Mathematical models and numerical methods
Results and discussion
To investigate the effect of ultrasound wave on the flow structure and behaviors of RBCs, Fig. 9 shows the scheme of microvessel with ultrasound source with area of 225×60 lattice nodes (45μm×12μm). The periodic boundary condition is applied and SBI-0206965 flow moves directly from left boundary to right one. The ultrasound source (D=50 lattice nodes) locates at the top boundary of the microvessel. A region of interest (ROI) is selected, which fits a square of 15×15 lattice nodes for visualization of vector measurement. To investigate the effect of the ultrasound on the RBC behaviors, three different intensity of ultrasound cases are elected (I=0, 0.2 and 0.3). In addition, the detail plasma and RBC parameters employed in this section are listed in Table 1 from Refs. [18,31].
An immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method considering ultrasonic effect is proposed to simulate red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and deformation in ultrasonic field. Numerical examples involving the lid driven flow and typical RBC behaviors in shear flow are presented to verify the method. In the following, the typical streamline, normalized out-of-plane vorticity contours and vector fields in pure plasma under three different ultrasound intensities are presented. Meanwhile, the corresponding transient aggregation behavior of RBCs, with special emphasis on the detailed process of the RBC deformation, is shown. The normalized vorticity profiles with/without RBC are also investigated, respectively. The primary findings include:
Regarding future directions, additional research through IB-LBM considering the thermal effect is needed to further advance the understanding of the effect of temperature on the dynamics of RBCs aggregation, as well as shape deformation. Additional numerical studies used by IB-LBM are also needed to improve the understanding of the interplay between inflow and cantilever beam, particularly for cases with spatial/temporally varying inflow, and for cases with rigid and/or elastic body motion [43,46]. Such research is important because accurate prediction of fluid-structure interaction is critical when analyzing the noise, vibration, and hydroelastic stability of hydraulic machineries.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.: 51679005, 51306020 and 51479002), and the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering (Sichuan University, China). Additionally, the assistance of Yuanqing Xu in simulating the red blood cell is gratefully acknowledged.
From ancient times, people were attracted to perfumes and other fragrant materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need for high-quality textiles and packaging materials with antimicrobial properties for food safety, hygienic clothing, active wear, and wound healing . Therefore, properly designed edible fragrant antimicrobial coating on textiles and packaging materials, would provide a significant contribution to the food, textile, medical, cleaning and toiletries industries. Several pathogenic bacteria and fungi were chosen for the antimicrobial testing due to their abundance as a community contaminator.
Ultrasound radiation is an excellent technique for the formation and adherence of organic [2,3] or inorganic  nanoparticles (NPs) to a large variety of substrates and for the deposition of NPs on flat and curved surfaces of ceramic [4–8], polymers [9,10], metals , and paper.
The edible fragrant solid flavors, Vanillin, RK, and camphor, inheritably possess antimicrobial properties, which have been known and used for centuries. Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-ethoxybenzaldehyde), a pleasant smelling aromatic compound, is the world’s most popular flavor and fragrance compound [12,13]. It is widely used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, perfumes and cleaning products [14,15]. Vanillin is slowly oxidized on exposure to air and is slightly water soluble (10g/L) [12,16]. It displays antioxidant property [17,18] and gives antibacterial and antifungal activity against pathogenic microorganisms [12,18,19].
Mathematical models and numerical methods