br Momentum microscopy Momentum microscopy is a novel

Momentum microscopy
Momentum microscopy is a novel technique that was developed for detecting the k-distribution of an ensemble of charged particles in a parallel-imaging device. Fig. 2 illustrates the basic principle of such an instrument. Electrons emitted from the sample are accelerated by a strong electrostatic immersion field forming part of the cathode lens (the planar sample surface acting as cathode). The backfocal plane of the objective lens is the image plane for the reciprocal (or Fourier) image. The radial coordinate in this image is a linear measure for the transversal semagacestat momentum k∥ (parallel to the sample surface). Momentum microscopy aims at utmost resolution of this reciprocal image; recently, a resolution of 5×10−3Å−1 was demonstrated in an optimized momentum microscope [8]. This value translates into the best angular resolution achieved by hemispherical analyzers. However, unlike for hemispherical analyzers, the momentum resolution stays practically constant with increasing start energy. This is a property of cathode lenses owing to the high extractor field strength.
Since k∥ is conserved when the electrons escape from the surface, the reciprocal image represents a map of the energy bands in momentum space in terms of the EB vs k∥ spectral function (EB binding energy). For 2D systems (surface states, adsorbate systems, layered materials) this yields the full k−k momentum information at fixed photon energy. For 3D bulk systems, the photon energy has to be scanned in order to obtain a full tomogram of the 3D bulk Brillouin zone. Characterized by ultimate k∥-resolution, simultaneous recording of a large momentum region and an energy resolution in the 10meV range, momentum microscopy establishes a new route towards angular-resolved PES (ARPES) with utmost detection efficiency.
For low start energies a momentum microscope detects the full half space above the sample surface simultaneously. The cutoff (“photoemission horizon”) is defined by =0.51(Ekin)1/2, with Ekin being the kinetic start energy (in eV) and  the parallel momentum at the horizon (in Å−1). An exemplary discussion of the photoemission horizon can be found in [9]. The existing low-energy instruments are designed for parallel imaging of a momentum range of diameter 6Å−1, comprising typically more than the first Brillouin zone. For higher start energies (up to several keV) the lens optics can be modified in order to accept a larger momentum range at the expense of momentum and energy resolution. The trajectories shown in Fig. 2 have been calculated for an optimized high-energy lens (indicated schematically) for a start energy of 5keV. The rays correspond to a 2D (k,k) momentum range of diameter 30Å−1, establishing an unprecedented detection efficiency in HAXPES.
Fig. 2 shows the cathode lens, i.e. the initial part of the electron-optical column which is the most crucial for the space–charge interaction. In a momentum microscope more lenses follow for zooming in, for electron-optical confinement of the desired source volume, for retardation and for switching between momentum- and real-space imaging (spectroscopic PEEM). Although being optimized for maximum k-resolution, these instruments have also a good performance in real-space imaging. In k-imaging mode the role of real-space and reciprocal images are reversed. The beam crossovers correspond to Gaussian images. For good k-resolution a small source area is selected by a variable field aperture, placed in an intermediate Gaussian image plane. The magnification in the first Gaussian image is about 14, hence the average electron density is two orders of magnitude lower than in the source volume at the sample surface. Thus the space–charge interaction is weaker in the crossovers as compared to the region just above the source volume at the sample. Hence we restrict our analysis to this most critical region.

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is characterized by having an indirect life cycle

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is characterized by having an indirect life cycle with gastropods acting as intermediate hosts (Anderson, 2000). Adult A. abstrusus produce eggs in the terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts of the definitive host. First stage larvae (L1) hatch from the eggs and are coughed up, swallowed and excreted with the faeces (Hobmaier and Hobmaier, 1935; Mackerras, 1957; Hamilton, 1966). L1 from the faeces penetrate the gastropod and develop into third stage larvae (L3) (Hobmaier and Hobmaier, 1934). Infection of the definitive host may occur by ingestion of L3 through transport hosts such as amphibians, semagacestat and rodents. Alternatively, the cat may ingest L3 through gastropods or mucus contaminated food (Blaisdell, 1952; Giannelli et al., 2015). Factors such as rural origin, feral lifestyle and outdoor access have previously been associated with an increased risk of infection (Grabarevic et al., 1999; Robben et al., 2004; Traversa et al., 2009; Beugnet et al., 2014). This may be explained by access to intermediate and transport hosts and for feral cats a stronger dependency on prey.
In the definitive host the L3 penetrate the mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach or upper intestine and migrate to the lungs where they develop into the adult stage (Hobmaier and Hobmaier, 1935). The prepatent period may vary from 35 to 48days (Ribeiro and Lima, 2001; Schnyder et al., 2014). The presence of the different larval stages in the respiratory system causes a cellular immunological response in infected cats (Hamilton, 1966). However, knowledge of the clinical manifestation in cats infected with A. abstrusus is limited. Clinical signs have previously been observed 4–5 weeks post infection (p.i.) (Hamilton, 1967; Schnyder et al., 2014), but asymptomatic cases may also occur (Genchi et al., 2014). Great variation in clinical signs and severity has thus been observed (Grandi et al., 2005; Traversa et al., 2008a; Genchi et al., 2014; Mueller et al., 2014; Philbey et al., 2014; Schnyder et al., 2014). Many reports of clinical signs are based on study populations of cats with moderate to severe respiratory symptoms or cats experimentally infected with relatively high doses of L3 larvae (Hamilton, 1967; Schnyder et al., 2014; Bohm et al., 2015). Hence, experimentally infected cats may be more severely affected clinically than naturally infected ones. Natural infections have nevertheless also been associated with the presence of respiratory symptoms (Traversa et al., 2008b; Di Cesare et al., 2015), but so far no published studies have tested the association between natural infections and specific clinical signs.
Generally, infection with other endoparasites has not been found to correlate with A. abstrusus (Beugnet et al., 2014). However, in one recent study a significant association with intestinal parasite infections was reported (Di Cesare et al., 2015). Furthermore, it has been shown that cats with a taeniid infection were more likely (p<0.05) to harbour A. abstrusus (Capari et al., 2013). Despite this, it has not been attempted to link these co-infections, some of which also affect the lungs, to clinical signs of infected cats. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the total and local prevalence rates of A. abstrusus in Danish cats as well as their co-infection with other endoparasites. Furthermore, the clinical significance of feline aelurostrongylosis was investigated with emphasis on frequency and severity of selected clinical signs likely to be related to the intra host migration and predilection sites of A. abstrusus.

Materials and methods


Aelurostrongylus abstrusus was detected throughout most of Denmark at moderate levels and the cats at greatest risk were those living in rural areas and/or older than 10 weeks. Co-infection with other respiratory and gastrointestinal parasites was common, especially with T. cati but there was no association with A. abstrusus. The infection levels for all detected parasites were generally moderate and within the variation described previously for naturally infected cats (Olsen et al., 2015; Genchi et al., 2014; Takeuchi-Storm et al., 2015). The vast majority of A. abstrusus infected cats had mild to moderate clinical signs while cats infected only with other endoparasites showed no or very few of the selected clinical signs.

Fig xA Structures of ML H O ads on Pt

Fig. 3. Structures of 2/3 ML H2O(ads) on Pt(111), top panel, and structures of 1/6 ML OH(ads) with 1/2 ML H2O(ads) on Pt(111) as functions of charges and potentials (bottom panel).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in Semagacestat public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
AcknowledgmentMeng Zhao thanks the Chemistry Department at Case Western Reserve University for financial support.
PdW alloy; Sulfur-doped graphene; Electrocatalyst; Oxygen reduction reaction
1. Introduction
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is the main limiting factor in the performance of fuel cells and aqueous metal-air batteries. Pt has been considered to be the most active single-component electrocatalyst toward ORR; however, its high cost, poor stability and easy poisoning from carbonaceous intermediates limit its practical applications.

MTW and pedestrian deaths are relatively high between p m

MTW and pedestrian deaths are relatively high between 8 p.m. and 11 p.m., a time frame when one would expect traffic volumes to be comparatively low. Surveys done in Agra and Ludhiana suggest that, due to the lower traffic volume levels, vehicles drive faster at night. Other factors include insufficient street lighting and limited drunk-driving countermeasures. These findings imply that Semagacestat design- and enforcement-based speed controls, better street lighting, and improved alcohol control would be necessary to limit RTI at night.
The involvement of young children in fatal crashes appears to be low. The underlying reasons for these conditions are unclear, however, and require study. The relative risk of MTW occupants is the highest in India but not as high as the risk levels in high-income countries. Based on total involvement in fatal crashes, however, cars appear to pose a greater risk to society than motorcycles and three-wheeled scooter taxis do. Further research is necessary to determine the veracity of these findings.