br Experiment br Results and discussion br


Results and discussion

In this work, three different lateral force calibration methods for AFM were quantitatively compared with the aim to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed approaches. The results of the calibration from the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load pivot methods are in good agreement with each other within the experimental uncertainty. The uncertainties for the measurements of the two methods were comparable to each other at less than about 15%. The Flat-Wedge method is fast, and it entacapone outputs a reliable calibration factor. However, to improve the accuracy, it is preferred to conduct the scan under high normal forces, which may increase tip wear. In contrast, the Multi-Load Pivot method may be more time consuming, but it can be implemented as a non-contact method. In addition, the Multi-Load Pivot method is less susceptible to assumptions or corrections. It was also found that the lateral force sensitivities that were determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method were found to be generally smaller than those of the other two methods. The torsional mode correction may be partly responsible for such an underestimation of the lateral force sensitivity by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. By assuming that the torsional mode correction factor is 8/, which is the case for the ideal cantilever without an added mass, the lateral force sensitivity of the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is in good agreement with that from the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load pivot methods. A clear path to determine the torsional correction factor with accuracy, especially for the AFM cantilever with an integrated tip, may be needed to establish confidence in the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2058201).

The future of the semiconductor industry depends critically on the ability to map dopants rapidly at high spatial resolution, and with high sensitivity. New spectroscopic techniques are in considerable demand to cope with the advent of next generation semiconductor devices having ultra-shallow junctions. Hence, dopant profiling at a resolution of sub-10nm and detection sensitivity over a range of ~1016 to 1020 dopants cm−3 are important requisites.
Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it is possible to provide a rapid and contactless technique for the two-dimensional mapping of electrically active dopant profiles based on secondary electron (SE) doping contrast [1-5]. Under standard imaging conditions, the p-type regions appear bright and the n-type regions appear dark, therefore doping contrast can be used to determine the position of electrical p–n junctions. The doping contrast mechanism is due to the built-in electric field across a p–n junction, modified by the effects of surface band-bending and external patch fields as the SEs are scattered by the surface electric potentials [6]. Oatley et al. [7] first studied SE doping contrast from p–n junctions where it was shown that reverse biasing enhances contrast by changing the electric potentials of the semiconductor. Since then, recent developments in instrumentation have hitherto evolved the application of doping contrast to quantitative dopant profiling in the SEM at the required high spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy. A resolution up to 1nm is achievable [3], and sensitivity to dopant concentrations ranging from 1014 up to 1020dopantscm−3[1,8,9,10,3] can be obtained at a quantification accuracy of at least ±3% [8]. As SE doping contrast is able to characterise dopants with high sensitivity over the required range and resolution, it is highly viable compared to a number of alternative techniques having limited range and resolution, are time-consuming, costly or destructive, or provide only 1-D measurements (e.g. spreading resistance profiling, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, atom probe tomography or scanning capacitance microscopy).

entacapone br Conclusions Here we have described the Adiposcan device in

Here, we have described the Adiposcan device in detail. This device is adapted from the FibroScan specifically for adipose tissue. Accurate and repeatable measurements were obtained using tissue-mimicking phantoms. In vivo reproducibility was only fair because of the complex and heterogeneous structure of the scAT in obese subjects. Although the heterogeneous scAT structure impaired AdipoScan reproducibility, it did not seem to negatively affect its applicability, as AdipoScan measurements could be performed on all patients with a scAT thicker than 2 cm. Additional modifications are necessary to further improve its reproducibility. Other factors such as scAT anisotropy and visco-elastic properties might impair reproducibility, introduce some variability or even bias the results. These points were not taken into account in this first proof-of-concept study, but should be carefully investigated in future studies to properly define those factors that affect and impair scAT SWS.
The in vivo results suggest that scAT SWS evaluation before bariatric surgery can be useful in clinical practice. Subcutaneous AT SWS is associated with structural aspects of scAT (fibrosis) and a series of bioclinical variables (e.g., body composition) and is also related to cardiometabolic risk factors such glycemic and lipid status, liver dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, the AdipoScan could be useful prior to bariatric surgery to better stratify patient phenotypes. Our future objective is to perform a large prospective study to define phenotypes based on SWS and to evaluate the clinical relevance of this measure in predicting weight loss and metabolic outcomes after bariatric surgery.

This study was supported by grants from the National Research Agency (ANR, Adipofib), Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM DEQ20120323701), Clinical Research Contract (APHP, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris CRC FIBROTA to J.A.W. and K.C.) and Conventions Industrielles de Formation par la Recherche (CIFRE) 2012/1180 YL.

Stenosis of the aortic valve is a degenerative process and is one of the most common types of valvular entacapone disease in Western countries, with older age as an independent determinant, having a prevalence of 4.6% in persons >75 y (Manning 2013; Nkomo et al. 2006). Even though aortic valve stenosis is not considered a major health care problem, the economic costs related to aortic valve stenosis are growing as the general population in Western countries is aging and as a consequence entacapone of improved diagnostic methods and new treatment options (Badheka et al. 2015; Nkomo et al. 2006).
The common modality for evaluation of aortic valve stenosis is transthoracic echocardiography, which provides anatomic assessment of the heart and aorta; with the use of Doppler ultrasound (US), a non-invasive examination of aortic blood flow can be performed with, for example, measurements of aortic valve peak velocities, mean gradients, aortic valve area and aortic regurgitation (Manning 2013). Furthermore, flow complexity can be assessed by estimation of spectral broadening in spectral Doppler and power intensity in power Doppler and by evaluation of mosaic patterns using color Doppler (Cloutier et al. 1995; Hutchison et al. 1996; Stringer et al. 1989). However, conventional Doppler US has a major limitation in terms of angle dependency, as only the component of blood velocity directed along the axis of the emitted US beam is measured. This implies that assumption of flow direction is necessary in conventional Doppler for flow quantification and that the flow estimation is limited by the beam-to-flow angle, which should be kept below 70° (Evans et al. 1989).
The first efforts in solving the angle dependency of conventional Doppler systems were made several decades ago (Bonnefous 1988; Fox 1978; Newhouse et al. 1987; Trahey et al. 1987). Today, a commercial US system by BK Medical (Herlev, Denmark) is equipped with angle-independent vector velocity estimation for blood flow. The method is based on the vector velocity method transverse oscillation (TO) proposed by Jensen and Munk (1998); this method enables real-time and angle-independent blood flow estimation. TO has been tested in computer simulations and with flow phantoms (Udesen and Jensen 2006) and has been validated in vivo against magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) angiography (Hansen et al. 2009) and conventional spectral Doppler US (Pedersen et al. 2012). Finally, results on epicardiac intra-operative TO scans of a few patients have been published (Hansen et al. 2015b), as have two recent studies concerning velocity and volume flow quantification (Hansen et al. 2015a) and evaluation of systolic backflow and secondary helical flow (Hansen et al. 2016), in the same 25 patients. The group of patients with normal aortic valves included in this study is taken from the patient population of the two aforementioned articles (Hansen et al. 2015a, 2016).

br Discussion The genes encoding the rRNA are

The entacapone encoding the rRNA are very conserved but contain sufficient differences that allow for genetic characterisation of organisms (Urakawa et al., 1998). The rDNA locus of trypanosomes consists of 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S (Dlugosz and Wisniewski, 2006; Urakawa et al., 1998). In this study we sequenced a fragment AB (18S, ITS1 and part of the 5.8S region) and a fragment EF (part of 5.8S, ITS2, 28S-LS1 and SrRNA1) of the rDNA locus of four Ethiopian T. vivax isolates that grow in calves and of one Nigerian T. vivax strain (Y486) that easily grows in mice. For two more Ethiopian strains, only the fragment AB was successfully sequenced starting from DNA extracted from the blood of two bovines naturally infected with T. vivax.
Due to its multiple copy nature, the rDNA locus is a commonly used target for PCR-based molecular diagnosis of trypanosome infections at subgenus and species level (Desquesnes and Dávila, 2002; Lukes et al., 1997; Thumbi et al., 2008). However, in previous studies we encountered inconsistent results obtained with ITS1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP, though both tests are based on rDNA. Furthermore, we observed a lower analytical and diagnostic sensitivity of the 18S PCR-RFLP as compared to ITS1 PCR and TvPRAC PCR and entacapone we recommended the combination of TvPRAC PCR and ITS1 PCR for species specific diagnosis of T. vivax (Fikru et al., 2014). These inconsistencies can now be explained by the primer sequence mismatches in the 18S PCR-RFLP and by the high GC content of the T. vivax rDNA. It has been described that template DNA with high GC content has secondary structures that hinder denaturation and primer annealing thus frequently giving rise to very weak amplification of the target sequence and non-specific amplification of non-target sequences under standard PCR conditions (Sahdev et al., 2007; Strien et al., 2013). Weak amplification of DNA with high GC content is particularly problematic in the case of mixed infections which are quite common in tsetse-infested areas. Thus, in mixed infections of T. congolense or Trypanozoon with T. vivax, the latter species may remain undetected since the PCR will preferentially amplify T. congolense and Trypanozoon sequences. By adding Q-solution to the PCR reaction mixture, we could enhance the amplification of T. vivax rDNA and simultaneously reduce aspecific reactions that can be misinterpreted as T. vivax amplicons. This is however linked to a decreased sensitivity for other trypanosome species. For accurate molecular diagnosis of the three pathogenic African trypanosomes, the combination of ITS1 PCR and TvPRAC PCR (Fikru et al., 2014) or of ITS1 PCR with and without betaine looks the most appropriate.
Both the SSU and ITS2 analyses show for the first time that the so-called West African T. vivax genotype also occurs in Ethiopia. The occurrence of the West African genotype in East Africa has been suggested in previous studies. For example, we observed that within the partial sequences of the TvPRAC gene of five Ethiopian strains, three of them are almost identical to the sequence of the Nigerian Y486 strain (Fikru et al., 2014). Also based on TvPRAC sequences, Garcia et al. suggested a close relationship between two strains from Mozambique (East Africa) and the West African and South American genotypes (Garcia et al., 2014). In addition, isoenzyme analysis revealed that five Kenyan T. vivax strains were more heterogeneous and were divergent from three Ugandan T. vivax strains that, on their turn, were more related to the West African strain (Fasogbon et al., 1990). Moreover, based on DNA fingerprinting and 180bp satellite DNA repeat hybridisation, Dirie et al. (1993) reported about two groups of T. vivax, one group containing strains from Colombia, The Gambia, Nigeria and Uganda and another group containing Kenyan isolates (Dirie et al., 1993).
In the phylogenetic networks constructed with the 18S and 5.8S-ITS2 sequences, two similar T. vivax groups are present. One group consists of the Tanzanian, the Kenyan and four Ethiopian strains (group IV in Fig. 2 and group III in Fig. 3). Another group contains the Mozambican T. vivax-like strain isolated from wild antelope (group III in Fig. 2 and group II in Fig. 3). The other strains form two distinct groups in the 18S network (group I and II in Fig. 2) and only one in the 5.8S-ITS2 network (group I in Fig. 3) as was observed in other studies (Adams et al., 2010b; Auty et al., 2012). The discordant topology between the two networks is due to the MBOV/ET/2012/AAU-VMA/002 strain. In the 5.8S-ITS2 network alignment the MBOV/ET/2012/AAU-VMA/002 sequence contains three indels, with size varying from 4 to 30bp (Supplementary file S2), placing the strain in a separate split in group I. More samples or a concatenated network could help understand better the subgroups division of T. vivax strains.

Most consumable beverage in world is

Most consumable beverage in world is coffee. The major phenolic compound in coffee is chlorogenic entacapone which is an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid and makes it capable to absorb free oxygen radicals [60]. SAR study has not been performed on this compound yet.
Studies performed on grape seed extract states that it brings destruction in leukemic cells. Gallic acid is one of the cancer cells suppressing agent. A study performed on anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells presented entacapone the structural data on methyl gallate, propyl gallate, octyl gallate and few other polyphenol derivatives by theoretical (ab initio) approach. For improved cytotoxic action of compound major factors includes number of hydroxyl substituents on the ring and the side-chain length between aromatic ring and terminal carboxylate group (Table 1). The study concluded that a slight structural change in derivatives have lead to improved biological activity. For instance di- and trihydroxylated propyl esters produced distinct results than parent methyl and octyl analogs when tested on cell line. Due to effect of variation in length of the alkyl chain long alkyl chains demonstrated an enhancement in activity while short alkyl chain showed low antiproliferative activity. The study was emphasized on properties like size, degree of ring hydroxyl substitution and length of the alkyl chain. In addition, increase in chain length increased the lipophilicity of compound which is also considered as an important factor for drug designing [61–63].
Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) an anticancer agent from red grapes prevents cancer by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes and angiogenesis with modulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Anti-oxidation, alterations in cell cycle and apoptotic machinery simultaneously contribute in a process [64]. Compound with respect to the growth of PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells have improved activity for anti-progressive activity. SAR studies suggest the significant presence of two methyl-oxyl groups at position 3 and 5, N at 4′ position and NC double bond in the connecting chain as four analogs verified potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 0.01–0.04) in LNCaP cells [65]. Also N replaced by a C methoxy group decreases the activity while replacement of OH group to methoxy group increases the activity of compound. Cis-form showed higher cytotoxicity when compared among its methoxylated analogs. A study performed to confirm the nature of series of methoxylated analogs of resveratrol revealed that substitution of hydroxyl group with methoxy group in resveratrol produced potential results in anti-tumor studies. In addition the formed derivatives with substitution of group showed better potency in cis-form when compared to trans-isomers. In case of hydroxylated resveratrol in trans-conformation hydroxyl group at position 4- and 4′ act as backbone of compound for anti-tumor effect [66].