br Materials and methods br

Materials and methods

Results
We examined the gross organ morphology, transmission electron microscopy and biochemical changes in rats induced liver cirrhosis with TAA for 16days and confirmed liver cirrhosis. Gross morphology of the tissue and transmission electron microscopy of respective samples showed the theraupeutic effect of drug extract on liver cirrhosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The liver weight: body weight ratio was also calculated and was found to be substantially increased in cirrhotic rats (Table 1). Morphological observations showed an increased size and enlargement of the liver in TAA treated groups. These changes were reversed by treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the doses tested. The levels of serum ALP and GTT were markedly elevated in TAA treated animals, indicating liver damage. ALP levels increased by 44% in the TAA treated group where as in the TAA treated group which received the Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract the elevation of ALP was markedly reduced to only 23% (Table 2). Analysis of LPO levels by thiobarbituric buy paricalcitol reaction showed a significant (P<0.0001) increase in LPO in the TAA treated rats. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at 500mg/kg significantly (P<0.0001) prevented the increase in LPO level which was brought to near normal. TAA treatment caused a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in the level of GSH in the liver tissue when compared with control group. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the dose of 500mg/kg resulted in a significant increase of GSH when compared to TAA treated rats (Table 3). TAA treatment caused a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in the level of GR and GPx in the liver tissue when compared with control group. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the dose of 500mg/kg resulted in a significant increase of GR and GPx when compared to TAA treated rats (Table 4). The drug metabolizing enzymes XOD and GST in TAA treated group showed a significant (P<0.0001) increase in their respective levels as compared to normal control. Following Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at 500mg/kg significantly (P<0.0001) prevented the increase in xanthine oxidase and glutathione-S-transferase levels which were brought to near normal.
Discussion
The liver is one of the vital organs of the animal body and plays a central role in transforming and clearing the chemicals, but it is susceptible to toxicity from other agents. Certain medicinal agents, like paracetamol, when taken in overdoses or sometimes even within therapeutic ranges, may damage the liver. Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g. microcystins) and herbal remedies can also induce hepatotoxins. More than 900 drugs have been implicated in causing liver injury and it is one of the most common reasons for a drug to be withdrawn from the market Jayaweera, 1981. Products of natural origin have been found to be effective in various types of liver disease (Smart et al., 1986). Present study provides much evidence of the therapeutic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dried seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum on an animal model of hepatotoxicity which was evaluated by various assays. Administration of Thioacetamide (TAA) has been reported to inflict liver cirrhosis, depending on the period of exposure. These results were similar to the earlier reported results (Balansky et al., 2007). The mechanism behind its toxicity is thought to be associated with its toxic metabolite (s-oxide). It interferes with the movement of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm which may cause membrane injury. It reduces the number of viable hepatocytes as well as rate of oxygen consumption and also decreases the volume of bile and its content, that is, bile salts, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid Taranalli and Kuppast, 1996.
In the assessment of liver damage by TAA, the enhanced activities of these serum marker enzymes observed in TAA treated rats in our study correspond to the extensive liver damage induced by TAA. Results indicate that Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract administration could blunt TAA induced increase in activities of marker enzymes of heptocellular injury, viz. ALP, GTT suggesting that Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract possibly has a protective influence against TAA- induced

br Conclusion br Introduction The incidence of renal

Conclusion

Introduction
The incidence of renal masses has been increasing steadily in recent years, at least in part owing to the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging. Interestingly, the prevalence of obesity is on the rise as well as [1] suggesting a potential link between the 2 trends, especially considering that buy paricalcitol obesity represents a well-established risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [2].
A large contemporary study has shown that obesity represents a risk factor for RCC-specific mortality [3]. This finding has been challenged by surgical cohorts showing better cancer-specific survival in patients with obesity [4,5]. This discrepancy in the literature may be due to different study designs, geographic and socioeconomic factors, or confounding factors that were not previously explored.
Most of the research available has focused on either “kidney cancer” including all subtypes of malignancy groups evaluated as a single entity, or the most frequent histotype of RCC (clear cell) [4]. In reality, a variable proportion (up to 40%) of patients treated for a renal mass harbor benign tumors, and histotypes other than clear cell may represent up to 30% of renal cell malignancies [6]. Furthermore, although the effect of sex, tumor size, and age on localized renal mass pathology has been documented [7] little is known of the association between other RCC pathological characteristics and body mass index (BMI).

Materials and methods

Results
Of the 2,235 available records, 1,748 met the criteria and were reviewed after institutional buy paricalcitol review board approval. Of those 1,117 (64%) underwent surgery at Duke University Medical Center and 631 (36%) were treated at S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital. Radical nephrectomies constituted 57% of cases, whereas partial nephrectomies were performed in 43% of patients. Patient and renal mass characteristics are detailed in Table 1. Most patients were males (64%) and the median age was 62 years (52–70). The median BMI of the entire cohort was 28 (25–32). The median BMI was significantly different (P<0.01) between the American (median: 29, IQR: 26–34) and the Italian cohort (median: 26, IQR: 24–29). Renal mass pathology was malignant in 83% of patients and was comparable among the different BMI groups (P = 0.4). The most common subtype was clear cell (76%) followed by papillary carcinoma, chromophobe, and other subtypes (18%, 3%, and 3%, respectively). Their distribution was also comparable across BMI groups (P = 0.7). Similarly, clinical stage distribution was comparable with the overall cohort with T1a, T1b, T2a, and T2b accounting for 50%, 29%, 13%, and 8%, respectively. Furthermore, no association was found between radiological size and BMI group for both overall and malignant masses (P = 0.5 and P = 0.2). However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of Fuhrman grade across the absolute BMI and relative BMI groups (P<0.01 in both cases) (Table 2). Low Fuhrman grade had a higher rate among the groups with higher BMI and the rate of high Fuhrman grade increased in the lower BMI groups (Fig.). This trend was maintained in subgroup analysis sieve elements was performed based on sex (P = 0.005), clinical stage (P<0.05), and for clear cell RCC (<0.01). In a multivariable model that included potential confounders (i.e., age, sex, and tumor size) higher BMI groups had lower odds of presenting a high Fuhrman grade (Table 3). In fact, the highest BMI group was 50% less likely to present with a high Fuhrman grade.

Discussion
With the adoption and use of advanced abdominal imaging, an increase in the incidence of renal masses has been identified in recent years. Interestingly, there has also been a rise in obesity, which is a well-known risk factor for RCC [9–11]. However, data on the correlation of BMI with the characteristics of renal masses remain controversial. We examined whether there is an association between BMI and the clinicopathological characteristics of localized renal masses including renal mass pathology, clinical stage, RCC subtype, and Fuhrman grade. Our cohort included both American and Italian patients who differed in their BMI distribution. Therefore, we analyzed the potential association between BMI and renal mass characteristics using both the absolute BMI (total cohort׳s percentiles) as well as the relative BMI as determined by the percentiles in each of the separate American and Italian cohorts.