from the weaning process, and other physiological factors (Pajarillo et al., 2014a).
After weaning, shifts in the composition of the gut microbiota continued until market age (22 weeks of age). Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were also the most abundant phyla in fecal microbiota of the growing-finishing pigs using pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene (Table 1 and Fig. 1) (Kim et al., 2011, 2012). Kim et al. (2011) described the fecal microbial succession from a total of 20 commercial growing-finishing pigs from two different farms. They sampled pigs starting when they were 10 weeks of age and then at three-week intervals until the pigs were 22 weeks of age. In that study, the fecal microbiota was comprised of major five phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spirochaetes regardless of age. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes accounted for approximately 90% of all bacteria present between 10 and 22 weeks of age. The proportion of bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes increased over time while the proportion of bacteria in the phylum Bacteroidetes decreased (Fig. 1). From a genus level perspective, the predominant genus was Prevotella which is in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Prevotella represented up to 30% of all classifiable bacteria when the pigs were 10 weeks of age. However, by the time these pigs were 22 weeks of age, Prevotella accounted for only 3.5–4.0% of the bacteria. As the levels of Prevotella decreased, there was a pronounced increase in Anaerobacter (in the phylum Firmicutes). Among the 15 most abundant genera Anaerobacter, Sporacetigenium, Oscillibacter, and Sarcina increased as pigs aged, whereas Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Faecalibacterium and Dialister decreased. A comparison of individual pigs revealed some variation between animals but groups of animals of the same age were more similar to each other compared to pigs of different ages (Kim et al., 2011). Correlated with this observation there was a tight clustering of microbial OTUs between pigs at the same age as measured by principal coordinate analysis. Overall the results from Kim et al. (2011) indicated that microbial ecosystems in each pig continued to change and converged toward a profile characteristic climax community of the GIT of adult pigs as the pigs aged (Kim et al., 2011).

xA A representative video of sequential chest radiographs obtained

 A representative video of sequential chest radiographs obtained by chest dynamic radiography for the motion of the diaphragms (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”). A board-certified radiologist placed a point of interest (red point) on the highest point of each Sulfo-NHS-Biotin on the radiograph at the resting end-expiratory position. These points were automatically traced by the template-matching technique throughout the respiratory phase. Based on locations of the points on sequential radiographs, the vertical excursions and the peak motion speeds of the bilateral diaphragm were calculated (Fig 2c).Help with MP4 filesOptionsDownload video (1042 K)
Data S1.
 Multivariate analysis of associations between the excursions and participant demographics using age, gender, BMI, tidal volume, VC, FEV1, and smoking history as factors (Model 2).Help with DOCX filesOptionsDownload file (23 K)

The bilateral diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle. Diaphragmatic dysfunction is an underappreciated cause of respiratory difficulties and may be due to a wide variety of issues, including surgery, trauma, tumor, and infection (1). Several previous studies have evaluated diaphragmatic motion using fluoroscopy 2; 3; 4 ;  5, ultrasound 6 ;  7, magnetic resonance (MR) fluoroscopy (dynamic MR imaging [MRI]) 8; 9; 10; 11 ;  12, and computed tomography (CT) 13; 14; 15 ;  16. However, the data of the previous studies using ultrasound, MR fluoroscopy, or CT were obtained in a supine position 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15 ;  16, not in a standing position. Also, while the data of the previous studies using fluoroscopy were obtained in a standing position, the data were assessed under forced breathing 2 ;  3, not under tidal or resting breathing. Thus, diaphragmatic motion in a standing position during tidal breathing remains unclear, even though it is essential for understanding respiratory physiology in our daily life. Furthermore, the evaluation of diaphragmatic motion using fluoroscopy, ultrasound, dynamic MRI, or CT has not been used as a routine examination because of limitations, including high radiation dose, small field of view, low temporal resolution, and/or high cost.

Recently, dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel detector (FPD) system with a large field of view was introduced for clinical use. This technique can provide sequential chest radiographs with high temporal resolution during respiration (17), and the radiation dose is much lower than that of CT. Also, whereas CT and MRI are performed in the supine or prone position, dynamic chest radiology can be performed in a standing or sitting position, which is physiologically relevant. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed study has analyzed diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing by using dynamic chest radiography.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position in a health screening center cohort using dynamic chest radiography in association with participants\’ demographic characteristics.

Materials and Methods

Study Population

This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board, and all the participants provided written informed consent. From May 2013 to February 2014, consecutive 220 individuals who visited the health screening of our hospital and met the following inclusion criteria for the study were recruited: age greater than 20 years, scheduled for conventional chest radiography, and underwent pulmonary function test. Patients with any of the following criteria were excluded: pregnant (n  =  0), potentially pregnant or lactating (n  =  0), refused to provide informed consent (n  =  22), had incomplete datasets of dynamic chest radiography (n  =  3), had incomplete datasets of pulmonary function tests (n  =  1), could not follow tidal breathing instructions (eg, holding breath or taking a deep breath) (n  =  18), or their diaphragmatic motion could not be analyzed by the software described next (n  =  4). Thus, a total of 172 participants (103 men, 69 women; mean age 56.3 ± 9.8 years; age range 36–85 years) were finally included in the analysis ( Fig 1). The data from 47 participants of this study population were analyzed in a different study (under review). The heights and weights of the participants were measured, and the body mass index (BMI, weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters) was calculated.

The first author and a First Nations female community

The first author and a First Nations female Sulfo-NHS-Biotin member (who is a single mother of two) conducted focus groups with pregnant or postpartum Aboriginal women Ottawa. The First Nations focus group leader is a regular community facilitator and bi-directional training occurred between the first author and the focus group leader. Focus groups are a qualitative technique of collecting data that rely on the systematic questioning of a group.49 The overall goal of any focus group is to encourage self-disclosure amongst the participants.50 Krueger50 stated that focus groups function best when conducted with a homogenous population. Although we recognize that pregnant, urban Aboriginal women are not a completely homogenous group, there are a number of commonalities that exist within this group such as shared location, Aboriginal self-identification, and being pregnant. Selecting a group of people with similar characteristics creates a safe environment in which participants are more likely to share experiences and insights.50
The focus group participants were recruited in three ways: they were identified and invited by members of the advisory committee, recruited through flyers posted at the Aboriginal Centre, and through snowball sampling. We invited pregnant, urban Aboriginal women and postpartum women in the community to take part in one of three focus groups that ranged in size from five to ten women. The focus groups were conducted at three sites in order to improve participation across various parts of the city. All of the focus groups with the community were conducted in a culturally appropriate manner (questions approved by the advisory committee, piloted with some mothers in the community, facilitated in locations selected by the women, and conducted by a female, Aboriginal community member) that was dictated by the community members. We paid each attendee an honorarium of
Midwifery; Home birth; Caesarean birth; Australia; Consumer preferences
Summary of relevance?Problem or issue: Hospital based, high interventionist birth is the norm in Australia, especially for women with private health insurance.?What is already known: Interest in midwifery care and out-of-hospital birth is increasing and provision of publically funded home birth services has expanded across Australia.?What this paper adds: One in 10 young Western Australian women and men who plan to have children in the future would prefer to give birth in out-of-hospital settings. Attitudes towards birth varied, depending on care provider preferences. Students who preferred obstetricians were significantly more likely to be fearful of birth and prefer obstetric interventions, compared to students who preferred midwives or GPs.
1. Background
In Australia, 32.4% of women experienced a caesarean birth in 2012.1 The caesarean rate for mothers who gave birth in private hospitals in 2012 was 43.6%, over 10% higher than the caesarean rate among mothers who gave birth in public hospitals (29.2%).1 The increases in caesarean births in private hospitals are driven by increases in pre-labour caesareans that cannot be explained by a higher prevalence of breech presentations or pregnancy complications; they are a result of differences in obstetric practice between private and public hospitals.2 The government promotes private health insurance by imposing a Medicare levy surcharge on high-income families without private hospital cover.3

An increase of the percentage of mismatched

An increase of the percentage of mismatched circulating strains or an intra-seasonal decreasing of Sulfo-NHS-Biotin following vaccination were among previously described possible factors related to the decrease of IVE [22], [23] and [24]. At the epidemic\’s peak at national level, the percentage of circulating strains genetically characterized as discordant with the vaccine strain was 64%, much lower than in other Northern hemisphere settings 91% in Canada, 80% in USA and 79% in United Kingdom. This could be related to the higher interim IVE point estimates we informed in Spain 57% (95%CI: 30; 73) [25], compared with the low IVE presented mentioned settings [26], [27] and [28]. At the end of the season, although the percentage of discordant strains reached 73%, this apparent increase lacked significance. We cannot conclude that the possible decrease in the IVE estimates along the season could be related to an increase of the drifted circulating A(H3N2) virus. However, there is not enough evidence allowing us to discard this possibility. It is necessary to keep in mind that the correlation of the IVE estimates with the circulating strains pattern is difficult, due to the possible biases in the selection process of the virus to be genetically characterized. A systematic approach towards virus selection for characterization would help correlating IVE estimates with genetic virus classification, providing a deeper understanding of the relation between the IVE and the degree of matching between circulating and vaccine influenza virus.