br Materials and methods This cross

Materials and methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted among GDPs and SPs in Saudi Arabia. The former graduated as dentists and had completed at least one-year of an internship. The SPs involved in this study had completed a postgraduate specialist program in prosthodontic and restorative dentistry. Participants also had to be currently engaged as a dental practitioner and/or have a teaching position. Contact details for the enrolled clinicians were obtained from the office of the Saudi Dental Society. Although a sample size of 350 was considered sufficient for statistical analysis, the potential for non-responding participants was anticipated, and the sample size enrolled was 400. Stratified random sampling was performed to select study participants, and GDPs and SPs were considered two distinct strata. The ethics committee of Ro 3306 the College of Dentistry Research Centre (King Saud University) approved the study protocol (Ref No. FR 0023). A structured, self-administered questionnaire composed of twenty questions was attached to a study description and a consent for participation form. These packets were either emailed (n=190) or hand delivered (n=210). To maximize the responses obtained, participants were reminded to return their questionnaires three weeks and six weeks after the questionnaires were distributed.
A single investigator analyzed all of the returned questionnaires. Average significance was determined to identify the frequency, pattern, and significance of the response variables identified (e.g., performance factors for RBBs). Using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (Chicago, Illinois, USA), Chi-square tests were used to compare the responses of GDPs and SPs for each question in regard to the response options. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results
Of the 400 questionnaires that were distributed, 312 were returned (78% response rate). The response rate for the SPs was 75% (150/200) and for the GDPs it Ro 3306 was 81% (162/200). Both groups had comparable clinical experience (p=0.943) (Table 1). For 60% of the SPs and 71% of the GDPs, RBBs were performed for less than 10% of the available prosthodontic cases. In addition, the majority of SPs (53.33%) considered RBBs as both a permanent and provisional restoration, compared with 43.2% of GDPs who regarded RBBs only as a provisional option (p=0.02). Of the fifteen questions related to RBB performance factors, responses to eight of these questions (53%) were found to significantly differ between the SP and GDP groups.
Regarding design and mechanical factors associated with RBBs (Table 1), more than 75% of both the SPs and GDPs selected fixed–fixed as the most successful RBB design. However, 18.66% of SPs opted for cantilevers, thereby resulting in a significant difference in opinion between the two groups (p=0.04). For 60% of SPs, non-perforated retainers were associated with the clinical success of RBBs. In contrast, 58% of GDPs associated perforated retainers with better RBB performance. However, all of the SPs (100%) and a majority of the GDPs (86.41%) agreed Hydrophilic groups retainer surface treatment improves longevity (p<0.001). The optimum connector height selected by SPs (46.6%) and GDPs (43.2%) was 3mm, followed by 2mm (p=0.04). For optimum retainer thickness, 0.5mm was the most common choice (SPs, 44%; GDPs, 43.2%; p=0.084), followed by 0.7mm (26.66%) according to SPs and 1.0mm (23.45%) according to GDPs. In addition, 30.66% of SPs and 22.22% of GDPs did not consider retainer thickness a factor that influenced RBB longevity. However, for both groups (SPs and GDPs), 61.33% preferred that only one tooth should be replaced by a RBB, while ∼30% favored the use of two pontics (p=0.922). Regarding patient- and technique-related factors (Fig. 1), a majority of the SPs (98.66%) and GDPs (82.71%) accepted that remaining enamel structure influences the performance of RBBs although, 17.28% of the GDPs reported the contrary. In contrast, a greater percentage of GDPs (87.65%) responded that tooth preparation improves RBB performance compared to SPs (78.66%). The anterior maxilla was considered the most favorable location for achieving a successful RBB (SP, 59.13%; GDP, 59.61%), followed by the anterior mandible (SP, 27.95%; GDP, 18.26%). Class I was also the most preferred jaw relation (SP, 50.66%; GDP, 55.55%), although 28.0% of SPs and 17.3% of GDPs believed that occlusal classification does not influence RBB performance. A total of 17.28% of GDPs selected glass ionomer cement (GIC) as their first choice for RBB cementation, while all of the SPs (100%) and a majority of GDPs (82.71%) preferred RBC. However, regarding the principle that RD use improves RBB longevity, 93.33% of SPs agreed and 28.39% of GDPs disagreed (p=0.001).

For verifying this concept it can also be read

For verifying this concept, it can also be read in the Su Wen that “Man lives on earth and its existence depends on heaven, and for that reason the combination of Ro 3306 of heaven and earth is called the man”. “Man can live according to the four seasons, because heaven and earth are the parents of man; as the son of heaven, man must be able to know the ten thousand things”.
Chi Po adds his own words of wisdom supporting the concept of his emperor that “The energy from heaven flows down and the energy from earth flows upward, so that the communication between the energies takes place in the middle, where the man lives”.
The lightning vector is very similar to that established in the Shao yin or Lesser yin circuit [1.8.23 Lesser yin]: the Earth\’s Yin energy [1.2.39 yin qi] stimulates KI-1 Yong quan, and starts with an upward discharge, ascending in search of the celestial Yang energy [1.2.40 yang qi], calling to action to those organs located in the upper part of the body, whose vital functions cannot be interrupted (heart-lungs) [1.7.303 disfunction of meridians] (Figure 5).
It is stated that “The Yin and Yang of heaven and earth can be used to give names to the phenomena of the human body”.

Origin of the wondrous vessels [1.4.24 eight extra meridians]
As it is once said that “Every movement generated in the universe is due to the union of Ying and Yang” [1.1.16 yin-yang balance].
It is stated that “Yin and Yang are still the fundamental qualities of the two energies of expansion and constriction: centrifugal and centripetal energies, once outputs of the Three Heaters the universe will ensure its genesis”.
These two basic energies will give place to the symbols that will be part of the eight pathways or trigrams that symbolize the wondrous vessels [1.4.24 eight extra meridians], determining in this way the constant and sequential alternation of all these processes. Hence the famous quote by Fu Hsi: “The secrets and mysteries of existence are found is the movement of trigrams.”. “From there (referring to the octogram of Fu Hsi), they are distributed by eight ‘marvellous vessels’, four Yin and four Yang, reservoirs where energy structures ensure balance”.
And the said movements generate, as Mussat believed, an “open process” in which Ying and Yang exchange their eternal intercourse, without ever being interrupted, as “Everything that exists in a place finds it complementary in the opposite.” (Figure 6).
It is stated that “Yin and Yang are the way of heaven and earth, the great schemes of all things, parents of change, the origin and the beginning of birth and destruction, the palace of the gods. Treatment of the disease should be based on the origins (Yin and Yang)”.
The other curious vessels [1.4.24 eight extra meridians] are clearly derivative of the kidney channel: Chong Mai [1.4.27 thoroughfare vessel]: constituted between points 11°–21° of the kidney channel; Yin Qiao [1.4.29 yin heel vessel]: originates at kidney (2° or 6°). It receives the energetic return of the Yang Qiao vessel to ascend again towards B-1 (energetic recycling of renal Yuan); Yin Wei [1.4.31 yin link vessel]: originates at Kidney 9°; Yang Qiao [1.4.30 yang heel vessel]: originates at the urinary bladder-coupling the kidney in the water element-from B-1. Its opening point is B-62; Yang Wei [1.4.32 yang link vessel]: originates at V-1 towards Gb-14; from there the channel extends to Gb-20. Curiously enough, its Influence point is PC-9 Zhong chong [1.4.18 pericardium meridian].

Reconciliation vessel: its situation within Fu Hsi\’s octogram
In Fu Hsi\’s octogram presented by Van Nghi, the Mountain – representative of the Jue Yin plane through PC-6 Nei guan – is located equidistant to the earth, connecting directly to KI-6 Shao hai (Figure 7).
It is said that “Observing the transformations and the movements, you can discover the secrets of nature”.

br Figure thinsp xA Representative sequential

Figure 2. Representative sequential chest radiographs and the graphs of excursion and peak motion of the diaphragms obtained by chest dynamic radiography (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”). (a) Radiograph of the resting end-expiratory position. (b) Radiograph of the resting end-inspiratory position. (c) Graph showing the vertical excursions and the peak motion speeds of the bilateral diaphragm. A board-certified radiologist placed a point of interest (red point) on the highest point of each Ro 3306 on the radiograph at the resting end-expiratory position (a). These points were automatically traced by the template-matching technique throughout the respiratory phase (double arrows in b) (Supplementary Video S1); red double arrow indicates the vertical excursion of the right diaphragm and blue double arrow indicates that of the left diaphragm. Based on locations of the points on sequential radiographs, the vertical excursions and the peak motion speeds of the bilateral diaphragm were calculated (c). The lowest point (0 mm) of the excursion on the graph indicated that the highest point of each diaphragm was at the resting end-expiratory position (ie, null point was set at the end-expiratory phase) (c). (Color version of figure is available online.)Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (305 K)Download as PowerPoint slide

Pulmonary Function Tests

The pulmonary function tests were performed in all participants on the same day of the imaging study. Parameters of pulmonary function tests were measured according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines 20 ;  21 using a pulmonary function instrument with computer processing (DISCOM-21 FX, Chest MI Co, Tokyo, Japan).

Statistical Analysis

Descriptive statistics are expressed as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables and as frequency and percentages for nominal variables. A paired t test was used to compare the excursion and peak motion speed between the right diaphragm and the left diaphragm. The associations between the excursions of the diaphragms and participants\’ characteristics were evaluated by means of the Pearson\’s correlation coefficient and a simple linear regression or Student\’s t test depending on the type of variable (ie, continuous or nominal variable). Continuous variables were height, weight, BMI, tidal volume, vital capacity (VC, %VC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1, FEV1%, and %FEV1), and nominal variables were gender and smoking history. The robustness of the results of the univariate analyses was assessed with multiple linear regression models. The significance level for all tests was 5% (two sided). All data were analyzed using a commercially available software program (JMP; version 12, SAS, Cary, NC, USA).

Results

Participants\’ Characteristics

Table 1 shows the clinical characteristics of all the participants (n = 172).

Excursions and Peak Motion Speeds of the Bilateral Diaphragm

Univariate Analysis of Associations Between the Diaphragmatic Excursions and Participants\’ Demographics

Figure 3. Estimated regression line of the excursion of the diaphragm on BMI or tidal volume. (a) Association between BMI and excursion of the right diaphragm. (b) Association between BMI and excursion of the left diaphragm. (c) Association between tidal volume and excursion of the right diaphragm. (d) Association between tidal volume and excursion of the left diaphragm. Lines show estimated regression (a–d). All scatterplots show correlations (P < 0.05). BMI, body mass index.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (226 K)Download as PowerPoint slide

Multivariate Analysis of Associations Between the Excursions and Participants\’ Demographics

Next a simulated fiber matrix interface test and an

Next, a simulated fiber-matrix interface test and an actual single lap joint experiment were analyzed by the described GCFE-DIC. By comparing the displacement and strain curve along a horizontal line, GCFE-DIC more effectively captured the high strain gradient at interfaces between dissimilar materials. More detailed investigation showed that the GCFE-DIC method could also further analyze the properties of the “interphase”. The implementation of the automatic identification of the “interphase” (similar as the work in [24], [25], [18] and [19]) would be our next advanced work.
In conclusion, GCFE-DIC, which uses a conformal mesh, improved the ability to capture high-order deformation fields at the interfaces between dissimilar materials compared with the local subset-based DIC. Using the high accuracy of the kinematic field at the interface will benefit the reconstruction of the actual material properties. Based on the high accuracy of the kinematic field, processing-influenced materials? constitutive relations can be analyzed more accurately, leading to a more practical analysis of interfacial properties.
AcknowledgmentThe research reported in this Ro 3306 publication was supported by funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).
Micro-vision; Image processing; Microscopy; Displacement measurement
1. Introduction
Compliant mechanisms, owing to advantages of simple structure, no friction or wear, high precision, long life and so on, play a significant role in the design of micro-mechanical structures for micro-electro-mechanical systems [1] and [2]. It has attracted many attentions in recent years. Topology optimization is a basic approach for the design of compliant mechanisms [2]. Generally, in order to investigate the performance of the topology optimization in a quick and direct way, displacement inverters are used [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7]. During the past few years, displacement inverters have become a typical example in the topology optimization. Zhu et al. presented a two-step elastic modeling method for topology optimization of the compliant mechanisms and the displacement inverters were taken as major numerical examples [2]. Ramrakhyani et al. utilized the displacement inverter problem to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elements which were designed by the topology design [3]. Saxena et al. used the displacement inverter as synthesis examples to verify the structural property [4]. In addition, Kim et al. [5], Ansola et al. [1] and so on [6], [7] and [8] employed the displacement inverters to check performance of their designs. With rapid developments of compliant mechanism design, the displacement inverters will be more widely used in the future. Since the displacement inverters are usually small and thin, and constructed by special grids [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7] and [8], courtship behavior is a challenging work to detect their displacements.

Table Waste frying oil methyl

Table 2.
Waste frying oil methyl ester – biodiesel properties.PropertiesValueAcid number (mg KOH/g)0.48Peroxide value (mEq/kg)9.60Retention factor (Rf)0.82AspectClear and free of impuritiesSource: Author.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
The Ro 3306 value of 0.48 mg KOH/g complies with the ANP Resolution n.45 of 25/8/2014 which deals with the biodiesel specifications, with regard to marketing, certification and tax documents (Brazil, 2014).
3.3. Identification of esters by chromatography (CG–FID and CG–MS)
The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) library was used in the GC–MS to confirm whether the peaks matched with known standards (considering both the retention times and structural details) and, additionally, to identify novel peaks in our samples using the highest probability methods (considering the retention times, structural details and isotopic patterns; Fig. 4B–D).
Fig. 4. Comparison of results for the same sample of waste frying oil methyl esters analyzed by GC–FID and GC–MS; (A) GC–FID spectrum; (B–D) NIST library findings for the unidentified peak of interest using GC–MS; (E) GC–MS showing unidentified peak of interest now identified as octadecadienoic acid methyl ester; (F) GC–MS showing unidentified peak of interest now identified as octadecanoic acid methyl ester; (G) GC–MS showing unidentified peak of interest now identified as octadecenoic acid methyl ester.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide