When estimating prostatitis vs BPH we

When estimating prostatitis vs. BPH, we found PHI as the only risk factor, converse to the study by Lazzeri et al. [15]. Simultaneously, we observed no significant differences in PCA3 and %fPSA values between these last 2 common benign conditions.
When estimating prostatitis vs. HG-PIN, no biomarker played a significant role, in both the PSA cohorts; these data confirm our previous study, in which we observed that “histological” chronic prostatitis and HG-PIN had a PCA3 score similar to that in patients with BPH or normal glycine receptors at biopsy [31].
Recently, investigating the predictive value for prostatitis vs. PCa of the same biomarkers at first biopsy, we documented at DCA a clear net benefit only for the PCA3 score and PHI, for both the PSA cohorts (all patients and “gray zone”) [6].
According to Thakur et al. [10], our results indicated that %fPSA is not recommended to mark between malignancy and “histological” acute/chronic prostatitis, and the additional value of this biomarker in this setting should be reconsidered.

Introduction
Prostate cancer is the most common solid-organ malignancy in men, with an estimated 238,590 new diagnoses and 29,720 deaths in the United States of America in 2014 [1]. In 2007, there were 79,875 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) as a definitive treatment of prostate cancer in the USA [2]. Although RP provides long-term cancer control in most of the patients with localized prostate cancer [3], approximately 15% to 20% of patients have a rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, indicating recurrence of their disease after RP [4]. Early detection of disease recurrence after RP leading to early salvage therapy is associated with improved outcomes, whereas delayed diagnosis may limit the opportunity for salvage treatment [5]. A landmark study by Stephenson et al. [6] demonstrated a survival benefit for salvage radiation therapy when treatment was initiated when the PSA level was still less than 2ng/ml. Others have confirmed these findings, suggesting improved outcomes with earlier treatments [7]. Furthermore, when the recurrent lesions can be localized, targeted dose escalation radiotherapy can be performed [8].
Over the last decade, the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate has dramatically improved. Technology improvements and standardized acquisition and interpretation protocols have contributed to the increasing value of mpMRI [9]. However, most of the clinical research studies have been performed in preoperative patients. MRI-transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS) fusion-guided biopsy (FGB) has been used to confirm the findings on mpMR images and is rapidly being adopted [10]. However, after surgery, the anatomic landmarks commonly used to register the MR and TRUS for fusion biopsy are absent, and it is thus more difficult to properly align and fuse the 2 data sets. Several studies have reported the value of mpMRI in the early detection of local recurrence after RP, but there is a paucity of data on the use of MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy in the setting of biochemical recurrence (BCR) [11–15]. In this study, we investigate the ability of MRI-TRUS fusion glycine receptors biopsy to confirm sites of local recurrence suspected by mpMRI.

Materials and methods

Results
The initial study population consisted of 39 patients for whom mpMRI was done between January 2010 and December 2014 (Table 1). All patients had a rising PSA level, which was more than the nadir. Of these 39 patients, 21 (54%) had positive findings on mpMRI. Among these 21 patients, 4 had metastatic disease and were treated with androgen deprivation therapy and 7 patients chose to undergo radiation therapy without biopsies. Thus, 10 patients consented to undergo MRI-TRUS FGBs, and they constitute our final patient population (Fig. 1). Patient characteristics are presented in Table 1. Their average age was 67 years (range: 61–75y). The time interval between the RP and PSA recurrence averaged 107 months (range: 7–259mo). Initial Gleason score varied between 3+2 and 4+5, and 4 patients (40%) had positive surgical margins after RP (Table 2).

br Acknowledgments br Introduction Amyloidosis is an umbrella term for

Acknowledgments

Introduction
Amyloidosis is an umbrella term for rare but severe diseases involving accumulation of insoluble fibrillary amyloid proteins in the extracellular matrix in tissues and organs (Banypersad et al. 2012; Fitzgerald et al. 2011, 2013; Koyama et al. 2015). Deposition of the pathologic proteins leads to disruption of the structure and function of the tissues with a median survival of 12 months from diagnosis without treatment, which decreases to 5 months once the glycine receptors is infiltrated (Fitzgerald et al. 2013). Early diagnosis is important, permitting initiation of treatment aimed at improving survival. There are several non-invasive ways to detect cardiac involvement, including electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac biomarkers in the blood, genetic testing and imaging using modalities such as echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance and scintigraphy (Banypersad et al. 2012; Falk and Quarta 2015; Koyama et al. 2015; Liu et al. 2011). However, these methods all have limitations. Existing methods may be inconclusive on their own or unreliable because of the influence by physiological factors including filling pressures, or limited availability in the routine clinical practice, time consuming, expensive or too invasive for the already frail patient population (Banypersad et al. 2012; Khouri et al. 2004). To date, the reference standard has required tissue biopsy when the amyloid fibril type cannot be defined with existing methods or when cardiac amyloidosis is an isolated feature (Banypersad et al. 2012; Falk and Quarta 2015).
Currently, glycine receptors clinical assessment of diastolic dysfunction encompasses several echocardiographic measures and a variety of algorithms for grading of severity (Khouri et al. 2004; Nagueh et al. 2009). Unfortunately, the current algorithms are inadequate for classification of a sizable minority of patients due to divergent results.
The main reason for unclassifiable patients depends on the definition and algorithm used while grading the diastolic function. Kuwaki et al. (2014) found 318 unclassified patients in a total of 1362 enrolled patients This was due to the inability of the diastolic dysfunction grading algorithm to accommodate classification of phenomenologically divergent results. In 2016, new updated recommendations for left ventricular (LV) diastolic function were introduced by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) (Nagueh et al. 2016). However, even those criteria may classify findings as indeterminate, and this is a major challenge for the field. This leads to uncertainty in clinical assessment. Even though newer echocardiography techniques that seem promising have been developed such as tissue Doppler, LV longitudinal strain assessed by color tissue Doppler, speckle tracking echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy, their role in prognosis and management is still unclear and there is inconsistency in the literature regarding both the diagnosis and the prognosis of cardiac amyloidosis (Al-Zahrani et al. 2009; Klein et al. 1991; Koyama et al. 2002, 2015). Thus, it is desirable to develop improved methods for evaluating diastolic dysfunction, to improve diagnosis and prognosis not only in cardiac amyloidosis patients, but also in patients with diastolic dysfunction regardless of underlying etiology.
The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism is an echocardiographic method for evaluating diastolic function (Kovacs et al. 1987). PDF analysis entails describing LV filling using the same laws of physics that govern the recoil of a spring. Notably, the PDF method has been used to describe differences in diastolic function between healthy individuals and patients with diseases such as diabetes (Riordan et al. 2005) and hypertension (Kovacs et al. 1997). However, it is not known how PDF measures of diastolic function differ between cardiac amyloidosis patients and controls. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare PDF measures of diastolic function between cardiac amyloidosis patients and controls. We hypothesized that echocardiographic PDF analysis could detect differences in diastolic function between these two groups.

One possibility to avoid the

One possibility to avoid the damping of the PGTF in high spatial frequency regions is to decrease the inner detector angle θ, so that a larger portion of the ring quadrant detector is illuminated by the direct electron beam. As an example for this situation, the PGTF for ϵ=0.5 is plotted along the x-axis in Fig. 5, yielding a normalized DPC resolving power of . The corresponding isoline map also depicted in Fig. 5 shows that, for two segments of this ring quadrant detector opposing each other in the x-direction, the DPC resolving power is smaller along the y-axis, which means that the normalized DPC resolving power for one segment pair alone may be slightly smaller than , depending on the direction of the scattering angles involved in the image formation.
The detector geometry can also be changed to a full quadrant detector (ϵ=0). With the resulting graphs presented in Fig. 6, the normalized DPC resolving power for this detector is determined to be , which is equal to the result for the ϵ=0.5 ring quadrant detector. However, in glycine receptors to the ring quadrant detector, the PGTF of the quadrant detector has higher values in the medium to high frequency region, suggesting that the quadrant detector might be better suited for high resolution DPC imaging. A comparison of the isoline map in Fig. 6 with the isoline map shown in Fig. 5 reveals that the direction dependency of the DPC resolving power is similar for the quadrant and the ϵ=0.5 ring quadrant detector.
Assuming an objective aperture of [3] and an acceleration voltage of , the DPC resolving power of a ring quadrant detector with ϵ=0.97 (Fig. 1) can be calculated from as . This corresponds to a resolution limit of about 2.5Å. For a ring quadrant detector with ϵ=0.5, the normalized DPC resolving power extends to , which corresponds to and a resolution limit of 0.6Å for and . Since the normalized DPC resolving power of the ϵ=0.5 ring quadrant detector and the quadrant detector are identical, the quadrant detector is also limited to a resolution limit of about 0.6Å for the given parameters.
The plot in Fig. 7 shows that the normalized DPC resolving power of applies to all ring quadrant detectors with . Although all ring quadrant detectors with impose the same resolution limit, the largest PGTF values occur for the full quadrant detector (i. e. ϵ=0), which should therefore still be better for high resolution DPC imaging. For detectors with ϵ values larger than 0.7, the achievable resolution decreases. Thus quadrant detectors with ϵ values larger than 0.7 are at the very least not optimal for high resolution DPC imaging.

Conclusion
With this technique, we find that using a ring quadrant detector barely overlapped by the direct electron beam severely limits the normalized DPC resolving power to . Therefore the classical interpretation of DPC, in which the direct electron beam is slightly tilted by magnetic or electric fields within the specimen, is misleading for high resolution DPC, as it imposes no such restrictions on the resolving power of the detector setup.
As an alternative to the barely illuminated ring quadrant detector, a conventional quadrant detector or a ring quadrant detector where a significant portion of the detector surface is illuminated should be used. This leads to an increase of the normalized DPC resolving power to about . Considering only the contrast transfer, the former detector is preferable to the latter because of mildly higher PGTF values in the medium to high spatial frequency area.
For an acceleration voltage of and an objective aperture angle of , the normalized DPC resolving power of corresponds to a resolution limit of about 0.6Å. This number should be treated with caution, since it has been calculated assuming an ideal microscope. It indicates that, in a real DPC measurement, one should be able to reach the point resolution of the STEM used, which is usually . In addition, we emphasize that we have neglected any multiple scattering effects and any potential noise. For low spatial frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio actually favors the ring quadrant detector barely overlapped by the direct beam [12]. However, this is not the case for the high frequency region, where the conventional quadrant detector is superior in both signal-to-noise ratio and PGTF.

br Conclusions Atom probe data sets by their very nature

Conclusions
Atom probe data sets by their very nature allow different means of data visualization and reconstruction. This paper has reported a pragmatic procedure to identify isoconcentration surfaces in a low- chemical-partitioning, high-solute content alloy and with no a priori knowledge of the precipitate composition. This procedure provides a guideline to consistently obtain accurate compositions from proxigrams and is adaptable to other systems. Though subsequent and further optimization of the isoconcentration surface can be done [20,21], the creation of the isoconcentration surface itself is the initial step. The general procedure is outlined below in the absence of visually clear chemical partitioning:
Using the four-step procedure above, the H-phase composition in the 50.3Ni–29.7Ti–20Hf (at%) alloy after aging for 3h at 550°C was determined to be 51.55at% Ni, 19.09at% Ti and 29.36at% Hf. The H-phase’s formation results in the matrix becoming Ni-lean and a subsequent increase in martensitic transformation temperature as reported in [22].

Acknowledgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from NASA Grant NNX09AO61A, NASA FAP Aeronautical Sciences project and CAS Transformational Tools and Technologies project (technical discipline lead Dale Hopkins). UA’s Central Analytical Facility (www.caf.ua.edu) is recognized for additional support and access to the microscopes used in this study. The authors are appreciative for many fruitful discussions with Dr. Karen T. Henry on the subject of glycine receptors probe data analysis.

Introduction
Stainless steels have wide applications in new energy technologies thanks to a combination of high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance and affordability. However, they require improved high-temperature corrosion resistance for extreme conditions, such as within a concentrated solar power plant, where temperature cycles can range from room temperature up to 1000°C in air or carbonaceous atmosphere. The protective oxide layer that forms on the stainless steels plays a major role in the performance of these components. Investigation of the structure of these oxide layers at the nano-scale is critical for the development of more stable protective layers.
While atom probe tomography (APT) [1] is an excellent technique to the study of the nano-structure of such oxides, the associated data analysis still presents many challenges. In the last ten years, there have been many studies of oxide materials by laser assisted APT [2–10]. However, it is only recently that laser-assisted APT has been used to study the corrosion of stainless steels, providing new insight into the microstructure of the passive oxide layer that protects the alloy [11–13]. Thermally-assisted field evaporation of oxides leads to data that can be difficult to interpret [14–16]. With increasing interest in applying atom probe to the study of oxides, it is essential to assess the effect of analysis parameters on the data quality. Recent studies reported the influence of analysis parameters on the investigation of wüstite [16] by femtosecond laser assisted APT. The authors recommended that infra-red (IR) laser should be used to analyze wüstite as green and ultra-violet (UV) modes gave a measured oxygen content considerably below its expected value. They showed that an increase of IR-laser energy reduced the oxygen content measured. An increase of the thermal tail was also observed with increase of IR-laser energy.
Here, we aim to understand how atom probe data from thermally grown chromium oxides in stainless steels is affected by analysis conditions (laser pulse energy, laser pulse frequency and base temperature), specifically for data obtained by picosecond UV laser assisted APT. In particular, data from chromia (Cr2O3) was used to test the effect of different analysis parameters on the extent of the thermal tails that follow each peak in the mass-to-charge spectra and the measured composition that results. The results obtained from chromite-type spinel layers (Fe(FeCr)2O4) are then compared to the chromia data.

In a study carried out by Geurden et al a

In a study carried out by Geurden et al. (2014a), the authors showed the high efficacy of treatment of sheep flocks with oral formulations of MOX (99–100%) and IVM (98–100%) in France, Italy and Greece, with the exception of one Greek farm which showed MDR to all anthelmintics tested. In contrast, AR against ABZ was observed on 9/14 farms from Greece, including 3 flocks with SAR, and against LEV on 4/10 farms from Italy and on 5/10 farms from Greece, including in this last country 3 flocks with SAR; MDR was detected on 3 farms in Greece and on 2 farms in Italy. Similar to the present results, in all these countries Teladorsagia spp. was the most common nematode glycine receptors identified after treatment.
In cattle, herds were not selected based on a history indicating a high frequency of anthelmintic and surprisingly 6/10 of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MOX and IVM. For IVM, resistance was detected on 7/10 of the herds, including two farms with SAR; this level of resistance is similar to sheep farms. Trichostrongylus spp. was the most prevalent nematode species found after treatment although worldwide Cooperia spp. is considered the most prevalent resistant worm species in cattle (Kaplan and Vidyashankar, 2012). In the current study we did not show the glycine receptors presence of Cooperia spp. before or after treatment. In a previous studies in the northeast of Spain, Cooperia oncophora was not the most prevalent GIN in cattle, representing the 9.6–19.7% of species (Almería et al., 1996); on the other hand, the present study in herds was carried out mainly between autumn and winter, when mean maximum temperatures in the northwest of Spain are between 7.1 and 11.2°C, what does not favour the development of Cooperia spp. Demeler et al. (2009) reported a reduced efficacy of IVM mainly to C. oncophora on 62.5% (5/8) of farms in Germany, on 71.4% (5/7) in Belgium and on 80% (4/5) in Sweden. The levels of resistance are even more alarming in South America; Neves et al. (2014), for example, reported that IVM in Brazil was totally ineffective in all 10 herds evaluated and MOX in 9 of them, mainly due to Cooperia spp., followed by Haemonchus spp, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. In the Neves et al. (2014) study only 3 out of the 10 farms had previously used MOX indicating side-resistance due to selection pressure caused by the indiscriminate use of IVM. In the North Island of New Zealand an adequate reduction in FEC was demonstrated on 7% of beef cattle farms (4/61) only for IVM (Waghorn et al., 2006). The present study, as well as the above studies, indicates an increasing development of the resistance to MLs in the major cattle producing regions of the world.
In horses, there is a lack of consensus on study design, data analysis and data to evaluate AR based on a FEC reduction test (Torgerson et al., 2012; Vidyashankar et al., 2012). In the present study, susceptibility was defined as a reduction of FEC higher than 90% for BZ and PYR, and 95% for MLs. In addition, the lower 95% CI should be higher than 80% for BZ and PYR, and 90% for MLs (von Samson-Himmelstjerna et al., 2007; Kaplan and Nielsen, 2010; Relf et al., 2014). As previously indicated by Relf et al. (2014), these cut-offs reflect the original efficacy levels reported in anthelmintic-sensitive strongyle populations of the various active ingredients when they were first registered as veterinary medicines (Slocombe and Smart, 1975; Nawalinski and Theodorides, 1976; Xiao et al., 1994).
According to Kaplan and Vidyashankar (2012), AR to MLs in cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum is the biggest concern, but there are also unpublished anecdotal reports of suspected resistance to IVM in Oxyuris equi (pinworms) and Habronema/Draschia (spirurid nematodes) (Reinemeyer, 2012). Geurden et al. (2014b) examined the egg excretion after IVM or MOX treatment on 10–12 study sites each in Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands. The efficacy 14 days after treatment was very high in all three countries, except for two study sites to IVM, one in Italy with suspicion of AR (FEC reduction was 96%) and another in The Netherlands (FEC reduction was 92%). Traversa et al. (2009) also studied the AR to ML in 102 yards in other different European countries and found only IVM resistance in one Italian and 2 UK yards (3%); based on the day 14 FEC, resistance to MOX was not found in any country (Italy, UK and Germany). These reports are in accordance with the present study carried out in Spain since we showed efficacies of 100% for IVM; for MOX the efficacy was almost 100% in all herds, finding only 1 suspicion of resistance out of 11 herds. Therefore, MLs are still considered a good option to treat small strongyles in horses in Europe, although the reduced egg reappearance period on some of these farms (Geurden et al., 2014b) indicates that appropriate management is required to further prevent the development of AR.

Group contains the beads that show high K and Ca

Group 2 contains the beads that show high K and Ca intensities; therefore, the glass glycine receptors paste can be classified as potash-lime. The polymerization index of beads (e) and (f) are 0.87 and 1.05, respectively, indicating a firing temperature in the range 1000–1200°C [27]. Since the Ip of the bead (f) is higher, it is likely that its firing temperature also exceeds that of the bead (e); this difference in the firing temperature of the beads is supported by the presence of As detected at high intensities in bead (e) and only found at the trace level in bead (f) because according to the study by Garner [19,20], the As level is significantly decreased in firings above 1250°C. The difference in elemental characterization is also reflected in the Raman signature of the samples, shown in Fig. 3, with the highest intensity bands are located at 1169 and 470cm−1 (bead (e)) and 1110 and 557cm−1 (bead (f)). In addition to contributing to the gray color, as seen in beads (Figs. 1e and 1f), the detected As also has the function of opacifying the vitreous matrix. While the use of As in the vitreous matrix was developed in Italy (Venice) during the 16th century, its use was widespread in the 19th century which is also the period of importation of such beads into Brazil [18,21,22].
The bead (a) which has a base paste classified as lime due to the high intensity of Ca has Ip=1.52, corresponding to the firing range of the sample higher than 1200°C. The transition from the use of opacifying the base of Sn for As is evidenced by elemental analysis that reveals the presence of Sn and As; this transition occurred during the 16th century in Italy (Venice) [22]. This period of manufacturing of the bead (a) is supported by comparing the obtained Raman signature (Fig. 3) to those reported in the work of Ricciardi et al. [23] who obtained similar Raman spectra in the analysis of vitreous artifacts of black color, manufactured in Venice in the 16th century.
According to the binary diagram, the bead (i) has the K element as the main flux agent, with Ip=2.83. These results indicate that the bead has a hard base paste and a high melting point. [14]. Ca detected at trace level in the sample is the mainly responsible for the sample\’s white color because such coloration arises from the addition of the opacifying calcium fluoride (CaF2) in the glass\’s matrix. This dye and a similar Raman signature were found in the work of Kirmizi et glycine receptors al., [24] in the analysis of a Chinese white vitreous artifact from the 15th century.

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Introduction
Partition coefficients are important properties for environmentally relevant compounds, and strongly influence their fate and distribution between the available compartments of the environment, such as soil, water, and air. Partition coefficients of hydrophobic organic compounds are also important physicochemical data used as indicators and/or predictors of bioaccumulation of a wide variety of species, and are therefore often used as the most important physicochemical parameters in environmental risk assessment, fate and transport models, and in the study of the potential environmental impact of many compounds. The most widely used and reported partition coefficient is for the octanol–water system (Kow), although the literature reports concerns about the quality of these fundamental physicochemical data by questioning them with the consequences of undermining many environmental models and assessments [1,2].
Given the demand for trace analysis of pollutants from environmental samples, which are typically very complex, a highly sensitive and selective analytical approach is of great demand [3]. The capability of both detecting molecules in trace amounts and giving structural information about intricate materials such as soil’s humic substances and plant tissues including their interaction with organic pollutants, and the possibility to detect and quantitatively analyze important herbicides [4] for example, makes SERS a suitable and interesting technique for environmental analysis and monitoring [5,6].

To provide a more descriptive discussion about

To provide a more descriptive discussion about the transfer across different adapter-test distances and its relation to retinotopically mapped visual areas we can compare our data to population receptive field size estimates from human fMRI data. It is important to note that receptive field size in these studies is expressed as the sigma of the Gaussian describing the receptive field. Calculating the full-width-half-max for these Gaussians increases it’;s size by a factor of ~2.35. For early visual areas such as V1-3, estimated population receptive field size at an eccentricity of 8° ranges from 2° to 4° (Amano et al., 2009, Harvey and Dumoulin, 2011 and Zuiderbaan et al., 2012). As such it is very unlikely that glycine receptors in these areas underlie the duration after-effect reported here. For later visual areas such as V4, lateral occipital cortex (LO), and middle temporal visual areas (MT/MST), these estimates are glycine receptors much larger (6-14°) (Amano et al., 2009, Harvey and Dumoulin, 2011 and Winawer et al., 2010). This relatively large size (FWHM: ~14.1-32.9°) makes it more difficult to exclude these areas based on the distances measured here. When looking at visual field maps and their responsiveness across hemifields, a similar but complementary image emerges. For early visual areas (V1-4) response are strongly restricted to information in the contralateral visual field, extending no more than 3-4° into the ipsilateral field (Amano et al., 2009 and Winawer et al., 2010). This corroborates our earlier statement about V1-3 and includes V4 as an unlikely candidate based on our between hemifield data. For later visual areas receptive fields extend into the ipsilateral visual field to a large extent (Amano et al., 2009). However, response to ipsilateral stimulation for areas such as V5 is often weaker compared to responses to contralateral stimulation due to the abundance of feed-forward input from lower-level neurons that only respond to stimulation in the contralateral field (Ffytche et al., 2000 and Huk et al., 2002). This property has been used to dissociate related areas such as MT and MST (Ffytche et al., 2000 and Huk et al., 2002). Based on these findings one might predict some decrease in the duration after-effect for between hemifield presentations for areas such as MT. Our current results did not show any significant decrease in the magnitude of the duration after-effect. However, one could argue that a numerical decrease is apparent for the non-zero conditions in our second experiment. As such, we should be careful in making strong claims about the involvement of areas that have large receptive fields, such as MT, based on the data and adapter-test distances used in our experiments. To further dissociate the involvement of higher visual areas with large receptive fields (MT, LO, TO) in the encoding of duration, it would be more appropriate to use other experimental methods that focus on specificity based on visual features that are relevant to these ‘middle/higher-level’; areas (i.e. motion direction selectivity for V5). For now, we conclude that areas V1-V4 are unlikely to play a role in duration selective processing as measured by the duration after-effect reported here. Instead the data suggests that duration selective processing occurs at later stages of the visual processing hierarchy in visual areas with relatively large receptive fields, or in areas that do not show any spatial sensitivity.