One of the other cytokines involved in

One of the other cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of Candidiasis is the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NO is primarily produced in the lungs by the epithelial cells in the airways, endothelial cells of vessels and neurons (Dweik, 2001). Once produced, it freely diffuses and enters target cells where it activates guanylate cyclase to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which promotes smooth muscle relaxation (Ozkan and Dweik, 2001). NO plays a central role in regulating airway blood flow in lungs. The role of altered NO homeostasis in calcium sensing receptor has been extensively studied. NO strongly promotes chemotaxis of inflammatory cells in the lung. In asthmatics, NO production is greatly enhanced due to the induction of iNOS by pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to elevated levels of exhaled NO (Pendharkar and Mehta, 2008). In Candidiasis, the production of NO is greatly increased due to the induction of iNOS by pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to elevated levels of exhaled NO (Karaman et al., 2011). NO is an antimicrobial factor generated by NO synthase in activated macrophage and plays a role in the killing of bacteria, protozoa and fungi (Alspaugh and Granger, 1991; Chan et al., 1992). In our study, we could investigate the increased lung NO levels in the infected neutropenic mice and the recovery effect of CE and their combination with AMB by decreasing NO levels. It may be hypothesized that alterations of the NO levels may lie behind the antiasthmatic effect of chitosan (Chung et al., 2012).
In conclusion, CE has a significant anticandidal activity in vitro and in vivo. The combination of both CE+AMB can be used to dampen the toxic effect of AMB. Such combinations were expected to be synergistic because amphotericin B facilitated the entry of CE into the fungal cell as manifested by the results of both the in vitro and in vivo.

Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) play an important role in all major metabolic pathways. They regulate the basal energy expenditure through their effect on protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. This might be a direct effect or an indirect effect by modification of other regulatory hormones such as insulin or catecholamines (Kim, 2008). Many studies reported that thyroid hormones stimulate cholesterol synthesis by inducing 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase in the liver (Cachefo et al., 2001; Beylot, 2001). In addition thyroid hormones influence all aspects of lipid metabolism including synthesis, mobilization, and degradation. Furthermore, thyroid hormones affect lipoprotein lipase activity and thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides into very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons into fatty acids and glycerol (Cachefo et al., 2001). Finally, thyroid hormones modulate lipid metabolism by upregulation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, which results in enhanced catabolism of the LDL particles.
In hypothyroidism, lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue has been found normal or decreased, in addition to decreased hepatic lipase activity resulting in normal or high levels of triglycerides (Abrams et al., 1981). In hyperthyroidism, although lipoprotein lipase activity is usually normal (Tan et al., 1998), an increased liver fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are observed due to enhanced acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase Ia expression leading to increased VLDL biosynthesis (Liu and Brent, 2010). Moreover, hyperthyroidism is characterized by reduced serum TSH levels despite increased free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels.
Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic abnormality in patients with thyroid disease, either in the overt or subclinical forms of the disease, and constitutes the end result of the effect of thyroid hormones in all aspects of lipid metabolism leading to various quantitative and/or qualitative changes of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and other lipoproteins. Dyslipidemia also occurs due to the coexisting metabolic abnormalities in thyroid disease including oxidative stress and insulin resistance, which induce further or aggravate the existing dyslipidemia, via a vice–vicious cycle (Santi et al., 2010; Tagami et al., 2010).

calcium sensing receptor The volume of the respiratory chambers and tubing

The volume of the respiratory chambers and tubing was reduced to the minimum in order to achieve a gradual reduction in oxygen concentration during the measurement phase. Fish individuals collected during 2009 were weighing between 7.57 and 70.9g., with total length between 74 and 165mm. The fish individuals collected during 2013 were slightly larger with weight range (36.5–97.6g) and total length of 13.5–180mm. Fish gender was determined by dissection at the end of each experiment.

The majority of fish individual were females (71%). Length–weight relationship for the pooled data of both 2009 and 2013 (n=24) is presented in Fig. 2. The linear regression line by which body weight predicted from length and vis-versa showed that the correlation as calcium sensing receptor was R2=0.77.
A typical oxygen concentration (mgl−1) recorded over a time period during both flushing and closed phases for a female S. hasta weighing 70.5g is presented in Fig. 3. Oxygen consumption rate MO2 () vs., time is presented in Fig. 4. Data (457 points) during the closed period were extracted from the total recording time obtained for fish weighing 70.5g during normoxia. The lower values for the MO2 recorded during the quiescent phases, whereas, higher levels are seen at spontaneous activity.
In addition, a reduction in oxygen concentration during hypoxic condition and the corresponding calculated MO2 (Fig. 5). The results revealed that once the oxygen concentration declined, a progressive reduction in the MO2 was obtained. Following to these results, S. hasta is considered as regulatory conformer.
Although some temporal variation can be observed between fish individuals considering the average basic (routine) metabolic rate (t-test, p<0.05), no sexual difference between male and female was significantly defined (p>0.05). Therefore, data of combined sexes were analysed.
The level of metabolic rate remained high for few hours following handling before stabilisation. The average value of MO2 of 17 fish individuals for both males and females (body weight of 37–98g) is presented in Table 1. The differences between maximum and minimum values of MO2 are also included.
At extreme hypoxic levels, the mortality attained was 100%. Table 2 presents the average values of the calcium sensing receptor sub-lethal points of oxygen concentration levels. Similar values were obtained for the sub-lethal points of first exposure, second time and after fully recovered for each individual. Statistically, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between repeated measurements of the sub-lethal points. Almost all individuals behaved similarly and at an oxygen concentration range of 0.9–1.5mgO2L−1, the fish undergoes a state of extreme stressful condition and enters a state of comma following a series of coughs. Survival at this stage was found to be noticeably limited. The fish has been observed turning upside down and sinking to the bottom of the chamber or moving vigorously. Further abnormal behavioural sign observed was represented by spreading out dorsal fin.
An indication of stress response behaviour was observed on elevated gill ventilation rate at the onset of an extreme hypoxic stress (Fig. 6), which was followed by a sharp decline. Recovery from the stress was observed as an overshooting in the frequency of ventilation before leveling off.

S. hasta from Mariculture centre is protandrous hermaphrodite. It is well known that as sparid species have the ability to change sex at the onset of maturity and mature as males (Lone et al., 2001) followed by sex change to females. The spawning season takes place from January to March (Yousif et al., 2003). The combining of the data of all individuals was therefore justified.
As first reaction of fish against handling and experimental conditions, the fish shows different signs of stress behaviour such as escaping but eventually quiescent behaviour follows after 1–2h. This is indicated by both elevations in the oxygen consumption and ventilation rates.

Diets higher in snacks and meat with oil and rice

Diets higher in snacks and meat with oil and rice were associated with advanced pubertal stage in boys but not in girls. Adolescents from wealthier households in urban districts had earlier pubertal attainment indicated by menarche or voice change.
: Wellcome Trust.

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of standard vs protein and calcium sensing receptor fortified Meals-on-Wheels (MOW) meals on nutritional and functional status, quality of life and hospital admissions (both number and length of stay/LOS) of community-dwelling nutritionally-at risk elderly.
Forty-one nutritionally at-risk elderly were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group 1 – energy and protein fortified meals on ≥ 3 days/week + dietetics counselling; Group 2 – standard meals on ≥ 3 days/week + dietetics counselling; and, Group 3 – 1 session of dietetics counselling only. Measurements of outcomes were conducted at baseline and 12 weeks.
Twenty-nine participants aged 83 ± 5.8 years completed the entire 12-weeks study (Group 1: = 12, Group 2: = 7, Group 3: = 10). Although not statistically significant, MNA score was increased by 4 points in Group 1 compared to 2.8 points for Group 2 and 2.4 points for Group 3. Furthermore, LOS in Group 1 and 2 was reduced by -5.4 ± 2.8 days and -5 ± 3.2 days, whereas LOS for Group 3 was not reduced. However, weight gain for Group 3 was comparable to Group 1 and 2 (mean ± SEM: Group 1, 0.67 ± 1.23 kg and Group 2, 1.56 ± 0.75 kg Group 3: 0.58 ± 0.79 kg, respectively) and improvement in all other outcomes were also comparable for the three groups.
For the community-dwelling nutritionally at risk elderly, the provision of protein and energy fortified, compared with the standard, MOW meals, resulted in comparable improvements in nutritional and functional status, quality of life, and hospital admissions (including LOS).
Meals on Wheels (SA) Inc.

Previous studies have shown that whey protein (WP) can improve outcomes related to risk of chronic diseases and benefit older adults by reducing age-related sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary intakes, meal patterns and satiety in older adults participating in a larger trial on the effects of resistance training and WP supplementation on health and physical function.
A 30 g WP beverage was consumed on three training days per week over 11-weeks by 36 older adults (mean ± SD; BMI 26.2 ± 3.6 kg/m; age 71.6 ± 5.1 yr). Subjects completed a 3-day weighed food record at baseline and 11-weeks to examine nutrient intake and food groups. Meal patterns were measured using 2-day meal event sheets and satiety was assessed using visual analogue scales at weeks 1–3, 6–8 and 11.
At week 11 compared to baseline, consumption of fruit ( = 0.019) and discretionary foods ( = 0.027) decreased; meat and meat alternatives increased ( < 0.0001); sodium intake increased ( = 0.022), and protein, percentage energy (%En) derived from protein, and %En from saturated fat increased (all < 0.0001). Meal events increased at week 11 in comparison to week 1–3 ( = 0.009) and 6–8 ( = 0.001). At week 11 participants felt hungrier ( = 0.033) and fullness increased ( = 0.022). The benefits of WP supplementation included increased dietary protein and a reduction in discretionary foods, however, increased sodium and saturated fat intakes were of concern. Further research is required examining longer term effects of WP on nutritional status in older individuals. : N/A.
Australia has an ageing population, with majority of older adults living within the community. Enabling positive health outcomes for this group through supporting healthy lifestyle behaviours such as appropriate food choice is critical. However, current evidence around increasing rates of malnutrition in community-living older Australians suggests food intakes are not meeting needs. The aim of this study was to explore adults (> 70 years) food preferences, and current and perceived future nutritional needs.

calcium sensing receptor We examined a novel method of teaching

We examined a novel method of teaching DRE during urologic rotation. Supervised DRE with real-time feedback in a transrectal sonography room appears to be an alternative method for teaching DRE. Real-time feedback and direct supervision and guidance from the teachers are clearly the best methods for teaching genitourinary skills. During supervised patient examinations, students are provided an opportunity to ask questions and explore areas of skills training to better understand the appropriate procedures and possible clinical findings. Practicing supervised patient-interaction skills is the most helpful teaching method with regard to DREs. DRE is considered one of the core curriculums and essential skills in urology for trained medical doctors. The urologic department plays an important role in teaching DREs to undergraduate medical students. Furthermore, information gained by experience prior to the urologic rotation in DRE is also quite important for medical students. It provides a solid foundation and highlights what the student has not learned before their urologic rotation and what should be taught and further studied during their urologic rotation. From our questionnaire, it calcium sensing receptor was understood that a limited number of medical students experienced supervised patient examinations prior to the urologic rotation. Less confidence was noted in the description of prostate consistency, measurement of prostate size, and distinguishing clinically overt prostate cancer from BPH. During our urologic rotation, our supervised DREs with real-time feedback in the transrectal sonography room provided an ideal model of teaching and learning DRE. A patient with an abnormality would be the ideal candidate for supervised patient examination. Sufficient cases with a variety of clinical conditions (positive findings of previous DRE, urologic symptoms, or abnormal PSA) were referred for transrectal sonography of the prostate and these patients were suitable for intensive learning and teaching of DRE. Prior to performing the transrectal sonography, the examining urologist should repeat the DRE. Obtaining consent from patients by accompanying a supervisor wound decrease the embarrassment and the probabilities of refusal by patient. It would also increase student comfort levels and minimize patient discomfort. Real-time feedback was provided by supervisors and then the transrectal sonography images were obtained. The supervisor checks the accuracy of the student\’s findings and would also comment on the student\’s communication skills. An ideal learning environment for DREs such as a transrectal sonography room is seldom found today. The transrectal sonography room is the ideal place for one-to-one teaching and minimizes patient and student embarrassment. Mean knowledge and confidence score of performing DRE increased significantly after supervised DRE with real-time feedback in the transrectal sonography room. Turner and Brewster proposed Helper virus six supervised examinations should be viewed as an absolute minimum requirement for medical students. Our students received an average of 6.6 supervised DREs. It is clear that students who performed more supervised DREs and encountered more varieties of clinical prostate conditions were significantly more confident and accurate with regard to diagnosing a prostate condition and will produce young doctors who are more willing to perform DREs. Our alternative method to calcium sensing receptor teaching DREs would keep the course interesting, reproducible, and most importantly provide hands-on experience to students, thereby exposing them to a number of willing patients presenting with a variety of clinical conditions. The student performs the DRE on these patients under a clinician\’s supervision. Furthermore, DRE is a skill rarely examined in final examinations, perhaps encouraging neglect by students. Our DOPS examination may encourage students and provide them with the motivation to learn DRE. The DOPS examination can check the accuracy of student\’s findings with regard to DRE and give medical students needed qualifications.

Cross sectional imaging eliminates organ superimposition improving visibility and

Cross-sectional imaging eliminates organ superimposition, improving visibility and differentiation of soft tissue and bone structures, provides detailed anatomical location and soft tissue characterization, and allows assessment of local and regional extension and infiltration of lesions (Dennis, 2000). The advantages of CT and MRI in characterisation, diagnosis and assessment of extension of SG lesions, aiding pre-operative planning, have been reported (Pownder et al., 2006; Bartoe et al., 2007; McGill et al., 2009; Atkins et al., 2010; Cannon et al., 2011; Philp et al., 2012; Boland et al., 2013; Goldsworthy et al., 2013).

Materials and methods


Only one type of variation was found in both groups. Bilateral or left-sided unilateral changes appeared more common. Atypical mandibular SGs were always positioned medial to the digastric muscle. Atypical zygomatic SGs were always tilted at the ventrorostral aspect of the masseter muscle, underneath the skin surface. As previously described (Kneissl et al., 2011; Weidner et al., 2012), the salivary ducts were not visualised and the sublingual SGs were difficult to delineate from the mandibular glands.
Cervical, sublingual, pharyngeal or retrobulbar swellings are common physical findings in SG diseases, however determining the origin may be challenging clinically. Awareness of possible anatomical variations may help for differential diagnosis and pre-surgical planning. Effectively, definitive treatment of sialoceles requires complete resection of the affected SG and duct. Surgical treatment may also be required in cases of SG abscessation, necrosis or neoplasia (Boland et al., 2013). Surgical approach is likely to be modified in case of SG variation. As sublingual and mandibular glands share a common calcium sensing receptor and incomplete resection of the sublingual gland has been described as a cause of recurrent sialocele, both need to be excised as a single unit (Bellenger and Simpson, 1992; Ritter et al., 2006; Benjamino et al., 2012; Marsh and Adin, 2013; Tsioli et al., 2013).
Atypical mandibular glands were positioned more deeply than expected and may not be visualised immediately by the conventional lateral approach. In a study comparing the extent of rostral mandibular/sublingual gland complex excision achieved with and without tunnelling the complex underneath the digastric muscle by lateral approach (Marsh and Adin, 2013), one dog showed an apparent absence of the left mandibular/sublingual gland complex. Whether the gland complex was truly absent or not seen by the lateral approach due to deep location to the digastric muscle cannot be verified. Care must be taken to avoid damage to adjacent external carotid and lingual arteries, vagosympathetic trunk, hypoglossal and lingual nerves if the mandibular gland is located deeper.
Atypical zygomatic glands positioned just underneath the skin surface may be subject to traumatic events. Modified lateral orbitotomy is most often elected for zygomatic gland resection (Bartoe et al., 2007; Atkins et al., 2010; Boland et al., 2013). A more ventral approach may be necessary in case of anatomical variation. Care must be taken to avoid damage to the adjacent facial artery and vein, parotid duct and ventral and dorsal buccal branches of the facial nerve that run laterally to the masseter muscle.
Limitations to our study mainly reflected its retrospective nature. A bias in the population may have been present due to the hospital population undergoing brain MRI. Previous studies indicate that Border terriers are at increased risk of epilepsy of unknown origin (Kearsley-Fleet et al., 2013) and intracranial oligodendrogliomas (Song et al., 2013) which may, at least in part, have accounted for the over-representation. However only 27 Border terriers were found to have undergone advanced head imaging during the 5-year study period, whereas other dog breeds included in the study with a higher number of subjects did not show mandibular SG variation (e.g. 135/1680 Cavalier King Charles spaniels, 130/1680 Boxers, 92/1680 Border Collies; Table 2).

Clean environment and energy problems are two modern

Clean environment and energy problems are two modern challenges to us, searching for permanent energy resources (renewable energy) is favorable to maintain our life safe with everlasting the environmental energy [1–5]. In a Bio electrochemical system (BES), microorganisms are interacting with electrode using electrons, which are either removed or supplied through a closed circuit. The most described type of BES is Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). MFCs are very promising renewable energy resources, which has the capability to employ microbial communities as the catalyst and capture the electricity from a broad range of organic matters. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a galvanic reactor that it can transfer chemical energy that stored in organic substrate into electricity during biocatalytic activity of microorganisms [5–13]. Produced electrons by microorganisms are transferred to the anode and flooded to the cathode by a resistor. The transfer of the electrons to the cathode of the MFC through a resistor, circuit completing the reaction for sustaining the electric current [14]. The power produced reflects the efficiency of the microbial respiratory chain as a result of the organic substrate degradation [15,16]. Therefore, from the environmental and economic point of view, MFCs could be exploited as a bifunctional system to facilitate simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation [17,18]. There are two general techniques of transmitting the electrons to the anode: First way is Mediated Electron Transfer (MET), the use of external redox mediators to wire the electrode biofilm interaction(s) [19,20]. Second way is a physical adherence between the microorganism and the anode electrode surface surfaces (Direct Electron Transfer, DET) [21,22]. Therefore, the surface layer of the microorganism has to have a conducive surface (e.g. cytochromes or forming nanowire (pili) [23–26]. Microbial calcium sensing receptor that able to release electrons from degradable substrates in addition to consume an easily oxidizable organic substrates are very t crucial feature that have to be considered [27–29]. In the cathodic electrode, an oxidant is being reduced water molecules. Biodegradable substrate is the source of electrons donor in the MFC [30]. These substrates ranging from a simple molecules as acetate and glucose to complex organic molecules [31]. In the MFC studies, acetate has been the appropriate substrate as many types of wastewater make them more difficult to be utilized as compared to acetate [32]. Acetate is an optimum substrate, it is widely used as carbon source to stimulate electroactive microorganisms [33]. Furthermore, it is usually used as its inertness towards alternative microbial conversions at room temperature [34]. Acetate is the final product of several metabolic pathways for complex carbon source [35]. Activated sludge produce electricity in MFCs from wastewater with electrochemically active bacteria species. Using Pt in cathode materials can enhance the efficiency of a MFC because Pt and Pt black electrodes have a maximum catalytic activity with oxygen rather than graphite materials and carbon-cloth electrodes for cathode constructions [36,37]. 16S rRNA is the most common technique used to analyse microbial communities involved in electricity production [38]. These molecular methods include clone library analysis and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), which commonly used for analyzing microbial community composition, diversity and dynamics [39]. The advantages of DGGE over other methods are that it is rapid and affordable for analyzing multiple unknown organisms [40]. These methods used to understand of how the microbial community dynamics is related to the functioning of a bioreactor such as wastewater treating system, the improvement of system design, treatment process, and the methods to monitor and control bioreactors [41,42]. The main objective of this paper is to generate electricity and treatment of artificial wastewater simultaneously, improve the performance of Air–Cathode Single-Chamber Mediator-Less Microbial Fuel Cell (ACSCMMFC), and Characterization of the microbial community structure that develops on the anodes, using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA).