This survey showed that the main source

This survey showed that, the main source of information about dental implant was the relatives and friends, followed by the dentists, newspaper and magazines, and lastly the internet. This is different than what were published before. The survey made by Zimmer et al., showed that, the media was found to be the main source of information about dental implants, while the dentists were the source for such information in not more than 17% of the cases. Berge (2000) and Best (1993) also found that, the media was the main source of information; while dentists played a secondary role at best Akagawa et al. (1988) in their study concluded that, dentists provided not more than 20% of the information.
When patients were asked about the factors that may prevent them from choosing implants, the responses were high cost, long treatment time and fear from surgery. Some patients think that, the implant is a major surgical procedure because of the use of the word surgery. This may explain the high fear rate (68%). These results are in agreement with the results of most of the previously mentioned studies (Tepper et al., 2003a,b; Kent, 1992).



One of the most common trends among muscarinic receptor antagonists in recent years in various countries, including Saudi Arabia, is the replacement of their daily water intake with bottled water, possibly due to apprehension about contaminants in natural water supplies (Ahiropoulos, 2006; Toumba et al., 1994). Sales of bottled water have increased and different types and brands of bottled water are available in Saudi Arabia supermarkets. The substitution of commercial drinking water with bottled water is a serious concern because the benefit of drinking fluoridated water may be lost. The dental caries reduction that derived from drinking fluoridated water is well documented and water fluoridation is considered an economical and safe preventive measure (Weinberger, 1991).
Effective and safe preventive fluoride programs require an awareness of the exact concentration of drinking water either public or bottled. When prescribing fluoride supplements, dentists should be aware of the muscarinic receptor antagonists fluoride content of bottled waters used by child patients, especially brands with a concentration higher than 0.3ppm (Ahiropoulos, 2006). In addition, the fluoride content of the bottled water may be highly variable among different brands, and that may cause dental fluorosis especially in infants and children when receiving greater concentration than the optimal levels recommended for their age group (Ahiropoulos, 2006). Manufacturers are encouraged to list the nutritional contents of their product but labeling of the fluoride levels of the products may not be legally required in some countries and even when fluoride concentration appears on the bottle labels, they may not always be accurate (Ahiropoulos, 2006).
Previous research attempts to evaluate the concentration of fluoride in bottled water were made in several countries. Most of the early projects found that most of the commercially available bottled water failed to list the fluoride content (Studlick and Bain, 1980; McFadyen et al., 1982; Stannard et al., 1990). Weinberger evaluated 17 brands in Canada and immune system concluded that there was a great variation in fluoride concentration between the products and that ranged between 0.06 and over 4ppm (Weinberger, 1991). Toumba et al. (1994) found that the manufacturers’ labeling of fluoride concentrations of bottled drinking waters in Leeds, United Kingdom are mainly inaccurate. In a study conducted in Greece, Ahiropoulos saw a wide range (0.05–4.8mgF/L) of fluoride content in 22 randomly selected commercial brands of bottled water (Ahiropoulos, 2006). Cochrane et al. (2006) evaluated 10 brands of bottled waters in Australia and concluded that all brands tested contained negligible fluoride which justifies the concern that regular consumption of bottled water may reduce the benefits gained from water fluoridation. In West Virginia, only three brands out of 65 brands tested by Johnson and DeBiase contained a fluoride concentration consistent with that listed on the label or as identified by the manufacturer (Johnson and DeBiase, 2003). When several batches of the same brand were examined, Bartels et al. (2000) found significant differences in fluoride concentrations between the batches of three brands out of five tested. The variability in the fluoride content of bottled water was also reported recently by Quock and Chan who found a concentration that ranged between 0.32 and 0.63ppm (Quock and Chan, 2009).

These calculi can be classified

These calculi can be classified into three groups according to their pathogenesis [4]: The first group includes calculi that originate from inspissated smegma with lime salts. The second type, composed of either magnesium ammonium phosphate or calcium phosphate, is formed in stagnant urine retained in the preputial sac. The third type derives from the upper urinary tract and migrates into the preputial sac. In our case, the calculi were composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and magnesium muscarinic receptor antagonists urate, thus indicating the second type of calculi. Since the sub-preputial space had acted as a urinary reservoir and bacterial infection had developed, the calculi had formed over a long period. Although hydrogen bond is known that struvite stones are characteristically related to infection due to urease-producing bacteria [5], such typical organisms were not detected in our patient.
It appears that in addition to the presence of a tight phimosis, children may have additional predisposing factors such as neurological impairment [6] and, according to one report, even epispadias [7].

Conflicts of interest


The term magneto hydrodynamics MHD or

The term magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) or sometimes called ‘magneto-convection’ summarizes the variety of processes arising from the dynamic interaction between convective motions and magnetic fields in an electrically conducting medium. MHD natural convection flows are encountered in numerous problems with technological and industrial interest, covering a wide range of basic sciences such as astrophysics, fire research, metallurgy, crystal growth and nuclear engineering [1]. Natural convection flows are characterized by a balance between a pressure drop and buoyancy forces. In MHD natural convection flows, the balance is achieved by inertial, viscous, electromagnetic and buoyancy forces, making the solution more complicated. Analytic and asymptotic solutions are known only for simple geometries under the restriction of two-dimensional viewing. Recently, MHD natural convection flows have much attention because the process of manufacturing materials in industrial problems and microelectronic heat transfer devices involves an electrically conducting fluid subjected to magnetic field. In this muscarinic receptor antagonists case the fluid experiences a Lorentz force and its effect is to reduce the flow velocities which affects the heat transfer rate [2,3]. Many numerical and experimental methods have been developed to investigate the flow characteristics inside enclosures with and without a fixed body at their centers. These geometries have realistic engineering and industrial purposes, for example in the design of solar collectors, thermal design of building, air conditioning, cooling of electronic devices, furnaces, lubrication technologies, chemical processing equipment, drying technologies. Extensive research works have been published on MHD natural convection heat transfer in enclosures with and without a fixed body under different conditions by Garandet et al. [4], Ozoe and Okada [5], Rudraiah et al. [6], Cowley [7], Al-Najem et al. [8], Teamah [9], Ece and Buyuk [10] and Jalil and Al-Tae’y [11]. Furthermore, Saravanan and Kandaswamy [12] investigated convection in a low Prandtl number fluid driven by the combined mechanism of buoyancy and surface tension in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The fluid was contained in a square cavity with the upper surface open and isothermal vertical walls. The thermal conductivity of the fluid was assumed to vary linearly with temperature. The heat transfer was found to decrease appreciably across the cavity with a decrease in thermal conductivity. The accumulation of streamlines by Lorentz force was seen for linearly varying thermal conductivity. Gelfgat and Bar-Yoseph [13] considered the problem of onset of oscillatory instability in convective flow of an electrically conducting fluid under an externally imposed time-independent uniform magnetic field. Convection of a low-Prandtl number fluid in a laterally heated two-dimensional horizontal cavity was investigated. Fixed values of the aspect ratio (length/height=4) and Prandtl number (Pr=0.015) are considered. The effect of a uniform magnetic field with different magnitudes and orientations on the stability of the two distinct branches (with a single-cell or a two-cell pattern) of the steady state flows was also investigated. It was shown that a vertical magnetic field provided the strongest stabilization effect, and also that multiplicity of steady states was suppressed by the electromagnetic effect, so that at a certain field level only the single-cell flows remain stable. Aleksandrova and Molokov [14] considered three-dimensional convection in a rectangular cavity subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient and a magnetic field, by an asymptotic model. They concluded that the effectiveness of the application of the magnetic field depended considerably on the aspect ratio and the value of the Hartmann number. Hof et al. [15] presented an experimental study of the effect of the magnetic field on the natural convection stability in a rectangular cavity of square section, filled with a liquid metal. They found that the vertical direction of the magnetic field was most effective for the suppression of oscillations. Lee and Ha [16] investigated numerically the natural convection in a horizontal enclosure with an interior conducting body and compared the results of conducting body with those of adiabatic and isothermal bodies. They concluded that when the Rayleigh number was less than 104, the effect of the convection on the fluid flow and heat transfer was relatively weak and the Nusselt number on the bottom hot wall was depended on the variation of the thermal conductivity ratio. From the other hand, they found that when the Rayleigh number was larger than 105, the effect of the convection became more dominant and the Nusselt number on the bottom hot wall did not depend so much on the variation of the thermal conductivity ratio. Jalil et al. [17] performed a numerical three-dimensional study on the turbulent natural convection of molten sodium (low Prandtl number fluid) in a cubic cavity heated from one vertical wall and cooled from an opposing vertical wall, with the other walls thermally insulated. The cavity was exposed to external uniform magnetic fields, either horizontal or perpendicular, to the heated wall (x-direction) or in vertical and parallel directions to the heated wall (y-direction) or in horizontal and parallel directions to the heated wall (z-direction). The magnetic field in the horizontal and perpendicular directions gave the smallest value of the average Nusselt number on the vertical heated wall and in the vertical and parallel directions the largest value. On the other hand, the external magnetic field in horizontal and parallel directions was found to be effective in between these two extremes. The effect of magnetic field on Nusselt number in the three-dimensional laminar flow was greater than that for two-dimensional laminar flow at the same value of the magnetic field intensity.

Statistical analyses were performed using

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (SPSS for Windows, Version 10.0. USA).

Of the 357 children aged 0–36 months enrolled in public pre-schools during that period, the study 282 were assessed. In 48 cases, there was no response to the invitation to participate in the study, 16 children left the preschool at that period, and 11 cases refused to return for retesting. The mean age of the sample was 28 months, 136 (48%) of whom were aged between 30 and 36 months, with 56% of males (Table 2).
At the SA assessment, a little over half of the sample had a result indicating probable delay, with most of those in the alert condition, and 68 cases (24%) were classified as normal development with risk factors (Table 3). Regarding the Denver test, 91 cases (32%) showed suspected developmental delay.
When exploring the possibilities of comparison between the two tools regarding sensitivity, the SA showed different results according to the three proposed categories: probable delay (70%), alert (57%), and normal development with risk factors (21%; Table 3), with a specificity of 56%, 70%, and 74%, respectively.
When assessing the risk factors, there were no significant statistical differences associated with absence of developmental milestones (Table 1).

Originally, the surveillance tool used the milestones of the previous age range as the score criterion for probable delay, while the alert score uses the current age range. In this muscarinic receptor antagonists study, the authors chose to perform the assessment using the milestones of the expected age range for both, because, using the milestones of the previous age range and considering what has been discussed about the cutoff point, the delay would have already been evident.
At the Denver II test, the prevalence was 32% of suspected delay, consistent with other studies, although with variations in the prevalence due to the scoring method used and cultural differences.
The presence of physical alterations and risk factors in the scoring criteria of this surveillance tool is a peculiarity in relation to other tools found in literature, but some of them should be reviewed, despite not being significant in this sample.
The physical alteration regarding HC alone, as the tool was originally proposed, already determines a probable delay in the SA; HC above the 90th percentile was prevalent (93%) among those with altered HC. This was probably due to a genetic factor of macrocephaly and tall stature without associated cranial pathology, causing an increase in sensitivity and decreasing the PPV. It may be related to the ethnic characteristics and, additionally, it could be explained by a sample fluctuation. Daymont concluded that the HC has low sensitivity and PPV for the diagnosis of macrocephaly-associated pathologies.
Low birth weight, often associated with developmental delays, was little prevalent and showed no statistical association in the sample. One possible explanation is the 2500g cutoff used in the SA, which reduces the specificity by adding late preterm infants with adequate weight for gestational age (GA). A change in the weight and proportionality criteria of the newborn might be more useful for the risk factor definition.
Regarding prematurity, there are differences when GA is below 32 weeks, when compared to late and moderately preterm infants, even with correction for GA. Perhaps it would be better to assess the nutritional status and weight/length proportionality at birth, which can offer more discriminative parameters regarding developmental delays. The use of information about jaundice in the neonatal period is very vague and difficult to interpret, as it is based solely on subjective information.
In relation to maternal depression, it is a well-established risk factor in the literature and potentially modifiable, when an early intervention is performed. Using a standard tool for its detection is required, in addition to the information on psychotherapy and/or drug treatment.

It is worth mentioning here that the basis of tomography

It is worth mentioning here that the basis of tomography, the Radon transform defines a projection function (an image in TEM) as an integral from zero. Similarly, in order to converge to a correct solution iterative reconstruction methods require the values of intensities to be positive, i.e., that the intensities must be equal or above zero [36]. Because the software of FEI reconstructs tomographic series correctly we assume here that the range of signed values used in the FEI software is only for storage and visualisation purposes, and that the reconstruction algorithms must rescale internally the intensities so that they are unsigned for reconstruction purposes.
For the optimisation of the background of the tilt series and algorithm was implemented using Matlab performing three tasks:
The tomographic HAADF STEM series shown in Fig. 3 was obtained using a Tecnai F30 with a field-emission gun (FEGTEM) operated at 200kV. Images in Fig. 4 were acquired using an aberration-corrected Titan TEM (FEGTEM) operated at 300kV muscarinic receptor antagonists and a camera length corresponding to inner detector semi-angles of ≈90mrad to enhance the muscarinic receptor antagonists between the cores and the shells of the particles while minimising diffraction. Images were acquired using a single-tilt tomography holder model 2020 (from Fischione Instruments). Alignment and tomographic reconstruction of the tilt series were performed using the SIRT algorithm with 15 iterations using Inspect3D software from FEI. The same software was used to invert the contrast of the BF TEM series of Fig. 5. Visualisation using voltex and orthoslices, segmentation, isosurface rendering, and Sobel filtering of the 3D datasets was performed using Avizo software. The tomographic BF TEM series shown in Figs. 5 and 6 was acquired using the same Titan microscope and a CCD camera. Image contrast is defined as

Intensity of a tilt series and background optimisation
When an experimental tomographic tilt series of images is acquired during an experiment, it is necessary to first adjust the minimum value and the range of values of pixel intensities acquired by a detector by varying the Offset and Gain (O/G) parameters (which correspond with the imaging parameters intensity and contrast). Normally, the adjustment of O/G is done by checking that the image is correctly recorded at a finite number of tilts (e.g. 0°, ±30°, ±70°). Nevertheless, because an useful tilt series requires the acquisition of many more images (typically with a tilt step of 2°), the O/G adjustment made for some images may not be valid for the whole series of images because there will be thickness changes and variations in diffraction contrast that cannot be controlled a priori. If the experiment is performed such that the intensity level is too low or if the contrast range is too wide, the pixel intensities of some images can fall outside the dynamic range of the detector, and parts of the images will become oversaturated or will be undersaturated at several tilts.
Therefore it is a common practise to adjust the O/G level within a range of values that is narrower than the full available bit resolution of the detector (or of the image format used for storing the images)(see Fig. 1b). The drawback of this strategy is that the background level of every image of the experimental tilt series will be shifted by an indefinite constant towards higher values of intensity. This is certainly the case for most specimens when there is not available a vacuum region to define a zero reference level of intensity. On the other hand, most often when performing ET of a nanostructure, we are not interested in its surrounding (the supporting film or a containing matrix). Hence, we propose here to minimise the background level of intensity of the images of a tilt series at the expense of not reconstructing the space surrounding de nanostructure. Such step eliminates the uncertainty of lacking for a reference level of intensity while it improves the fidelity of the reconstruction of the nanostructure of interest.

A clearly defined seasonal progression from predominance of T circumcincta

A clearly defined seasonal progression from predominance of T. circumcincta in the summer to T. vitrinus in the winter that is seen in naïve lambs in managed flocks was not seen in the Soay lambs (Coop et al., 1988; Jackson et al., 1992). However, the study was only conducted over a period of one year, with only two sampling periods, hence this observation must be interpreted with caution, not least due to likely annual variation in the prevalence and intensity of nematode infections (Stear et al., 1998). The early stage establishment of T. circumcincta physiologically mediates the subsequent establishment of T. vitrinus perhaps by altering the pH in the abomasum and proximal small intestine (Jackson et al., 1992), allowing heavy mono-specific burdens of T. circumcincta to accumulate during the spring and summer, and establishment of heavy Trichostrongylus spp. burdens in the autumn and winter, only once host acquired immune responses modulate the T. circumcincta burdens. Similar interactions driven by differential early stage larval challenge and the onset of protective immunity have been reported between T. colubriformis and Nematodirus spathiger (Dineen et al., 1977), H. contortus and T. axei (Reinecke et al., 1980), T. axei and T. circumcincta (Reinecke et al., 1982), and in cattle between Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora (Bairden et al., 1992). Not all such interactions operate to the detriment of the species involved, for example severity of N. battus infections may be increased by prior or simultaneous infection with coccidian protozoa (Christensen et al., 1987; Catchpole and Harris, 1989), or the establishment of Dictyocaulus viviparus may be enhanced by prior infections with O. ostertagi and C. oncophora (Kloosterman et al., 1990). Thus, regulatory influences of the large number of nematode parasite species on each other in the study Soay sheep flock could have contributed to the less clear pattern of sequential variation in predominance of individual species than is seen in intensively managed flocks. These interactions could have had implications on the dynamics of the parasitic nematode muscarinic receptor antagonists (Lello et al., 2004), preventing the establishment of production limiting mono-specific parasitic nematode challenge or burdens. Conversely, the efficacy of nematode parasite management could be unsustainable if such potential interactions are not taken into account (Lello et al., 2004).
Anthelmintic drug treatments favour survival of parasitic stages of those species against which the drug is least efficacious, and of species in which the frequency of nematodes with alleles conferring anthelmintic resistance is high (Kaplan and Vidyashankar, 2012). Frequent anthelmintic treatments have a greater effect on the total population size of parasite species such as B. trigonocephalum and O. venulosum, which have longer prepatent periods, than of species such as T. circumcinca or T. vitrinus, which have prepatent periods that are shorter than the frequency of treatment with non-persistent acting drugs, thereby favouring re-establishment of host infections of the latter. Anthelmintic drug treatments vary between different gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species in their efficacy and persistence of protection against reinfection. These effects are most pronounced for the macrocyclic lactone drugs, in particular moxidectin, due to their potency and lipophilicity, hence prolonged residence time (Alvinerie et al., 1998). Moxidectin formulations afford a longer period of protection against reinfection with T. circumcincta than with T. vitrinus (Demeler et al., 2013), which has anecdotally been associated with summer trichostrongylosis in treated lambs. The use of macrocyclic lactone drugs in beef calves has effectively controlled Ostertagia ostertagi, but allowed the establishment of pathogenic burdens of Cooperia spp. and Nematodirus helvetianus (Sargison et al., 2010), for which the efficacy is lower and period of persistence of protection against reinfection is shorter. Thus, the history of no anthelmintic drug treatments having been administered to the study flock of Soay sheep might account for the high abundance of parasites such as O. venulosum and B. trigonocephalum, which have long pre-patent periods, and for the relatively low abundance of T. circumcincta, which commonly survives anthelmintic drug treatment in managed flocks, as a consequence of a high level of selection for anthelmintic resistance (Sargison et al., 2007b).