br Method br Results Younger age was associated with


Younger age was associated with greater CBF in the hippocampus (r=−0.393; p=0.01) and brainstem (r=−0.289; p=0.013), and aerobic fitness was associated with sex such that females had lower fitness scores than males (r=0.311, p=0.007). Thus, we included age and sex as covariates in the regression model. Despite no significant correlations between hippocampal CBF and hippocampal volume (r=0.004, p>0.05), or brainstem CBF and brainstem volume (r=−0.015, p>0.05), we also included volume as a covariate to confirm that blood flow effects were independent of the size of the Nanaomycin A region.
Higher aerobic fitness predicted greater CBF in the hippocampus (β=0.235, t=2.085, p=0.041) when controlling for age, sex, and average hippocampal volume (Fig. 2). In particular, higher aerobic fitness predicted greater CBF in the posterior hippocampus (β=0.241, t=2.163, p=0.034), when controlling for age, sex, and posterior hippocampal volume (Fig. 2). Higher aerobic fitness was marginally associated with CBF in the anterior hippocampus (β=0.201, t=1.723, p=0.090), when controlling for age, sex, and anterior hippocampal volume (Fig. 2). As hypothesized, aerobic fitness did not predict CBF in the brainstem (β=0.017, t=0.136, p=0.892), when controlling for age, sex, and brainstem volume (Fig. 2).

Our results raise the possibility that aerobic fitness plays a role in vascularization of the hippocampus during childhood. Studies suggest a positive benefit of aerobic exercise on brain vasculature in animals (Black et al., 1990; Clark et al., 2009; Kleim et al., 2002; Rhyu et al., 2010) as well as cerebral blood flow measures in middle-aged and older humans (Bullitt et al., 2009; Burdette et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2007). Here we suggest that these associations may extend to a child population during a critical period of maturation. In fact, angiogenesis has been directly coupled with cerebral blood volume (Dunn et al., 2004; Jiang et al., 2005; Lin et al., 2002; Maia et al., 2005; Sugahara et al., 1998). Although we measured cerebral blood flow rather than cerebral blood volume, we expect perfusion and blood volume to be closely related via the Central Volume Theorem (Newman et al., 2006; Stewart, 1893). A tissue with higher perfusion likely has higher blood volume to sustain the perfusion; however, flow also depends on how quickly the blood passes through the tissue, usually quantified in terms of mean transit time. We postulate that increased blood water delivery and availability in the hippocampus, as a function of higher aerobic fitness, may be due to more blood vessels in this region.
Yet as a variety of molecular and cellular cascades accompany hippocampal changes with aerobic exercise, we can only speculate about the biological mechanisms underlying increased perfusion. For example, in addition to changes in vasculature, aerobic exercise is known to increase cell proliferation and cell survival (Cotman and Berchtold, 2002; Ding et al., 2006), dendritic structure (Redila and Christie, 2006), growth factors (Neeper et al., 1996), and gliogenesis (Uda et al., 2006) in the hippocampus. In fact, angiogenesis and neurogenesis are tightly linked (Louissaint et al., 2002; Palmer et al., 2000). For instance, blocking the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a neurotrophic molecule involved in blood vessel growth (Lopez-Lopez et al., 2004), has been found to abolish exercise-induced neurogenesis (Fabel et al., 2003). Further, measures of cerebral blood volume have been said to provide an in vivo correlate of neurogenesis (Pereira et al., 2007). It is possible that some fitness-related differences in cerebral blood flow may be mediated, in part, by neurogenesis.
We are the first to explore the plasticity of perfusion in the anterior and posterior hippocampus in children. Our results do not suggest compelling specificity of fitness on anterior or posterior perfusion (independent of volume), with a significant positive association between fitness and posterior hippocampal CBF and a marginal positive relationship between fitness and anterior hippocampus. Given functional distinctions along the anterior/posterior axis of the hippocampus (Giovanello et al., 2009; Sperling et al., 2003), future studies should integrate a relational memory task to explore the links among aerobic fitness, cerebrovascular function in sections of the hippocampus, and cognitive function specific to the hippocampus.

Although there are already several studies on how

Although there are already several studies on how the architecture and function of Nanaomycin A correlates with each other [51–54,24,55–57], current report is the first attempt to quantitatively bridge the muscle architecture dynamics and its torque signal.
However, there are still several remaining minor problems to solve following current attempt to bridge muscle architecture dynamics and torque/force output. We assumed that muscle contractions could be reliably quantified as planar displacement fields. Though we can try to keep the probe in same imaging plane via visual feedback, the imaged section of 3D muscle structure could not always be the Nanaomycin A same. The problem is actually a common one to all current 2D motion estimation methods, and can be alleviated using more sophisticated probe mounting setup. Meanwhile, due to the limited frame rate of the data acquisition system used in this study, we may encounter two risks at least. One is that the deformation between two consecutive frames was so large that they became de-correlated and certainly the recovered motion field became unreliable. The other is that some temporal details could not be captured during imaging due to low frame-rate. Higher frame-rate might be used to solve these two problems at the cost of significantly more expenses. Empirically speaking, in rehabilitation studies, when the muscle activity is not strong, these problems become trivial. Occasional exceptions can be discarded since current frame-rate of 25Hz is already much higher than most rehabilitation measures progressing in seconds to even days.
Meanwhile, muscle force generated by triceps surae is the summation of MG and SOL. Individual triceps surae muscle plays different functional roles during contraction and relation [58,59]. MG acts as an agonist muscle among plantar flexors, and greater activation in the ascending ramp is effective to force transmission to the ankle joint [59]. The performance difference between MG and SOL associated with the plantar flexor force output will be our further work.


Most acoustic microscopes are of the scanning type (SAM). SAM was developed by Quate and Lemons in 1974 with a focused ultrasonic beam formed by an acoustic lens [1]. Thanks to the development of piezoelectric copolymer films, a concave-type transducer has become available recently with a lower cost if the frequency range is as low as 100MHz [2]. Utilization of SAM for the visualization of cells or target has been performed. The results were visualized into 2D images based on intensity, the speed of sound, attenuation and thickness [3–7].
As one of solutions to the above-mentioned problems, the authors proposed acoustic impedance microscopy in previous studies [8–10,22]. In previous studies, the acoustic wave at the focal point was approximated to be a plane wave propagating vertically to the target. It is assumed that the above calculation may generate error when a highly focused transducer is used. In such a case, calibration should be performed based on the results of an accurate sound field analysis.
In another previous paper [2], different angles of propagation of many beams were considered; however, frequency components were not considered.
Several numerical calculations of the sound field were performed for a certain application using a finite differential time domain (FDTD) [11–13]. Several authors also developed and improved numerical calculations based on a Fourier Transform of the so-called Angular Spectrum Method for Non-Destructive Test (NDT); this method is used to investigate the presence of a plane interface [14,15]. In a recent report, this technique is also used to solve the calculation for linear and non-linear pulsed sound fields [16,17]. A similar concept that uses the reflection coefficient method for predicting mass density was presented by Saito [18]. Fourier analysis has also been applied to calculate acoustic propagation in multilayer media by Tittmann et al. [19]; because they used an acoustic lens transducer for their measurements, the pupil function of the lens is considered.

br Acknowledgements This research was

This research was a part of the project titled ‘Fish Vaccine Research Center’, funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea and supported by a grant from Marine Biotechnology Program (PJT200620, Genome Analysis of Marine Organisms and Development of Functional Applications) Funded by Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea.

is an Nanaomycin A of the mammary glands accompanied by milk stasis in glandular tissue mostly noticed during the lactation period or in pseudopregnant bitches (). It is often the result of an ascending infection, trauma to the lactating gland, or an infection that has been spread through the blood stream (). is classified as clinical or subclinical depending on the presence or not of clinical signs (), and it is considered an obstetrical emergency in bitches since it may lead to sepsis and septic shock (). Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosis of mastitis in bitches is of high clinical importance.
Currently, clinical canine mastitis is primarily diagnosed based on physical examination and additional tests such as mammary gland ultrasound, blood hematology and biochemistry, and milk analysis (microbiology, cytology, pH and chloride levels) (). However, more sensitive non-invasive biomarkers are needed in order to improve the early diagnosis and facilitate election and monitoring of the therapy (). Determination of acute phase proteins (APPs) in milk were suggested to be the most sensitive and non-invasive methods for bovine mastitis detection (). However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, APPs have not been measured in canine milk.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major APP in dogs that has been widely investigated in different diseases such as pyometra or sepsis (). C-reactive protein is a very useful marker of inflammation and treatment monitoring, since its serum concentrations increases very shortly after tissue damage and decreases with the correct therapy (). Therefore, we hypothesized that CRP could be measured in canine milk samples and could be increased in cases. For this, concentrations of CRP in milk and serum of healthy lactating bitches and those presenting , subclinical , and were measured. Furthermore, correlation between milk and serum CRP concentrations in healthy and diseased lactating animals was investigated.

Malignant mammary tumours are among the most prevalent tumours in female dogs and frequently lead to death due to metastases, mainly in lungs (Sorenmo et al., 2013; Henry, 2014). Cancer-bearing patients are often immunosuppressed, since tumour cells induce suppression in host cellular immunity by producing immunosuppressive substances, such as the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (Itoh et al., 2009; Watabe et al., 2011; Anai et al., 2014).
Among blood cell populations involved in host cell-mediated immune response against cancer, T-lymphocytes (T-cells; CD3+) play an important role by eliminating tumour cells. The CD8+ subpopulation of T-cells is cytotoxic to cancer cells, whereas the CD4+ T cells help in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T-cells through secretion of cytokines, which sometimes, however, during the progression of the disease may negatively influence the host immune response by inducing enhancement of humoral immunity (B-lymphocyte function) (Estrela-Lima et al., 2012; Anai et al., 2014). In canines, another subpopulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) that is also CD3+ and CD8+ is the CD5-low density (CD5low) cells, which can exhibit cytotoxicity against cancer cells similar to that exerted in humans by natural killer (NK) cells which do not belong to B or T lymphocyte lineage (Huang et al., 2008; Estrela-Lima et al., 2012).
The immune system generally and particularly T-cell subsets are subjected to alterations from aging (Greeley et al., 1996, 2001; Blount et al., 2005; Horiuchi et al., 2007; Watabe et al., 2011; Fujiwara et al., 2012), whereas some breed differences have also been reported in dogs (Faldyna et al., 2001). Furthermore, alterations in PBLs and their subpopulations have been detected in dogs with mammary carcinomas (Estrela-Lima et al., 2012) or cancer at various sites (Horiuchi et al., 2009; Itoh et al., 2009; Watabe et al., 2011), although the findings were controversial. In addition, a relationship between altered relative percentages of circulating T-cell subsets and clinical staging of tumours has been reported (Watabe et al., 2011).

br Conclusions br The time resolved quantitative analysis of


The time-resolved quantitative analysis of the diaphragms with dynamic X-ray phrenicography is feasible. The average excursions of the diaphragms are 11.0 mm (right) and 14.9 mm (left) during tidal breathing in a standing position in our health screening center cohort. The diaphragmatic motion of the left is significantly larger and faster than that of the right. Higher tidal volume and BMI are associated with increased excursions of the bilateral diaphragm.

AcknowledgmentsThe authors acknowledge the valuable assistance of Hideo Ogata, MD, PhD, Norihisa Motohashi, MD, PhD, Misako Aoki, MD, Yuka Sasaki, MD, PhD, and Hajime Goto, MD, PhD, from the Department of Respiratory Medicine; Yuji Shiraishi, MD, PhD, from the Department of Respiratory Surgery; and Masamitsu Ito, MD, PhD, Atsuko Kurosaki, MD, Yoichi Akiyama, RT, Kenta Amamiya, RT, and Kozo Hanai, RT, PhD, from the Department of Radiology, Fukujuji Hospital, for their important suggestions. The authors also acknowledge the valuable assistance of Alba Cid, MS, for editorial work on the manuscript. Yoshitake Yamada, MD, PhD, is a recipient of a research fellowship from the Uehara Memorial Foundation.

Appendix. Supplementary DataThe following is the supplementary data to this article:
To view the video inline, enable JavaScript on your browser. However, you can download and view the video by clicking on the icon belowVideo S1.
 A representative video of sequential chest radiographs obtained by chest dynamic radiography for the motion of the diaphragms (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”). A board-certified radiologist placed a point of interest (red point) on the highest point of each Nanaomycin A on the radiograph at the resting end-expiratory position. These points were automatically traced by the template-matching technique throughout the respiratory phase. Based on locations of the points on sequential radiographs, the vertical excursions and the peak motion speeds of the bilateral diaphragm were calculated (Fig 2c).Help with MP4 filesOptionsDownload video (1042 K)
Data S1.
 Multivariate analysis of associations between the excursions and participant demographics using age, gender, BMI, tidal volume, VC, FEV1, and smoking history as factors (Model 2).Help with DOCX filesOptionsDownload file (23 K)

The bilateral diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle. Diaphragmatic dysfunction is an underappreciated cause of respiratory difficulties and may be due to a wide variety of issues, including surgery, trauma, tumor, and infection (1). Several previous studies have evaluated diaphragmatic motion using fluoroscopy 2; 3; 4 ;  5, ultrasound 6 ;  7, magnetic resonance (MR) fluoroscopy (dynamic MR imaging [MRI]) 8; 9; 10; 11 ;  12, and computed tomography (CT) 13; 14; 15 ;  16. However, the data of the previous studies using ultrasound, MR fluoroscopy, or CT were obtained in a supine position 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15 ;  16, not in a standing position. Also, while the data of the previous studies using fluoroscopy were obtained in a standing position, the data were assessed under forced breathing 2 ;  3, not under tidal or resting breathing. Thus, diaphragmatic motion in a standing position during tidal breathing remains unclear, even though it is essential for understanding respiratory physiology in our daily life. Furthermore, the evaluation of diaphragmatic motion using fluoroscopy, ultrasound, dynamic MRI, or CT has not been used as a routine examination because of limitations, including high radiation dose, small field of view, low temporal resolution, and/or high cost.
Recently, dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel detector (FPD) system with a large field of view was introduced for clinical use. This technique can provide sequential chest radiographs with high temporal resolution during respiration (17), and the radiation dose is much lower than that of CT. Also, whereas CT and MRI are performed in the supine or prone position, dynamic chest radiology can be performed in a standing or sitting position, which is physiologically relevant. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed study has analyzed diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing by using dynamic chest radiography.

Sample information cosmogenic isotope concentrations and site cosmogenic

Sample information, cosmogenic isotope concentrations and site cosmogenic production rates.Sample namePhaseAlt (m)Boulder size (L&nbsp Nanaomycin A × W) × H (m)a10Be (atoms/g-Q) (× 106)b26Al (atoms/g-Q) (× 106)b26Al/10Be ratioShielding correctiocDepth correctioncScaling factord10Be Site production rate (at/g/yr)eDR-1A9880(2 × 2) × 1.00.127 ± 0.0081.037 ± 0.1208.17 ± 1.080.9780.9742.0397.668DR-1B880(1.2 × 0.8) × 0.70.141 ± 0.0071.005 ± 0.0707.15 ± 0.610.9780.9562.0397.532DR-2A908(1.5 × 1.5) × 2.00.141 ± 0.0070.930 ± 0.1186.60 ± 0.890.9780.9612.0857.737DR-2B910(3 × 4) × 1.60.130 ± 0.0050.785 ± 0.0666.03 ± 0.560.9780.9482.0887.647DR-3A8940(1 × 0.5) × 0.60.135 ± 0.0061.084 ± 0.0998.00 ± 0.820.9910.9652.1388.077DR-3B942(2 × 3) × 1.50.138 ± 0.0060.954 ± 0.0766.94 ± 0.630.9910.9562.1428.018DR-4A7805(1 × 1.1) × 1.00.129 ± 0.0060.760 ± 0.1095.89 ± 0.890.9880.9481.9207.103DR-4B805(1 × 1.1) × 1.00.120 ± 0.0050.870 ± 0.0667.25 ± 0.630.9880.9481.9207.103DR-5B5790(3 × 3) × 10.945 ± 0.0256.445 ± 0.4956.82 ± 0.560.9890.9561.8977.087DR-5A790(3 × 3) × 10.878 ± 0.0226.169 ± 0.4167.03 ± 0.510.9890.9401.8976.963DR-6A4660(1.5 × 1.5) × 1.21.388 ± 0.0449.147 ± 0.5626.59 ± 0.461.0000.9651.7076.505DR-6B660(2.5 × 2) × 1.00.573 ± 0.0254.427 ± 0.3307.73 ± 0.671.0000.9481.7076.390aMinimum height of sampled boulder above local ground level. Sampling area at latitude 42.33° S and longitude 146.17°E (see Fig. 1 for detailed map location).bMeasured concentrations at site location. Uncertainty represents quadrature addition of 1σ errors in final AMS isotope ratio, masses, Al assay (±4%) and a 2% systematic variability in repeat measurement of AMS standards. AMS 10Be ratios normalized to NIST-4325 with a nominal value of 27,900 × 10−15. AMS 26Al ratios normalized to PRIME Lab Z93-0221 with a nominal value of 16,800 × 10−15.cCorrection factors to site production rate due to sample exposure geometry from horizon shielding (using m = 2.3) and sample thickness (∼2–6 cm) with Λ = 150 gm cm−2 and ρ = 2.7 gm cm−3.dAltitude and latitude scaling factors derived from Stone (2000).eSite production rate of 10Be based on sea-level high latitude spallogenic plus muon production rates of 10Be (spall) = 3.85 ± 0.12 ( ± 3%) atoms/g.y (Putnam et?al., 2010a and Putnam et?al., 2010b; see text) and 26Al(spall) = 26.0 ± 2.6 (±10%) atoms/g.y based on assumed production rate spallation ratio of 6.75 (see Balco et al., 2008). Total muon production rate of 10Be is filtration normalized to 0.10 atoms/g/y and scaled independently as given in Stone (2000). Production rates do not include paleo-magnetic corrections.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

Anatomical analysis of wood samples was made by M

Anatomical analysis of wood samples was made by M.I. Kolosova (State Hermitage Museum) on the basis of reference collections from Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University. Determination of wood was performed by microscopic analysis of anatomical features. Nanaomycin A Specific anatomical structure of Nanaomycin A characterized each botanical taxon, allowing determination of the taxa of archaeological wood. Special attention was paid to the determination of hornbeam species because we did not expect that preliminary investigations would have shown the high presence of this kind of tree among archaeological waterlogged finds. Hornbeam wood has a specific microscopic structure: wood formed by vessels, vascular tracheids, fiber tracheids, and by radial and strand parenchyma. Perforations of vessels are simple and transversely inclined. Vascular parenchyma pitting is dotted and regular and serried. Vessel diameters are small (decrease gradually from early wood to late) and have angular and rounded shape. Their allocation is diffuse, single, in pairs, or concentrated in 3–6–8 (10 and more) units in chain, and chain-and-nidicolous groups. They are joined by close contacting tangential walls. Vascular tracheids, with pores arranged in 1–2 rows, are formed on the boundary layer growth. Fiber tracheids have numerous pores on the radial and tangential walls. They also have thick and moderate thickness walls, and angular and rounded diameters. Parenchyma are diffuse and terminal, organized in chains. The chains are single row, and occasionally their thickness reaches one – two cells. The rays are homogeneous and slightly heterogeneous. They organized in single and multi-rows, aggregated, with a width of 3–4 (max. 5) and height from 2–4 to 15–25 (max. 30) cells. Ray allocation is diffuse (Kolosova and Khumbo Salazar, 1983).