How can we reflect on the issues we face

How can we reflect on the issues we face today? For instance, who will take up the case of the bullet train and say whether it glutathione s-transferase is the right thing for India or not? What else could the possibility entail? We leave it to a politician to design a dream, but that dream is only a wish, there are no details in it. When the multinational groups are consulted, they say “Look at Germany: do the same in India.” Is that going to work? Can you imagine the self-driving Google car in Ahmedabad? I\’m not challenging India\’s ability to do it, but look at our chaotic traffic conditions: there is a long way to go. So, is X the way forward, or is there another way? When considering advanced technology, intermediate technology, and appropriate technologies (these terms have all been used since the 70s, 80s and 90s) where should we go? How should we grow forward? We also need to understand the ethical parameters; we also need to change a whole host of laws and attitudes in society. M.P. Ranjan: There are Design PhD programs at IIT Bombay, Guwahati, Srishti, NID, CEPT and Ambedkar University. IIT Hyderabad is starting a massive PhD program. Other art colleges have also started to offer PhD programs. Yet because there have been no design schools offering a PhD until recently, designers that wanted to enter academics in a formal way were compelled to enter any old program: anthropology, sociology, technology and other PhD programs. They were trained to put their questions in a way that would fit into those programs, but these were design-related people whose intention was to come back to design. I don\’t think that was such a productive method. They may be qualified with a PhD but they haven\’t furthered the design agenda.
Someone has to do serious research on this. Another big design program is NIFT (National Institute of Fashion Technology). I helped to set up their Accessory Design program from 1993 to 1995. They have become the biggest school in the country for design, by virtue of their numbers. NIFT is government-owned and government-controlled. The campuses are of varying quality, as it has expanded very fast; some of them are terrible, but some have good people who are trying very hard. However, the climate that surrounds them is not favorable for design, in terms of their policy frameworks, etc. For instance, obtaining materials, determining the kind of studio exposure required, or time required to learn a certain activity, all of these are open to question: how long should one assume it takes to learn drawing? How long would you invest in that one activity?M.P. Ranjan: Yes, I think making publications more accessible via web would be of much more service than print. But such publications should be authenticated and peer-reviewed so they have credibility. Cost is important as well. But if there is vision, even print publication can be made accessible. Every school in the country can get books, if the government decides to make it so. But locking things away in a library is not the answer. We need to make publications accessible and available to students. When I do my course, I try to put my students in touch with the thought leaders directly. I think that result is paying off. They might not be talking to the very best people in the world, but they are talking to some very credible people with some very compelling, personal, direct knowledge. But the only thing is, how to find such people?
We have been fighting in a space with very limited money. And we have had to be more inventive about getting ahead.M.P. Ranjan: Your map of design is a worthwhile task. To this end, there are many design summits on record, so you can find out the topics, and learn about the speakers and what they do. You might also consult the journalists who have been covering design. For instance, the Economic Times ran the Design Summit this year in Bombay. Similarly, Mint is a Bombay journal that has been writing about design. Finally, there have been some large individual promoters—large families and industrialists—who have started investing in design because their family members were trained in design. Many of the younger generation sees design as a way forward, and I think this is going to change business in our country. At Godrej [a large industrial house] for instance, each of the owner family members has a foot in design. One went to IIT Chicago and then came back to build design at Godrej, focusing on developing new products for the bottom of the pyramid market. They have been bringing in IITC professors as their consultants. Godrej is a multi-vertical company, so they can go anywhere in the planet and get people, but I\’m not aware of any design school in India that is connecting with them. Similarly, in the Fisher group [a large retail chain], the younger generation is all connected to design. So that is good news for design in the country. But it happens because there are pressures from the outside pushing these companies into design. An example is the new design thinking platform for Infosys, who have announced that they have trained 70,000 engineers in design thinking. Indian industry is under tremendous pressure to put design into their products, because global competition is heating up.M.P. Ranjan: He is an amazing chap. I think that what Don Norman is doing with The Design Lab is an amazing thing. He is trying to get into a technological university and look at design as a big question, a really big question—and then try to evolve a new strategy and methodology for design, design thinking and design education. For him to be able to validate his work and be rigorous is a big challenge. I first met Don in 1995 at Apple, with my student who had won an award from Apple. And at that time, I gifted him my bamboo book. He gave me a signed copy of The Psychology of Everyday Things. We\’ve met a few times since then and have been in conversation on the PhD Design list.M.P. Ranjan: Ah, I can\’t come. I\’m totally tied up. I\’m in the process of shifting house, so it means I am busy packing things and organizing my books. There are thousands of books lying at home, some of which we have to get rid of. We\’ve been on campus for 15 years now and this is the first time we are moving out after a long time. I call it moving from the frying pan into the fire! So that is tomorrow. I\’ve been at NID since 1969! That\’s a good 45 years, so there are a lot of stories to be told.

At this point both nodes

At this point, both nodes have a shared secret to perform encryption and integrity protection for further IKEv2 exchanges. They will be agreed each other on the following parameters of their IKE_SA:
During the Phase 2 of IKEv2 in Figure 6, the INITIATOR sends an IKE_AUTH request and the RESPONDER replies with an IKE_AUTH response.When Phase 2 is finished, both nodes agree on the following parameters of their CHILD SAs:
Figure 7 shows the steps to maintain the SAs between two end points. Each SA is identified by using Security Parameter Index (SPI), destination address and AH or ESP. The SPI identifies the SA in the IPSec header. During the packet transmission or reception each sensor glutathione s-transferase holds a SAD as in steps 4 and 10. SAD will be used to get the information about SPI, keys, algorithms, etc. as shown in step 3 and 9. The node looks up the corresponding security association and fetches the necessary keys to apply security to the IP packet. For the initial negotiation between peers IKE uses the SPD to define how the data should be protected shown in step 5. Then, IKE can process the negotiation in step 7 to request for new associations.

Proposed architecture
As shown in Figure 8, CKES distributes the IPSEC_CHANNEL for constraint nodes and IKE_CHANNEL for less constraint or unconstraint nodes. The nodes will form a cluster and this will be coordinated with the help of a Cluster Head (CH) and a Highly Trusted Node (HTN) which has been chosen by the CH. For this scenario, the following assumptions have been considered:

In this section, we present simulation results to evaluate the efficiency of the CKES compared with the basic IKEv2 implemented in (Kasraoui, Cabani, & Chafouk, 2014b). We carried out the simulations using NS2 simulator in which we have modified the energy model class to estimate the energy consumption of cryptography operations of each SN as well as the communication energy costs. This model presents a linear decrement in the computation of the residual energy.
The communication energy costs depend on the data rate and transmission (Tx) and reception (Rx) power consumption during the Tx and the Rx. Taking the example, mentioned in the Table 3, of the energy model of the MICAz platform. This sensor node is based on the 8-bit ATmega128L microcontroller and running at 7.37 MHz (Eady, 2005). The power consumption in the transit mode is equal to 65 mW. If it works with 250 kbps data rate, then the node consumes 0,26 μJ to transmit 1 bit by using equation (6).

Conclusions and future work
Finally, we aim to integrate our solution into the routing protocol already developed in Kasraoui, Cabani, & Mouzna (2013).


To deeply explain the experiment the subsequent

To deeply explain the experiment, the subsequent steps are schematized in Fig. 4.
Therefore, we focus on the two following most important points in this experiment:

Evaluation and discussion
Unlike the works proposed in the literature (Al-Yahya et al., 2016; Al Zamil and Al-Radaideh, 2014) to evaluate our approach, we conducted a glutathione s-transferase of RCA constructs to the corresponding ontological components. The target ontology was compared to a hand-crafted ontology, manually created by researchers in the ontology field within our laboratory.


Many social media platforms (e.g. such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) allow people, businesses and organizations to share their information and thoughts online. Understanding public sentiment and concerns expressed on these different platforms is a crucial issue for both policy makers, business leaders, and the public (Vargas et al., 2016; Imran et al., 2015; Verma et al., 2011). For example, Google currently tracks political issues, and diseases to help policy makers better prepare for what will happen next (Google, 2016). Sentiment analysis (SA) is an automated task of rapidly determining the sentiment of large amounts of text or speech (Pang et al., 2008). It’s worth mentioning that SA is deeper than hashtag counts that many social media platforms offer, as the earlier studies the meanings of post contents to come up with an overall mood instead of simply counting hashtags used by users.
Arabic is a major language, used (standard and its dialects) by around 422 million speakers (UNESCO, 2012). Still, while research on sentiment analysis has been done in other major languages (Agarwal et al., 2011; Schulz et al., 2013), little has been done in Arabic (Abdul-Mageed et al., 2014; Salem and Mourtada, 2012).

Related work
There is a large amount of work on using different techniques for sentiment analysis. The work in (Pang et al., 2008) is one of the early approaches that applied sentiment analysis on online movie reviews using machine learning. The results show that especially support vector machine and Naïve Bayes can be efficiently used to extract the sentiment from movie reviews when Papovaviruses compared their work to human analysis.
Other works, e.g. (Lai, 2010) brought sentiment analysis to the Twitter domain by applying similar machine learning techniques to classifying the sentiment of tweets.
The research in (Conover et al., 2011) showed that Twitter can be used as a platform for political deliberation. In addition, the work uses a database for sentiment lexicons and their results show that sentiment extraction can produce result similar to traditional election polls, which mean if they expand the lexicon the result will be more efficient.
Only few studies have been performed on Arabic social media. For example, the work of (Abdul-Mageed et al., 2014) has focused on movie and product reviews. The work of (Abbasi et al., 2008) uses a genetic algorithm for sentiment detection in both English and Arabic Web forums on the document level. They exploit both syntactic and stylistic features, but do not use morphological features. The work of (Shoukry and Rafea, 2012) studies the effect of preprocessing on sentiment analysis of Egyptian dialect tweets.

In this section we describe the details of our model for analyzing the sentiments of social media posts. In Fig. 1 we show the different components of our model. The first three steps shown in the figure are just to prepare the posts for classification. The majority of our contributions are in the following step, the “Classify” step which relies on the ASO. We therefore show the details of this step in Fig. 2. In the following, we will first introduce our work on the Arabic Sentiment Ontology, and then proceed to explain the steps we use to analyze posts.

Arabic Sentiment Ontology (ASO)
Below are two parts of our ontology. Fig. 3 shows words with positive sentiment, and Fig. 4 shows words with negative sentiment.

To our knowledge this study included the largest

To our knowledge, this study included the largest number of patients with segmental MCDK, with the longest median follow-up period, focusing on clinical outcome and natural course. However, our study has some limitations. Despite the longest follow-up, still the follow-up period is insufficient to analyze the characteristics of patients who do not undergo involution. This leaves remaining possibilities of surgical intervention. The retrospective design of the study has the possibility of selection bias, and the patients\’ age at first visit periods was variable. We did not have the results of prenatal ultrasonography for all patients, which could lead to inconsistency. In addition, although the follow-up period was longer than that of previous studies, it was still too short to analyze the development of high blood pressure. Moreover, in evaluation of renal function, we used serum creatinine level instead of glomerular glutathione s-transferase rate for cases in which height and weight were undocumented. Although Pottel and Martens reported a higher than 97.5% correlation between serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate, this is still a possible limitation of our study. On the basis of the results of this study, further prospective studies with longer follow-up, including regular assessment of blood pressure and renal function, will be helpful in establishing principles of management of segmental MCDK.


Pediatric urolithiasis is an important health problem that affects primarily children in developing countries. Some studies reported the extreme picture of the disease with preschool children presenting with obstructive calcular anuria and acute renal failure.
The recurrence rate is greater in children than in adults. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the least invasive treatment for pediatric renal stones. However, the retreatment rate and the auxiliary procedures rate are high. On the other hand, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) procedure can be performed safely and effectively to achieve a high stone-free rate (SFR) in a short treatment period and even in one sitting but with more complications. Most of these complications are related to adult-size tract and instruments.
Jackman et al described the mini-percutaneous nephrolithotripsy technique (Miniperc) in children. Since then, Miniperc has achieved success rates similar to standard PNL in pediatric patients with lower hemoglobin drop and lower blood transfusion rates.

Epispadias is a rare congenital anomaly of the urethra that generally occurs as an element of the classic bladder exstrophy phenotype. Even more rarely, epispadias can occur as an isolated defect, representing the least severe form of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) spectrum. Though modern reconstructive methods have resulted in significant improvements in functional and aesthetic outcomes of epispadias repair, bothersome complication rates persist. Urethrocutaneous fistulae (UCF), in particular, continue to be reported in a high percentage of patients undergoing epispadias surgery. Employing previously described modifications to the Cantwell-Ransley epispadias repair, our group has reported fistula rates of 13% (primary repair) and 25% (secondary repair). More recently, others have reported similarly higher fistula rates when utilizing the penile disassembly technique, ranging from 17% to 24%. While some smaller fistulae may heal without intervention, the majority require further surgery and may entail significant revision. Given the frequency and magnitude of this complication, we have sought methods to decrease its occurrence. Snow previously reported on the use of a testicular tunica vaginalis flap (TVF) for the prevention of UCF after hypospadias repair. The incorporation of a TVF at the time of hypospadias repair has since been shown to decrease the rate of UCF. Based on the reported benefits of a TVF in decreasing UCF rates during hypospadias repair, such flaps have been utilized for epispadias repair at our institution for the same purpose. Herein, we present our preliminary institutional experience of incorporating a TVF as an adjunct into either primary or secondary epispadias repair.

Whilst HPV is the most common cancer

Whilst HPV-16 is the most common cancer-causing HPV type, it is clear that not all HPV-16 isolates are identical. Indeed, HPV-16 has a number of variants, which tend to be associated with specific geographical locations (Ho et al., 1991). Functionally, these also seem to exhibit some differences in their respective oncogenic potentials, with some variants frequently being considered to have an increased cancer risk (Bernard et al., 2006). The explanations for these different potential cancer-causing activities are still largely ill-defined at the molecular level. In the case of E6 variants, the most well-studied is the L83V variant, which appears to exert subtle differences in its ability to alter cellular homeostasis, although the precise molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved are still subject to debate (Chakrabarti et al., 2004; Zehbe et al., 2009). Likewise, a number of E7 variants have also been described, and although some have been reported to exert modest differences in transforming activity in rodent cells (Fujinaga et al., 1994), the mechanisms underlying this remain obscure.
We have been interested in two HPV-16 E7 variants that were identified in clinical samples in Africa. The HPV-16 E7 N29S variant has been found in multiple HPV-16 variants, including those classified as European, African or Asian (Eschle et al., 1992; Vaeteewoottacharn et al., 2003), and there remains considerable controversy as to whether it plays a role in cancer development (Nindl et al., 1999), whilst the recently reported D21N variant was isolated in the Congo in an uncharacterized HPV-16 isolate (Boumba et al., 2015). Both of these variants have amino glutathione s-transferase alterations in a critical region of the E7 oncoprotein. The pRb binding site in E7 is located at amino acids 22–26 and is defined by the consensus sequence LxCxE (Münger et al., 1989), hence the variant sequence D21N lies immediately upstream of the pRb binding site, and might potentially impact upon its function. Likewise, the N29S amino acid change lies just upstream of the Casein Kinase II (CKII) phospho-acceptor site located at amino acids S31 and S32 (Firzlaff et al., 1989). Previous studies had indicated that the N29S variant of E7 had somewhat increased transforming potential in rodent cells (Fujinaga et al., 1994), although the molecular basis for this was not defined. In addition, although early studies had indicated that CKII phosphorylation of E7 played an important part in E7\’s transforming activity and the ability of E7 to interact with TATA Box Binding Protein (TBP) (Massimi et al., 1996), it appeared to have minimal effects on pRb interactions in vitro (Barbosa et al., 1990). However, more recent studies would suggest that the acidic domain, which comprises the CKII recognition site, downstream of the LxCxE motif, can also contribute towards pRb recognition (Dick and Dyson, 2002; Singh et al., 2005; Chemes et al., 2010), and an intact CKII phospho-acceptor site was required for efficient HPV-16 E7 induced degradation of both pRb and the related p130 pocket protein (Jones et al., 1997; Genovese et al., 2008). Therefore we have been interested in the biochemical characterization of these different HPV-16 E7 variant proteins. We present compelling evidence that these variants are functionally different, and this is reflected in direct alterations in their respective abilities to target different cellular substrates and contribute towards cell transformation.

Materials and methods


Whilst variants in E7 have been previously reported (Eschle et al., 1992; Vaeteewoottacharn et al., 2003; Boumba et al., 2015), there has been no extensive characterization of how they might affect the function of the E7 protein. In this study we have analysed two such variants, N29S and D21N. We find that the N29S substitution creates an additional CKII phospho-acceptor site, which in turn impacts upon the efficiency with which E7 can interact with TBP and pRb. Functionally, these alterations are reflected in increased transforming activity for the N29S substitution. These results suggest that further studies are required to ascertain whether variants of HPV-16 containing the N29S form of E7 are an increased risk factor for the development of cancer.

Several isolates very likely belonging to MLST type

Several isolates very likely belonging to MLST type ST45 could not be digested with SmaI. This phenomenon has been described for S. pseudintermedius ST45 (Chanchaithong et al., 2014). In contrast, other MRSP isolates were typed by SmaI (Perreten et al., 2010; Nienhoff et al., 2011a; Chanchaithong et al., 2014). Due to the high number of non-typeable MRSP isolates, all isolates were also digested with ApaI and showed different ApaI PFGE patterns. The obtained PFGE patterns represented ten main types with ten subtypes for the most common pattern A (n=18), eight subtypes for pattern B (n=12) and two subtypes for pattern C (n=2) (Table 1). This high diversity underlines the fact that MRSP from individual cases were investigated and has been seen before in MRSP isolates (Nienhoff et al., 2011a).
Among the 39 MRSP isolates six spa types (t02, t05, t09, t10, t23, t72), eleven dru types (dt8ak, dt10ao, dt10cp, dt10cq, dt11a, dt11bo, dt11cb, dt11cj, dt11v, dt11y, dt11z) and 27 PFGE types (designated A1-A10, B1-B8,) were identified. The spa types t02 (r01-r02-r03-r03-r03-r06-r05), t05 (r01-r02-r03-r03-r03-r03-r06-r05) and t23 (r01-r02-r03-r06-r05) are similar and can be summarized into r01-r02-r03-x-r06-r05 with x being zero to three copies of repeat r03. Whereas t09 (r01-r02-r12-r03-r03-r06-r05) differs solely in the exchange of r03 by r12 at third position and thereby by a single nucleotide exchange in position ten of the repeat sequence (5′-AAAGAAGAC(A/C)AAGCTGAAGATAAAGGCAGC-3′), the remaining two spa types t10 (r01-r09-r02-r02-r03-r13-r03-r06-r05) and the spa type identified for the first time in this study t72 (r01-r09-r02-r02-r03-r06-r05) differ from the others. However, they differ from each other only by two repeats (r13 and a second copy of r03) being present in t10, but absent in t72. Despite of several attempts, the amplification of the spaX region failed in twelve cases. This could be due to a glutathione s-transferase of this region, which has been described in ST45 isolates from Thailand (Perreten et al., 2013).
Eleven dru types were identified: dt8ak, dt10ao, dt10cp, dt10cq, dt11a, dt11v, dt11y, dt11z dt11bo, dt11cb and dt11cj (Table 1). Three dru types (dt8ak, dt10cp, dt10cq) were novel and identified for the first time in this study. The dru types dt11a (n=12) and dt11cj (n=8) were most common and five dru types (dt8ak, dt10ao, dt10cq, dt11z and dt11bo) were identified only in single isolates (Table 1). Whereas the dru types dt10cp and dt10cq differed only in one repeat from each other, all remaining nine dru types showed similar repeats. Among these, the dru types with ten or eleven repeats differed in one or two repeats from dt11a and thus can be assigned to a dru cluster 11a, which has been described recently in MRSP isolates (Kadlec et al., 2015). The only dru type with eight repeats, dt8ak, lacked three repeats in comparison to dt11a and differed in one repeat from dt11a. Two MRSP isolates were non-typeable by dru typing. In several attempts e.g. with a new chromosomal DNA extraction, the PCR remained negative. The lack of the dru region could be the reason for the non-typeability of these two isolates and has been already described in S. aureus isolates (Bartels et al., 2013; Nübel et al., 2010).
MLST was performed for one isolate of each main PFGE patterns A-J and revealed seven types ST45 (n=4), ST112, ST155, ST282 as well as three novel types ST432, ST433 (n=2) and ST434 (Table 1). MLST type ST45 was identified in the two most common PFGE patterns comprising 30 isolates. This is in accordance with the recent identification of ST45 isolates in Thailand (Chanchaithong et al., 2014). The identification of three novel MLST types among seven types in total underlines that other STs of MRSP isolates are present in Thailand and knowledge is limited at the moment.
Overall, only few isolates shared the same characteristics: spa type t10-dru type dt11a-PFGE type B2-resistance to nine classes of antimicrobial agents with six resistance genes (n=2), t02-dt11cj-A1-resistance to seven classes with six resistance genes (n=2) and t10-dt11cj-A6-resistance to seven classes with six resistance genes (n=3) (Table 1). The differences among the MRSP isolates from Thailand confirm that isolates from independent cases were investigated. Moreover, this result is in good accordance with other studies, in which several typing methods were used and in which differences in the results obtained with the one or the other method were seen (Perreten et al., 2010; Chanchaithong et al., 2014; Kjellman et al., 2015). This study also supports the necessity to use more than one typing method to gain insight into the relatedness of individual MRSP isolates (Kadlec et al., 2015).

br Acknowledgments The authors wish to acknowledge Professor

The authors wish to acknowledge Professor Wen-Chung Lee for his comments on statistics and the colleagues at the Taiwan Suicide Prevention Center for their administrative assistance and devoted help. We are also grateful for financial support provided by the Department of Health and Welfare, Executive Yuen, Taiwan (reference number: DOH 94-3084).

Bite force is an indicator of the functional state of the masticatory system, because it strongly influences masticatory performance and dietary selection. Determinants of the maximum bite force include age, gender, body size, craniofacial morphology, the number of functional tooth units, occlusion, and masseter muscle thickness. An impaired masticatory performance due to decreased bite force may result in unbalanced nutrition intake.
Childhood obesity has rapidly become a major public health problem in the United States, and the prevalence of being overweight in children across all ages, gender, racial groups, and geographic boundaries has increased significantly over the last 3 decades. The prevalence of obesity was 4.3% among adolescents aged 12–19 years from 1976 to 1980, which increased to 18.4% from 2009 to 2010 in the United States. Obese adolescents are more likely to become obese adults, and hence they have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Moreover, overweight and obese adolescents exhibit poorer performance in health-related physical glutathione s-transferase than normal-weight adolescents.
Although many known factors can affect bite force, as summarized above, there are also unknown biological, behavioral, and social contributing factors. A study which focused on older Japanese people revealed that being overweight was significantly associated with lower bite force, which indicated that bite force does not necessarily increase with body weight. Overweight and obese adolescents exhibit poorer performance in health-related physical fitness than normal-weight adolescents. Previous studies have found that physical fitness is significantly and positively correlated with bite force. Because obese adolescents might have lower bite force, it is very important to understand how obesity influences the maximum bite force in this population. Moreover, the role gender difference plays in the association between obesity and bite force is less studied.



Muscle forces can be influenced by many well-known factors such as age and gender, but there are still some factors (such as obesity) that are worthy of discussion. Obesity affects the muscle force through multiple mechanisms. The secretion profiles of adipokines and inflammatory markers as well as the degree of lipolysis increase in obesity, resulting in elevated levels of free fatty acids, which in turn are distributed into skeletal muscle. Obesity also changes various aspects of the function and structure of skeletal muscle, including metabolism, muscle fiber type, the numbers and function of mitochondria, and capillary density and recruitment, thereby inducing remodeling of skeletal muscle. We demonstrated that bite force decreased in obese boys. Similar to our study, Nikolaidis found that local muscular endurance is inversely correlated with body fat percentage among male soccer players aged 16–18 years.
In addition, muscle strength and mass may be affected by hormones such as androgens. Testosterone exerts direct anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, indicating that it can increase muscle size, strength, and power. Testosterone supplementation in older men with mobility limitations can improve muscle strength and physical function. In our study, the serum level of testosterone in the obese group was significantly lower than that in the underweight and normal groups in boys, which is consistent with the pattern of bite force. However, the serum level of testosterone, bite force, and hand strength were significantly higher in obese girls than in other female groups. It has been reported that obese women have higher total and free testosterone levels, a greater muscle strength, and an increased regional muscle mass compared with normal-weight women. The muscle size in women with polycystic ovary syndrome was also found to be positively correlated with higher serum testosterone levels and fat distribution in the upper body. Particularly, muscle force could be regulated by obesity via the impaction of androgen. The serum level of testosterone is strongly inversely correlated with BMI in men, but significantly positively correlated with BMI in women. These opposing trends were also observed in the present study. Obese men have low total testosterone, free testosterone, and sex-hormone-binding globulin levels. Obesity causes hypotestosteronemia by increasing aromatization and converting testosterone into estradiol in the adipose tissue in men, which reduces the serum level of testosterone. Because testosterone increases muscle mass and strength, the decreased serum level of testosterone in obese males will decrease their muscle power. By contrast, obesity in females decreases sex-hormone-binding globulin, which will increase free testosterone. In addition, obesity increases insulin resistance and stimulates the secretion of insulin, which in turn induces the ovary to secrete testosterone. Obesity affects muscle force through the regulation of testosterone, therefore, bite force could be influenced under the same mechanism.

xA A representative video of sequential chest radiographs

 A representative video of sequential chest radiographs obtained by chest dynamic radiography for the motion of the diaphragms (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”). A board-certified radiologist placed a point of interest (red point) on the highest point of each glutathione s-transferase on the radiograph at the resting end-expiratory position. These points were automatically traced by the template-matching technique throughout the respiratory phase. Based on locations of the points on sequential radiographs, the vertical excursions and the peak motion speeds glutathione s-transferase of the bilateral diaphragm were calculated (Fig 2c).Help with MP4 filesOptionsDownload video (1042 K)
Data S1.
 Multivariate analysis of associations between the excursions and participant demographics using age, gender, BMI, tidal volume, VC, FEV1, and smoking history as factors (Model 2).Help with DOCX filesOptionsDownload file (23 K)