Near to half of the participants in this study

Near to half of the participants in this study indicated that they consider the pharmacist as a mere vendor/dispenser. Similarly in the study done in Saudi Arabia by Bawazir, about 56% of participants considered that the pharmacists are more concerned with business (Bawazir, 2010). However, most of the participants considered pharmacists as an integral part of health care system which is an encouraging finding. Similar results were found in the study by Al-Arifi in Saudi Arabia and Perepelkin J in Canada (Al Arifi, 2012; Perepelkin, 2011). This demonstrates that pharmacists in Oman like in many other countries enjoy recognition as a vital member of the health care team.
Majority of participants opined that pharmacists should provide extended services such as health screening; BP monitoring, and blood glucose monitoring. Peterson G in his study of public perceptions on the role of Australian pharmacists in cardiovascular diseases reported a similar finding (Peterson et al., 2010). Our study results demonstrate that the time has arrived for the pharmacists in Oman to consider positively to include these allied health care services with the changing potentials of practice and expectations of consumers.
A high number of participants (93.9%) agreed that a pharmacist should check the prescription for accuracy in terms of drug name, dose, any problem in taking the medication together, etc before dispensing the medication. In the UK or Sweden, pharmacists are perceived as having the ability to check doctors’ prescriptions (Tang and Sporrong, 2008). It is quite evident that EMD638683 are very clear about the primary responsibilities of pharmacists and they expect pharmacists to deliver the same in the optimal way. Almost all of them expected that the pharmacist should let them know how to use medication and warn of any side effects and how to prevent it, quite similar to the response of participants in the Saudi study (Al Arifi, 2012). Promotion of drug safety by appropriate information sharing is considered as a prime responsibility of pharmacists and consumers acknowledge the same.
In this age of information explosion and sharing, it is not surprising to note that vast majority of the participants opined that it would be ideal that pharmacists provide advice on general health issues in addition to drugs. In the study by Sharma et al. and Eades et al. as well customers found the pharmacy a convenient setting to provide public health services (Sharma et al., 2009; Eades et al., 2011). This demonstrates the changing health information seeking behavior of patients as they might find physicians or nurses ‘too occupied’ to discuss about general health issues. Similar concerns regarding privacy as reported in present study were reported in other studies and they considered having a private consultation area in the pharmacy as an integral component (Hajj et al., 2011; Eades et al., 2011; Wirth et al., 2011).
Majority of participants (72.1%) indicated satisfaction with the kind of response pharmacists provide on questions related to drugs. Nevertheless, only marginally above half of the participants indicated that they were satisfied with the level of knowledge that pharmacist demonstrated related to drugs, while a good number (32.1%) were not sure about it. Ambiguity in the participant’s outlook on pharmacist’s knowledge level could be probably because many did not have an opportunity to have a professional interaction at a higher level to draw conclusions on the same. Indeed, the situation is better than EMD638683 what is reported in Qatar where only 37% of the public agreed that Qatar’s pharmacists were knowledgeable enough and were always ready to answer questions (Hajj et al., 2011). There were participants who were not satisfied with the language used by the pharmacist in discussing drug related matters. This could be influenced by the fact that a good number of pharmacists working in Oman health sector, especially in the community pharmacy setting are expatriates and majority from non-Arabic speaking countries. This could definitely influence their fluency while interacting with patients and affect the patient’s level of satisfaction. In the study conducted in Qatar, communication in the native language was an important quality expected by 72% of participants (Hajj et al., 2011). It is reported that lack of time, high pharmacist workloads and restricted funding result in limited patient interaction impeding the formation of interpersonal trust (Gidman et al., 2012). The amount of time spent by pharmacists during interactions was of concern for a good number of participants in our study similar to other (Wirth et al., 2011).

br Methods br Statistical procedures Pearson s Correlation test

Methods

Statistical procedures
Pearson\’s Correlation test was used to assess whether there was a correlation between the degree of nicotine dependence (FTND) of the mother and the father and the child\’s postural, visual-motor, language, social, and overall development quotient.
The significance of nicotine dependence factor (FTND ≥ 7) of the mother and father on the composite of the variables child\’s postural, visual-motor, language, and social development quotient was evaluated by several Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs). The significance of the difference between the child\’s overall development quotient according to nicotine dependence of the mother and father (FTND ≥ 7) was evaluated by using the t-test for independent samples.
The chi-squared test was used to assess whether there was an association between child\’s overall developmental quotient (lower, normal, upper) and the nicotine dependence (FTND ≥ 7) of the mother and father.
Effect sizes of each of the analyses performed and interpreted based on the classification proposed by Maroco, Kinnear and Gray, and Cohen.

Discussion
This study was conducted to analyze the association between parental consumption of tobacco and child development. The results show that there was such an association, with parental daily consumption pattern, nicotine dependence, and the urgency of consumption after a nocturnal abstinence EMD638683 demonstrating association with language difficulties; there was an especially significant association between maternal nicotine dependence and language, visual-motor, and global development. These results are especially important because they show that the effect of parental nicotine dependence is harmful not only during pregnancy, as other studies had demonstrated but also after delivery. In fact, this study does not clarify the differential effect of prenatal or postnatal maternal nicotine dependence on child development. However, when considering the effect of paternal smoking dependence on child development, it can be assumed that this refers to the postnatal period, which draws attention to the vulnerability of the newborn to passive exposure to parental smoking. The mechanisms that explain the effect of tobacco consumption during pregnancy on the fetus have been well studied in recent years, and there is some evidence indicating that the consumption of nicotine and other tobacco components influence gestational duration, have toxic effects on fetal brain development during pregnancy, and are associated with fetal hypoxia, changes in the serotonin uptake, changes in the dopaminergic systems, and changes in DNA and RNA synthesis in the brain. Nicotine appears to target specific neurotransmitter receptors in the fetal brain, causing abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation, resulting in cell number deficits and changes in synaptic activity, impairing the fetal-placental development and metabolism with developmental implications for the newborn. As a consequence, there are significant changes in the brain physiology responsible for basic perceptual skills; loss of central nervous system cells in the postnatal period; reduction of the frontal lobe and cerebellar volumes responsible for attention, emotion, and impulse control; as well as a smaller head circumference in newborns. These physiological alterations may be responsible for developmental disorders found in these children, such as self-regulatory difficulties, increased excitability, decrease in cognitive functions, and learning and memory deficits. Overall developmental difficulties observed in this study, with emphasis on language and visual-motor skills, are consistent with previous studies that indicate an association between parental consumption of tobacco and child development disorders, especially psychomotor disorders. Regarding the effect of tobacco consumption by the parents, the effect is caused by exposure after birth, which indicates the newborn\’s specific vulnerability to exposure to toxins released by tobacco consumption. Because of the implications, parental smoking during the perinatal period is an important public health problem, and therefore intervention programs in perinatal health that target smoking cessation, not only for future mothers but also for future fathers, should be considered a priority to ensure a better quality of life for families.

br Study area characteristics River

Study area characteristics
River Nile is mainly consists of a single channel with a total length of 953.5km from downstream AHD to Delta Barrage. This channel is divided into four reaches segregated by four historical barrages. The fourth reach is the most downstream reach between Assiut and Delta Barrages with a total length of 408.75km as shown in Fig. 1. The study focuses on Shubra El-Khaima Island which can be classified as seasonal island. EMD638683 It is located upstream Delta Barrage in the back water curve region and extends from km 938.5 to km 939.50 downstream (DS) Aswan Dam, to the east from Waraq El-Hader Island (Permanent Island). The study area characteristics were defined by analyzing the hydrographic and Topographic recent maps as shown in Fig. 2. It shows that Waraq El-Hader Island is in the middle river along 9km divided the river into two channels. The west channel is called Khor El-Bahr El-Azam. It is shallow and narrow infested with aquatic weeds. These weeds cause deposition of bed and suspended sediment helping attach of this island with the western bank forming the new valley which may affect enhancing the river morphology in the near future. Therefore, it is recommended that these weeds must be removed to avoid this process. On the other hand, in the eastern channel Shubra El-Khaima Island is located from km 938.3 to km 939.30 downstream Aswan Dam. In this region, the sedimentation process is very complicated due to many of encroachments along the river banks affecting free river movement. Also, many of curves found along the study reach which increase the scour hole on the outer concave curve and deposition in the inner convex curve. Along the east side of the Shubra Island, the scour holes were monitored and the water depth reaches about 20m. Finally, during the maximum water requirements EMD638683 in summer this island is inundated so it is called submerged and seasonal island. Recently the east channel was dredged to ensure adequate depth for navigation. The dredged channel has a 100m width and 2.3m depth. The side slopes are 5:1.

Objective of the research
The main objectives of this research paper are as follows:

Primary investigation

The numerical model used (Gstars3.00)
The mathematical model (GSTARS 3.0) (US Bureau of Reclamation, 2002) [7] was used in this research. This model is based on GSTARS version 2.1 (Yang and Simões, 2000) [8] which developed by the US Bureau of Reclamation [9] and enhanced by Yang [10]. GSTAR3 is different from many of the 1-D alluvial river modeling computer programs, such as HEC-6 [11,12] which was developed and modified by US Army Corps of engineering of USA [13]. This version is called HEC RAS 4.1 and the edition of March 2008 and has the capability of performing both hydraulic and sediment transport calculations under windows. However, GSTAR3 is different because it is able to simulate the flow conditions in a semi-two-dimensional manner and the change of channel geometry in a semi-three-dimensional manner. This task is performed using stream tubes within an essentially 1-D backwater model. Stream tubes locations are computed for each time step and may change with time steps. Sediment routing, bed sorting and armoring computations are carried for each stream tube apart. The exchange of sediment materials between stream tubes is allowed by the lateral variation of the stream tube boundaries from time step to another. Fig. 12 illustrates schematic for the use of stream tubes. The advantage of this approach is to reduce the intensive data and computational requirements of the more sophisticated truly 2-D and 3-D models. In addition, it can handle irregular cross sections regardless of whether single channel or multiple channels separated by small islands or sand bars. Hydraulic parameters and sediment routing are computed for each stream tube, thereby providing a transverse variation in the cross section in a semi-two-dimensional manner. Backwater computations are carried out using the standard step method based on the conjunctive use of the energy and momentum equations. The model is also able to deal with subcritical or supercritical flow regimes or both simultaneously. Sediment routing and bed sorting and armoring computations are performed independently for each stream tube. The model has 13 transport functions for particle sizes ranging from clay to silt, sand and gravel including non-equilibrium transport and flows with high concentration of wash load as a Refs. [14–17]. The model is able to predict variations in channel width according to the theory of total stream tube power minimization. The d50 for about 44 cross sections (the plotted value is the average of three samples collected from east, west and middle parts of the cross sections) collected in years 1977, 1991 and 2008 by Nile Research Institute [18] is shown in Fig. 13.

br Conclusions Breast imaging and breast cancer

Conclusions
Breast imaging and breast cancer screening remain important areas within the field of radiology. With resolutions now as low 200μm, automated volumetric scanning, and refined nonlinear processing approaches, commercially available ultrasound systems have demonstrated significant clinical benefit for characterizing breast masses or for breast cancer screening in the absence of mammography. Emerging technological developments such as elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound are expected to further expand this EMD638683 role. No other imaging modality currently combines the lack of ionizing radiation, portability, temporal resolution, and cost-saving advantages that ultrasound offers. These attributes are expected to enable ultrasound to continue to expand as a clinical tool for breast imaging.

Introduction
Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the most important and effective nondestructive methods for structural health monitoring. Acoustic waves can be emitted by the impact of external objects, crack formation, structural failure or even pipeline leakage [1,2]. All of these events result in the propagation of elastic waves which can be recorded by various sensors. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find the location of events by analyzing the data. All of these methods can be classified according to whether the material property of the medium such as its velocity profile is known or not [1]. A comprehensive review of the latest methods is given by Kundu [1]. These methods are briefly reviewed here. The most popular acoustic emission localization (AEL) technique is called Triangulation [3,4]. Many source localization studies are based on optimization of an error function (Kundu et al. [5,6], Hajzargerbashi et al. [7] and Koabaz et al. [8]). These error functions tend to decrease computational complexity while increasing the number of sensors. Recently, researchers have extended the technique which does not need material properties and can be applied to anisotropic plates (Kundu et al. [9–11]). Moreover, Niri et al. [12–16] provided a probabilistic framework based on nonlinear Kalman Filtering methods to estimate the location of AE sources in isotropic and anisotropic plates whether or not the velocity profile is known. However, AEL without knowing the velocity profile in an anisotropic medium is one of the most challenging areas in this field.
The accuracy of the previous methods is based on calculating Time Differences of Arrival (TDOA) for signals from different sensors. Because of the high sound velocity in structures, any small error in the TODA calculation causes the acoustic source location prediction to be far from real. In practice, improving the TDOA estimation is based on increasing the sampling rate. There are considerable limitations on earlier analyses such as (1) Variation of some sensors from 3 to 6 depending on whether the plate is isotropic or anisotropic. (2) All present techniques are developed only for single acoustic source excitations [17]. (3) Severe contamination of background noise and the required high sound impact levels. (4) High sampling data acquisition requirements (Combination of (1) and (4) causes heavy computations and experimental complexities). Also, there are some obstacles on the way of extending AEL methods to industry, such as system size, cost and energy consumptions [18]. However, the acoustic source localization in plates with a low sampling rate, remains a challenging task which still needs to be solved.
The novelties presented in this paper include: (1) discussing how to calculate the TDOA when using low sampling rates; (2) presenting a method to classify the selection of LkTD when dealing with frequency properties; and (3) carrying out experiments to verify the proposed new method. The paper highlights the following four new considerations:
This paper discusses the problem and the required algorithms in Section 2. It presents the experimental set-up in Section 3 and finally the results, discussion and conclusion are mentioned in Section 4.

Discussion We have developed an

4. Discussion
We have developed an identity test based on whole EMD638683 sequencing of inactivated poliovirus vaccines. The sequence-independent amplification approach employed here has the advantage of not requiring prior knowledge of the vaccine composition, does not require modification for different vaccine components and should not suffer bias or amplification failure due to sequence differences in primer binding regions. The method is more technically demanding than serological testing in its current format and will require further development and validation to surpass serological testing as the gold standard method for identity testing. Nevertheless, the considerable gain in the amount of information obtained, and likely reductions in assay time and complexity due to further advances in library preparation and sequencing technology suggest the method has potential to become a routine part of the quality control process for IPV.
Preliminary experiments using vRNA extraction columns and random RT-PCR revealed low and inconsistent coverage of inactivated samples. Formaldehyde treatment is known to reduce cDNA yields from inactivated poliovirus vaccines [8] and we reasoned that cross-linking of RNA to protein may prevent RNA from binding to the spin column. Differences between products may reflect varying degrees of RNA modification due to different particle:formaldehyde ratios during inactivation (JM and others, unpublished observations). The greater proportion of reads mapped when proteinase K digestion was used suggested that this method is preferable for recovery of RNA from inactivated poliovirus samples. Genome coverage of inactivated samples was uneven with no improvement with proteinase K digestion. Areas of high and low coverage may result from secondary structure and/or local RNA-protein interactions affecting the sensitivity of the RNA to formaldehyde treatment.
Expected poliovirus genome sequences were readily recovered from inactivated trivalent vaccines. Reads mapping to unexpected poliovirus genomes were typically located in regions of high similarity between wild-type and Sabin strains, and were readily apparent due to low and uneven genome coverage and the presence of large numbers of SNPs. A trivalent Sabin IPV previously found to be contaminated with live Sabin 1 and inactivated MEF-1 and Saukett was tested and both MEF-1 and Saukett were readily detectable. The expected Sabin 3 was present in only 0.1262% of reads reflecting the fact that the contaminating Saukett was present in greater abundance than the Sabin strain (JM, unpublished data).
Unambiguous mapping of reads to either Sabin 1 or Mahoney was challenging due to the high similarity between the two strains. By analysis of VP1 consensus sequences, the correct strain could be readily identified. This approach would not necessarily detect low level contamination of the serotype 1 component of the vaccine; however such contamination could be detected by variant calling within the mapped read set.