We performed a Medline database search The keywords gliosarcoma

We performed a Medline database search. The keywords “gliosarcoma”, “skull base”, and “ventricle” were queried individually and also in association. The included limits were “English” for the language category. The date of the latest search was March 2013. There were only five cases of skull GSK503 involvement and only four cases of ventricular involvement in the English literature. Moreover, the simultaneous involvement of the skull base and the ventricles has not been previously reported in the English literature. We reviewed age, sex, race, location, treatment, recurrence-free and survival time, and immunohistochemical studies in these cases (Table 1). In the six cases of skull base involvement group (including our patient), the patients comprised four men and two women with a median age of 61.8 years (range 51–82 years). The locations were all in the right temporal region. The median recurrence-free time was 6.6 months (range 1.5–12 months) after the initial treatment, and the survival time ranged from 7 months to 22 months after the initial treatment. In the ventricular involvement group (including our patient; Table 1), there were five patients consisting of four men and one woman with a median age of 51.2 years (range 25–82 years). The tumor(s) were all located in the lateral ventricles: three on the right side, one on the left side, and one on both sides. After the initial treatment, the recurrence-free time ranged from 1.5 months to 2 months, and the survival time ranged from 0.33 months to 9.2 months.
The median actuarial survival is 11.5 months for gliosarcoma patients, 11.0 months for the control group of GBM, and 8.1 months for the entire GBM group. The median survival for the gliosarcoma group does not differ significantly from that of the control GBM group (p = 0.36) or of the entire GBM group (p = 0.16). Median survival for gliosarcoma patients ranges from 6.25 months to 8.75 months with radiation therapy. Sade et al reported a patient with gliosarcoma with infratemporal fossa extension, having completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy, who was recurrence-free at the 12-month follow-up evaluation. Schuss et al reported an unusual case of gliosarcoma that involved the temporal skull base and the dura, having extensive multimodality treatment (partial resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide, imatinib, hydroxycarbamide, bevacizumab, irinotecan). Their report demonstrated that extensive multimodality treatment might be effective in patients with gliosarcomas who have poor prognostic factors, for example, unmethylated MGMT status (12 months of recurrence-free and 22 months of survival time; Table 2). However, in our case, the patient was subsequently treated with fractionated whole-brain radiation, followed by 5 days of temozolomide. The tumor recurred 1.5 months after his initial treatment, and his survival time was 9.2 months. An analysis of the predominant components of the tumor and whether there is ventricular invasion might be helpful to us for prediction of the prognosis. Gliosarcoma with ventricular involvement might be a poor prognostic factor. However, because of the small number of cases in the literature, this needs to be determined in the future.

Introduction
Iatrogenic ureteral injury is a rare but severe complication of lumbar disc surgery. Historically, only 16 such cases have been reported. Although minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a modern approach and a good choice for lumbar spondylolisthesis, it does carry a certain surgical risk and can cause complications. Among the serious complications of minimal invasive TLIF is retroperitoneal ureteral injury. The management of such injury includes a ureteral stent, open ureteroureterostomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy, renal autotransplantation, ileal ureteral reposition, and nephrectomy. We hereby report a new approach for the repair of such ureteral injury after lumbar disc surgery.

br RNA interference RNAi and ectopic

RNA interference (RNAi) and ectopic expression
To address the functionalities of the identified proteins, we silenced the coding genes GSK503 of these proteins in a normal colonic fibroblast cell line, CCD-18Co, and then performed coculture assays with colon cancer cells. Follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) was chosen for ectopic expression analysis in CCD-19Co, which was used for coculture assays. The small interference RNAs (siRNAs) and cloning primers are listed in Supplementary Table 5.

Functional enrichment analysis of the identified proteins
GO enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID and significant enrichment categories were accepted with p value and Benjamini value less than 0.05. The enrichment analysis results are shown in Supplementary Table 6. Tissue specificity gene expression enrichment was analyzed using the Gene Enrichment Profiler (http://xavierlab2.mgh.harvard.edu/EnrichmentProfiler/). The results for tissue expression enrichment are embedded in Supplementary Table 2.

Comparison with the known identifications of colon cancer cells
The identified fibroblast proteins were compared with a batch of known proteomic analyses of colon cancer GSK503 to evaluate their specific expression properties [7–16]. The identified proteins of these reports varied from ~40 to 2300. The comparison was mainly based on official gene symbols. In cases when needed, the International Protein Index (IPI) accessions were mapped to gene symbols and UniProt accessions using the Protein Identifier Cross-Reference (PICR) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/picr/). The analyzing results were integrated in Supplementary Table 2. Area-proportional Venn diagram was generated with BioVenn (http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/cdd/biovenn/index.php).

Data, experimental design, materials and methods
3429 Non-redundant proteins discovered in our urine proteomic analysis are characterized and are noted in Supplementary Table 1[1]. 1615 of these proteins were contained in vesicles while the remaining 1794 were equally distributed among CPLL (1488) and butanol insoluble fractions (322). Several proteins were detected exclusively in one of the phases of the procedure, suggesting that each step is crucial in the fractionation strategy. Many (1724) proteins are here described whose presence in urine have never been reported and represent a potential source of information considering that urine is the unique site of excretion of products of interaction of metabolic processes.

Conflict of interest

Acknowledgments
The Giannina Gaslini Institute provided financial and logistic support to the study. This work was also supported by the Ministry of Health, Italy ‘Ricerca Corrente’ and from contributions derived from ‘Cinque per mille dell’IRPEF’. We also acknowledge contributions from the Renal Child Foundation, Fondazione La Nuova Speranza (‘Progetto integrato per la definizione dei meccanismi implicati nella glomerulo sclerosi focale’) and Italian Society of Nephrology (Progetto Ricercando).

Data are supplied here and have been deposited to the open access library of ProteomeXchange Consortium () via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier

Data, experimental design, materials and methods

Conflict of interests

Acknowledgments
This work is supported by grants to NG from the French National Agency for Research (ANR-10-INTB-1301-PARACTIN) and from the French Parasitology Network of Excellence ParaFrap (Grant ANR-11-LABX0024). DP was supported by fellowships from the French Ministère de la Recherche et la Technologie (MRT) and from Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM). GDJ is supported by the Wellcome Trust–DBT India Alliance (Grant 500080/Z/09/Z).

Value of the data

Data, experimental design, materials and methods
We describe here a unique dataset composed of qualitative proteomic analysis of chicken spermatozoa and seminal plasma and quantitative proteomic analyses related to semen quality. The present study identified a large number of proteins that have never previously been described in Gallus gallus. Furthermore, label free quantitative proteomic analyses combined with physiological tests allowed phenotyping semen at the individual level and characterization of new peptides and proteins that are biomarker candidates of fertility.

As previously reported design and

As previously reported, design and designers are entering an era when our ability to solve complex problems is sought out above our technical competencies. The shift to expand our once graphic, product, and interaction domain design knowledge is transitioning into the age of information systems and business model design. Central to the relationship between design and business is the role of design-led innovation (DLI). It is the belief of the author that design-led innovation is positioned at the intersection of design, innovation, and business—and thus serves as a viable and necessary tool in transitioning from artifact design to business model innovation. This is not to say that all designers need to make this GSK503 transition—rather that this emerging field needs first to be addressed as a professional domain in order to engage in this new era of design. This raises the question of who should facilitate this role. Over the last decade, many business schools worldwide have developed design thinking foundational and compulsory subjects dedicated to solving business problems creatively, with some degrees doing this more successfully than others. It is the proposition of this paper that the “Design Innovation Catalyst” (DIC) fulfills this role spanning both business and design knowledge domains.
The concept for the DIC was first introduced by Wrigley and Bucolo, and is influenced by Norman’s transitional engineer concept—itself a third discipline inserted in the middle of business and design to translate between the abstractions of research and the realities of practice. Described as “transitional developers,” these people act as translators, converting design research into the language of business while also translating business insights into design problems for designers to address.
Martin identifies the need for a creative thinker—the “Innovation Catalyst”—to be appointed inside organizations, to lead the way using the design thinking traits of empathy, ideation and experimentation. However, questions still remain pertaining to who these catalysts are, how—and what—is to be taught, and most importantly, what value they bring to organizations. This paper aims to investigate these questions and contribute to the existing body of literature regarding these catalysts. This paper presents an empirical study of seven design innovation catalysts trained in a postgraduate research program that were deployed in seven businesses to drive innovation efforts over a twelve to twenty-four month period. Findings suggest a set of six overall required capabilities and knowledge sets, and the articulation of an engagement model for the education of such catalysts in the future.

The Intersection of Design, Innovation, and Business
It has been documented previously by many authorities that design can help businesses innovate through processes like design-led innovation and the generation of new business models. An important distinction of the design-led innovation process is that clone is not only a problem-solving approach—as design thinking suggests—but is also a transformational process at a business level, and not exclusively at the product level (fig. 1). The conservative role designers perform in the innovation process within a business is increasingly being challenged, and requires further emphasis on the value design can bring to an organization.
Martin has published widely on the relationship between design and business, asking the key question, “Why can’t business and design be friends?” He makes it clear that business is centered on reliability, whilst design is focused on validity—and it is this conflict between the two approaches that creates tension. Martin and Norman both build upon Moore’s “crossing the chasm” concept, suggesting the way to successfully collaborate is to “appreciate the legitimate differences; empathize; seek to communicate on their terms, not yours, using tools with which they would be familiar; and stretch out of your comfort zones.”

GSK503 A composite score was calculated for each category of

A composite score was calculated for each category of factors affecting mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, and willingness. This was done by giving a value of 1 to each correct answer and a value of to any incorrect and/or ‘do not know’ responses. In terms of items assessing mothers’ attitude toward the importance of child’s oral health, the response of ‘agree’ was given a score of 1 and ‘disagree’ and/or ‘do not know’ were given a score of 0. The cut-off point was made based on the median value for each domain. Mothers’ overall readiness was assessed from a composite score of mothers who were ready in terms of total knowledge readiness (⩾11)+attitude readiness (⩾2)+willingness readiness (⩾2) as shown in Table 4. When testing for association, mothers’ education level groups were collapsed into 3 categories (primary, secondary and post-secondary). Mothers’ age groups and number of children groups were collapsed into two groups (30 years and below and 31 years and above), (no children and one child or more) respectively.

Results
Among the 437 eligible expectant women who attended the three main public maternal centers in three different districts in Libya, 389 agreed to participate in this study and provided informed consent (response rate was 89.0%). The distribution of the socio-demographic characteristics of responding expectant mothers is shown in Table 1. The mean age of the participants was 30.1±5.6 years.
Table 2 assesses knowledge of expectant mothers regarding child’s oral hygiene, dietary habits and preventive dental visit. Few mothers (17.7%) knew that they GSK503 should start cleaning their child’s teeth once primary teeth erupted. Similarly, only 38.0% of mothers indicated that they were aware of the need to clean their child’s teeth before bed, especially when their child fell asleep while bottle-feeding. Furthermore, the majority of the mothers had insufficient knowledge about most aspects regarding healthy dietary habits. Less than half of the mothers (42.9%) knew that the use of a cup instead of the bottle would help to prevent dental caries and sugary snacks between meals are unhealthy (42.9% and 46.7%, respectively). Moreover, few mothers (32.6%) were aware that their child should be weaned off the bottle by the age of one year. Regarding preventive dental attendance, most mothers indicated that it is a good practice to take their child to a dentist (95.1%) and to seek dental treatment immediately if their child complains of a toothache (96.9%). Unfortunately, only 14.6% of mothers were aware that a child should have his/her first dental visit by the age of one (Table 2).
Only slightly more than half (58.1%) of respondents had a favorable attitude regarding their child’s oral health care and agreed that primary teeth are as important as permanent teeth, and almost half (49.9%) said it is unacceptable for children to have tooth decay (Table 3). However, the majority were generally willing to initiate preventive oral health care in terms of cleaning their children’s mouth and teeth (99.2%), controlling the intake of sugar and sweetened drinks (92.8%), and taking their children to see a dentist regularly (91.5%).
The readiness of expectant mothers in terms of their knowledge, attitude and willingness is shown in Table 4. In this study, less than one-fifth (17.7%) showed an overall readiness to initiate preventive oral health for their children and to be prime-movers of oral GSK503 health in their family. Slightly higher overall readiness was noted among mothers who already had children (29.8%) and mothers ⩾31 years of age (24.9%) compared to mothers with no children (20.2%) and younger mothers aged 30 years and below with significant differences between them (11.8%) (X2=4.2, p=0.04, X2=11.3, p=0.001) (Table 5).
Table 6 shows the crude and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) of number of children and mother’s age as predictors of the mothers’ overall readiness. Independent variables that were significantly associated with mother’s overall readiness at the bivariate analysis were included in the logistic regression model. In the crude analysis; number of children and mother’s age were significant predictors of the mothers’ overall readiness (p<0.05).

BDNF s role as a biomarker has

BDNF’s role as a biomarker has not been completely established by the data and results obtained thus far. For example, its specificity to schizophrenia has not been demonstrated; decreased levels of BDNF have also been found in patients with neurodegenerative disorders and other neuropsychiatric ailments. Nevertheless, BDNF’s characterization as a biomarker for the cognitive dimension of schizophrenia appears to be a promising line of investigation, although more study and analysis on this relationship need to be performed (Penadés et al., 2013). Choosing BDNF as an indicator of the cognitive dimension of schizophrenia, while tempting, remains premature.

Conclusions

Role of Funding Sources

Contributors

Conflict of Interest

Acknowledgements

Introduction
Cognitive deficits are a primary characteristic of schizophrenia that significantly impact patient functioning (Bowie et al., 2006; Green et al., 2000). Among other hypotheses, it has been postulated that the primary cognitive alterations in schizophrenia (working memory and executive functions) are due to dysfunction in the frontal lobe, specifically hypodopaminergia in the prefrontal GSK503 (PFC). Dopaminergic tone in the PFC is essential for cognitive functioning. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is vital for the regulation of dopamine levels in the PFC (review: Tunbridge et al., 2006). A functional polymorphism of the COMT gene (rs4680) significantly impacts the dopamine levels in the PFC. The Val allele is associated with greater enzymatic activity and, therefore, with greater dopamine degradation in the synapses of the PFC (Chen et al., 2004; Lachman et al., 1996). This genetic polymorphism, although weakly linked to the risk of a schizophrenia diagnosis (Glatt et al., 2003), is a good candidate for understanding the relationships between dopamine levels in the PFC and cognitive functioning.
Many studies have investigated the link between cognition and the Val158Met COMT polymorphism in both healthy controls and clinical populations with varied results (review: Dickinson and Elvevåg, 2009). One of the first links between the COMT enzyme and executive functions (Egan et al., 2001) has been replicated in other studies (Joober et al., 2002; Mattay et al., 2003; Rosa et al., 2004), yet other groups have been unable to reproduce the results (Diaz-Asper et al., 2008; Ho et al., 2005; Tsai et al., 2003). Other cognitive phenotypes have also been studied including working memory, attentional control, and episodic memories, with both positive (Blasi et al., 2005; Goldberg et al., 2003) and negative results (Bilder et al., 2002; Stefanis et al., 2004).
Many of the studies that explore the association between cognition and the gene that encodes the COMT enzyme use neuropsychological examinations, which are sensitive to differences among clinical groups but do not have the ability to accurately determine differences between genotypes (MacDonald et al., 2007). One strategy that could prove useful in detecting cognitive differences between genotypes is to employ cognitive paradigms that evaluate specific cognitive functions or dysfunction instead of generalized deficits, which could aid in the study of their biological correlates.
Numerous tests have demonstrated the ability to identify specific deficits in cognitive functions dependent on the PFC. Among these tests is the Dot Pattern Expectancy Task (DPX), which evaluates a specific prefrontal cognitive function, context processing. The cognitive construct of context processing resembles the goal maintenance construct and involves cognitive control functions. The deficits in context processing appear to be specific to schizophrenia, detectable in the early stages of the illness, and not significantly affected by antipsychotic treatments (Barch et al., 2003). Various studies have shown context processing deficits to be a stable cognitive feature of schizophrenia (Cohen et al., 1999; Delawalla et al., 2008; Javitt et al., 2000; Jones et al., 2010; MacDonald and Carter, 2003; MacDonald et al., 2003; Stratta et al., 1998). Context processing also appears to be linked to the functioning of the dorsolateral PFC (MacDonald and Carter, 2003) and is thus likely linked to the dopaminergic system (Cohen and Servan-Schreiber, 1992). A link has also been described between context processing and the Val158Met COMT polymorphism in healthy control subjects (Leung et al., 2007; MacDonald et al., 2007). Individuals with the Val/Val genotype (low dopamine availability in the PFC) show selective deficits in goal maintenance in the DPX test.

br Materials and Methods All the male

Materials and Methods
All the 666 male graduates of the College of Dentistry, KSU from the first set of 1982 until 2004 were studied out of the total of 857 male and female graduates. We excluded those who had graduated after 2004 to allow for a minimum of four years for continuing postgraduate education (PGE). The names and the years of the graduation for the graduates were identified from the College published records (Al-Dlaigan et al., 2007).
The questionnaire was designed to include fourteen multiple choices and written survey questions. It consisted of sections covering:

Discussion
The response rate of (80%) was satisfactory due to the limitations for this GSK503 type of study which required more detailed information about graduates of over 28years ago when the first group graduated from College of Dentistry, King Saud University. We were hoping to cover the entire 666 male graduates from the year 1982 to 2004, but unfortunately there were several limitations, such as getting the contact number for each graduate which was really one of the hardest steps during the study. At times, even when we got the contact numbers, there were either no answers or willingness to give detailed information. Considerable detailed information about the graduates was obtained from the Saudi Dental Society memberships list, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties and some classmates for each group. The sample covered all the 22 groups with a fair and reasonable representation.
The high percentage (77%) of the sample who obtained PGE leading to gaining either clinical specialty or academic degrees, such as Master’s degree and Doctorate degree was unexpected. Adding the percentage of those who are currently enrolled in PGE (11%) to the percentage of those who completed PGE (77%), meant 89% soon. These results indicate that the large percentage of KSU dental graduates were motivated, enthusiastic and eager to continue studying and are optimistic to obtain a lifelong education. On the different specialties of interest for the current residents, the majority of residents wished to obtain SBARD (37%). This result indicated that the board program was the most preferred higher dental education program, which is in agreement with the study of Ashri et al. (2007). About 24% were wishing to obtain specialty in Orthodontics, which is close to the findings of Drugan et al. (2004) who investigated the current working patterns and future career aspirations of specialist trainees in dentistry.
The dental specialties recognized by American Dental Association at different times beginning in 1947 are oral and maxillofacial surgery, pediatric dentistry, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, prosthodontics, periodontics, oral and maxillofacial pathology (1949), dental public health (1950), endodontics (1963), oral and maxillofacial radiology (1999) as described by Neumann and Nix (2002). It was found Sporozoans prosthodontics and orthodontics were the most preferred among the participants. These findings are in agreement with Ashri et al. (2007) who found that Saudi general practitioners were mostly interested in prosthodontics and orthodontics, respectively. The uncommon specialties attracted those who wanted to work in the academic field, suggesting that interest was not limited to the more popular specialties. It was found that 248 had a Master’s degree, including those who had more than one Master’s degree. The Master’s of Science degree was the common type of degree obtained by the graduates. Leggate and Russell (2002) study reported similar findings among Master’s degree holders among Scottish dentists. The majority of Master’s degree holders in the study obtained their degrees from USA and UK, respectively. This may be due to several factors which encouraged the graduates to study in USA and UK, such as the curriculum of the College of Dentistry, KSU which is close to the American and British dental schools system, the language of study which is English, the interest of the students and the greater chance of acceptance in these two countries. Also for the Doctorate degree, the majority of the graduates obtained their degrees from USA and UK (Table 6). However, Saudi Arabia was the third country from which the students got their Master’s degree. The results showed that our graduates obtained their Master’s degree from 43 Universities in 14 countries, which indicated that the graduates of College of Dentistry at KSU were internationally recognized.

br Roles of M macrophages in DNFB

Roles of M2 macrophages in DNFB-induced CHS
Although proinflammatory roles of M1 macrophages in skin inflammation including CHS have been well documented, the roles of M2 macrophages in CHS remain largely unknown. We therefore performed cell transfer experiments of bone marrow (BM)-derived M1 and M2 macrophages into the sites of CHS to address the roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in CHS. Intradermal injection of BM-derived M2 macrophages significantly exacerbated ear thickness and increased the numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils in the skin lesion in DNFB-induced CHS. In contrast, intradermal injection of BM-derived M1 macrophages did not significantly exacerbate ear thickness and only modestly increased the numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils in the skin lesion in DNFB-induced CHS. These findings suggest that M2 macrophages but not M1 macrophages can exacerbate DNFB-induced CHS.
We next investigated the transcriptome of MR+ F4/80+ GSK503 and MR− F4/80+ cells isolated from the skin in DNFB-induced CHS to address the mechanisms underlying M2 macrophage-mediated exacerbation of CHS. RNA-sequencing analysis identified 189 genes that are more than 4-fold higher in MR+ F4/80+ cells than MR− F4/80+ cells. Among them, we picked 11 genes, Ccl8, Pf4, Mmp12, Ccl5, Cpxm1, Ctsk, Cpe, Gdf15, Adamts2, Bmp5, and Bmp2, according to the two categories: “extracellular region” Gene Ontology (GO) cellular component and “cytokine/chemokine” or “proteolytic enzyme” of GO molecular function (Table 2). Owing to the expression profiles available, we focused on matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12), also known as macrophage elastase, among 11 genes as a candidate gene that possibly involves the M2 macrophage-mediated exacerbation of CHS. Consistent with the data of RNA-sequencing analyses, qPCR analyses revealed that MMP12 mRNA was highly expressed in MR+ F4/80+ cells as compared to that in MR− F4/80+ cells in the skin lesion of DNFB-induced CHS. In addition, MMP12 mRNA was highly expressed in BM-derived M2 macrophages as compared to that in BM-derived M1 macrophages. These findings suggest that MMP12 is highly and preferentially expressed in M2 macrophages in the skin lesion in DNFB-induced CHS. Our findings are consistent with a previous report showing that MMP12 is one of the most strongly induced genes in the skin of hapten-induced CHS in rat models.
It has been shown that IL-4-STAT6 signaling induces not only the polarization toward M2 phenotype but also the transcriptional activation of a part of M2 macrophage-specific genes in macrophages. We therefore examined the roles of IL-4-STAT6 signaling in MMP12 expression in BM-derived macrophages and found that IL-4 induced the expression of MMP12 mRNA in BM-derived macrophages of wild-type mice but not of STAT6-deficient mice. In addition, in agreement with the presence of a putative STAT6-binding site in MMP12 promoter, ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed that IL-4 induced STAT6 binding to the promoter region of MMP12 gene. These findings suggest that IL-4 induces MMP12 expression through STAT6-mediated activation of MMP12 promoter in M2 macrophages (Fig. 1).

Roles of M2 macrophage-derived MMP12 in CHS
MMP12 belongs to a family of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) that are structurally related extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes. As other MMPs, MMP12 is capable of degrading extracellular matrix components such as elastin and thought to be involved in tissue remodeling process. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that MMP12 is involved in the development of inflammatory responses. For example, it has been shown that cigarette smoke-induced accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages into the lung depends on MMP12.
To determine the roles of MMP12 in CHS, we first examined DNFB-induced CHS in MMP12-deficient mice and littermate wild-type mice. Importantly, MMP12-deficient mice showed reduced ear thickness in DNFB-induced CHS as compared with wild-type mice. Histological analyses revealed that MMP12-deficient mice exhibited less inflammatory change in the skin in DNFB-induced CHS. Flow cytometric analyses of leukocytes isolated from the skin lesion showed that the numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, M1 macrophages, and M2 macrophages were significantly decreased in MMP12-deficient mice as compared to those in wild-type mice in DNFB-induced CHS. These findings suggest that MMP12 plays critical roles in the induction of DNFB-induced CHS (Fig. 1).

The present study investigated a large selection of indoor

The present study investigated a large selection of indoor air pollutants and TC parameters in ECCs both in summer and winter season. Several significant differences were found for IAQ and TC parameters when compared by season, when indoor parameters were compared with outdoor, when differences between the 22 ECCs or their internal spaces were tested. Although the reliability of p values associated to GSK503 testing is limited – as in this case – by the presence of multiple comparison, these data provide a comprehensive view on the quality of IAQ and TC in this setting, and especially on the relative importance of building characteristics and ECCs daily life activities in determining indoor conditions in the ECCs. Our findings which are in keeping with our project preliminary results (Mendes et al., 2013), provide remarkable information to assess housing structure and function along with lifestyle decisions determinants to IAQ. This research will contribute to the understanding of the health effects due to IAQ variables and their potential to improve the health of our elderly population.

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Introduction
The gas detection is a subject of study more and more tackled in connection with environmental and health safety problems (Yamazoe and Miura, 1994; Zhou et al., 2014; Donga et al., 2010). Whether for the control of industrial emissions (Soldan et al., 2014) or indoor quality air supervision (Suriano et al., 2014; Amodio et al., 2014), the challenge remains to produce detection systems with weak production and use costs, of high performance (sensitive, selective, reliable) and adapted to atmospheric conditions (linked to detection scales fixed by environmental standards). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of gaseous compounds such as VOC, NH3, CO2, CO, O2, O3 or H2 are performed by operating very various sensitive materials (organic materials (Rossignol et al., 2013; Itagaki et al., 2005; Bouvet et al., 2013; Trometer et al., 1992), metal oxides (Korotcenkov, 2014; Jouhannaud et al., 2008; Barsan et al., 2007; Jiménez-Cadena et al., 2007)) and transduction techniques among which we can quote methods based on electrical (Jiménez-Cadena et al., 2007; Airoudj, 2007), optical (Jiménez-Cadena et al., 2007; Airoudj, 2007; Lim et al., 2011), acoustic (Jiménez-Cadena et al., 2007; Airoudj, 2007; Shapira et al., 1976), spectroscopic (Jiménez-Cadena et al., 2007; Airoudj, 2007) or calorimetric (Jiménez-Cadena et al., 2007; Airoudj, 2007) variations.
In any case, the gas sensing mechanism can be described as an adsorption/desorption process. Thus, one of the key element of a gas sensor is its sensitive material. The interaction between a gas and a sensitive material can be depicted according to: chemisorption (Gomri et al., 2005; Calvini and Levi, 2005), physisorption (Levi and Pisoni, 2004; Barochi et al., 2011), or both. In the case of chemisorption, an atomic connection is created by the interaction between the gas and the material, modifying the material characteristics in an irreversible way. To desorb the gas from the material, and thus eliminate formed bounds, an energy supply must be applied to the material through a heating. In the case of a physisorption, the interaction causes disturbances, modifying temporarily the material characteristics. The main interactions involved are Coulomb and Van Der Waals forces. As no atomic bounds are constituted, the modifications of the material characteristics are temporary. The sensitive material does not need any energy supply to regain its initial characteristics.
Most of the commercialized gas sensors are based on conductimetric transduction using non-stoichiometric metal oxides as sensitive materials (Gurlo, 2006). They present a long lifespan with a ppm resolution and response times compatible with environmental standards at low-costs. They are mainly sensitive to redox active species which can accept or give electrons, inducing a variation of the charge carriers density (Jouhannaud et al., 2007). They are also sensitive to species able to modify the mobility of these carriers, and more generally the transport properties in sensitive materials (Jiménez-Cadena et al., 2007).

Here we describe methods that can be used to

Here, we describe methods that can be used to improve the reconstruction based on shape constraints both before and after the actual reconstruction algorithm is applied. Specifically, we introduce a method to implicitly approximate any APT reconstruction by a barycentric coordinate transform [29] based on a 3D mesh that can be used to translate the coordinates of extracted shapes from reconstruction to the detector coordinate space (or ‘detector space’), and to apply both global and local shape constraints from a priori knowledge and/or correlative microscopy. This is closely related to affine transformations, a concept that is widely used in image manipulation (e.g. Adobe Photoshop\’s ‘warp’ tool) and image feature detection [30].
We also present a method to create a boundary for the dataset in both the detector space and reconstruction space. This method is used to compensate for ion trajectory aberrations caused by residual fields in the ion drift region of the GSK503 probe [31,32] and to provide a boundary for the dataset to be used in the creation of analysis models in other feature analyses methods such as the one presented in [33].

Materials and methods
The data in Fig. 2c is from a technically pure Mo sample that contains a grain boundary, acquired on a Cameca LEAP 3000 X HR operating in laser pulsing mode. This instrument is equipped with a reflectron lens to improve mass resolution. The dataset in Figs. 3 and 4 contains a grain boundary, lifted out from a Ni-based superalloy sample (A718 [34]), using the protocol published in [9]. It was acquired on an Imago LEAP 3000 Si atom probe operating in voltage pulsing mode at 40K with a pulse amplitude of 25% of the DC bias voltage (‘pulse fraction’), regulated to trigger a detector event on 1% of the voltage pulses (‘detection rate’). The samples in Fig. 5 were measured in voltage pulsing mode at 40K, with 20% pulse fraction and 2% detection rate, apart from the Si sample, which was measured in the LEAP 4000 X Si in laser pulsing mode at 50K, with a 355nm UV laser at 50 pJ with a spot size of ~2µm, and an evaporation rate of 2%.
All data analysis was carried out by using custom programs in Matlab®, with the exception of the dataset in Fig. 2c, which was reconstructed using Cameca IVAS®. All 3D visualisation was done in Blender 3D (www.blender.org).

Results and discussion

Conclusions
Being able to translate models of objects, obtained in an imperfect reconstruction, into detector space, enables an entirely new approach to the calibration of APT reconstructions. The object\’s model is co-reconstructed with the rest of the data, and it\’s shape properties are evaluated and compared to a priori knowledge about the sample or data from correlative methods. This way, the reconstruction can be optimised iteratively.

Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the facilities, and the scientific and technical assistance, of the Australian Microscopy & Microanalysis Research Facility at the University of Sydney. This work was funded by the Australian Research Council. The dataset in Fig. 2 was provided by K. Babinsky and S. Primig, MU Leoben. Ni-superalloy specimens (Figs. 3 and 4) were provided by Mahesh Chaturvedi from The University of Manitoba, Canada. Some of the datasets used for Fig. 5b were provided by T. Sato and A. Breen, University of Sydney. PF would like to thank the Blender Foundation for their effort in making high quality 3D programs available open source.

Introduction
Determining the electromagnetic field distribution within materials is fundamental to both characterizing and understanding a variety of functional properties [1–6]. Using transmission electron microscopy we can seek to infer the field distribution by measuring the deflection of the probe electron trajectories – or, in more appropriate wave optical terms, to measure the phase shift – resulting from the Coulomb–Lorentz force from the electromagnetic fields in the sample.

Therefore the identification of a specific RPE value associated with

Therefore, the identification of a specific RPE value, associated with the VT (RPEVT), may be an effective strategy to guide cardiorespiratory training intensity, particularly from a public health perspective. Thus, the individuals can regulate exercise intensity (e.g., walking or running speed) based on their own perceptual sense. However, previous studies have shown that there is considerable variability in the RPEVT among adults, ranging from 11 to 14, using Borg\’s scale. In general, these studies analyzed the influence of gender, training level, exercise modality, and exercise protocol, evaluating only people with normal body mass.
Particularly in overweight and obese individuals, the identification of the RPEVT has important implications, because exercise performed above the VT in these groups is associated with greater pain sensatio###http://www.GENS-BIO.COM/images/1-s2.0-S1607551X1630153X-gr1.jpg####n, physical discomfort, and feelings of displeasure than in groups with normal body mass. To date, no study has identified the RPEVT in women with different nutritional status. Thus, the aim of this GSK503 study was to identify and compare the RPEVT in normal body mass, overweight, and obese sedentary women.

Methods
The study consisted of three familiarization sessions, followed by a session to evaluate anthropometric measurements, according to the procedures of Gordon et al. and maximal cardiopulmonary fitness. Sessions were separated by at least 48–72 hours. The participants were instructed to abstain from vigorous physical activity, caffeinated products, and alcohol 24 hours before the experimental session. All sessions were conducted with participants wearing athletic apparel and footwear.

Results
The characteristics of the sample are summarized in Table 1. Table 2 shows the results for cardiopulmonary parameters related to the maximal exercise test. The obese group showed lower , at VT, at VT, and %HRmax at the VT than the normal body mass and overweight groups (p < 0.05). There were no differences between the normal body mass and overweight groups (p > 0.05).
Fig. 1 shows the RPEVT during the maximal exercise test in the women with different BMI. There was no difference between groups (p > 0.05): RPE = 12.1 ± 1.4 for normal body mass women; RPE = 12.0 ± 1.6 for overweight women; and RPE = 12.0 ± 1.4 for obese women.

Discussion
The purpose of this study was to identify a specific RPEVT in sedentary women, and to analyze whether there were differences in RPEVT among normal body mass, overweight, and obese groups. We found that the volunteers perceived the exercise intensity associated with the VT as between light and somewhat hard (Borg RPE = 12), independently of BMI. These results are consistent with previous studies that reported a mean RPE value between 11 and 14 at the VT or lactate threshold in different populations (active men and women, sedentary middle-aged men, young trained men, trained cyclists, and type 2 diabetes individuals).
Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of cardiorespiratory training at exercise intensities of close to or at the VT for physical fitness and health. However, in clinical settings, it is often not possible to acquire expensive equipment to monitor cardiorespiratory exercise intensity (e.g., HR monitor, metabolic measurement equipment). Recent studies have shown that perceived exertion is a valid means of evaluating VT, demonstrating acceptable correlation with VT. As such, this method may be recommended to predict maximal functional capacity in sedentary males, young and middle to older-aged individuals who are active or sedentary, and obese women. In addition, previous investigations have shown the efficacy of exercise training involving exercise intensity using perceptually regulated training at a target RPE. Céline et al. found that a 6-week exercise program involving perceptually regulated training at an individualized RPEVT resulted in a mean improvement in VO2max of 10% in healthy young women. Parfitt et al. found that an 8-week exercise program involving perceptually regulated training at an RPE of 13 on the Borg Scale resulted in mean improvements in , mean arterial pressure, cholesterol, and BMI in sedentary men and women. Furthermore, Scherr et al. in a cohort of 2560 participants, reported a very high competency in the assessment of RPE in relation to metabolic (lactate concentrations) and cardiac (HR) intensity parameters, and found that RPE at LT1 was approximately 11 in all groups. From a public health perspective, exercise intensity perceptually regulated at RPEVT may be an effective strategy to be implemented and disseminated for clinical practice. Based on the current results, perceptually regulated exercise intensity at an RPE of 12 may be a practical, simple, noninvasive, and low-cost method to guide exercise intensity at the VT in sedentary women, regardless of BMI classification. Further longitudinal research is necessary to confirm whether cardiorespiratory benefit can be achieved with exercise programming using RPE-based exercise intensity in normal body mass, overweight, and obese women.