With altitude the saturation values differ however

With altitude, the saturation values differ, however, the majority of the studies has been performed at more than 3000m. In six normal subjects, the average SaO2 during sleep were of 97.3%, 83.0% and 71.0% measured, respectively at 500m, 4200m, and 6400m [18]. In another study, the saturation at extreme altitude (8400m), was of 59% [19]. The studies during sleep in intermediate altitudes are few and were performed at simulated altitudes (normobaric hypoxia) [20,21].
Findings of the majority of studies performed at altitude are not comparable with the ones of our study, since they were performed after acute exposition to altitude, which can induce the appearance of central apneas and reflect the changes that are detected with an early ahr pathway [22]. Rey de Castro et al., did respiratory polygraphy to truck drivers who worked at 2020m and found out that 12% had central apnea and 10% had OSA. In the study group, the majority had intermittent exposition to the altitude. All desaturation indexes measured on the study were lower in central apnea when compared with OSA [23].
In Bogota (2640m), the studies of normal values of PaO2 have been conducted during wakefulness and involves normal and young subjects [8–12]. At this altitude, the average normal values of PaO2, for the range of age of our patients, are of around 65mmHg, between 25 and 30% lower than at sea level.
However, at this altitude, PaO2 is 60mmHg, from which the curve of hemoglobin dissociation inclines and small changes of PaO2 have significant repercussions on SpO2. All the patients with OSA had an average SpO2 at desaturation levels (SpO2<90%) with significant decreases according to the increased severity of OSA and going from wakefulness to non-REM sleep, from non-REM sleep to REM sleep and during events, reaching levels of SpO2 inferior to 80% in patients with severe OSA during REM sleep and during events. There are several ways to express the severity of desaturation during sleep such as average desaturation, the minimum, and the percentage of sleep time with saturation lower than 90%, all of these are comparable [19]. In this study, we have described the average oxygen saturation.
The strengths of this study were the significant number of patients included and that this is as our best knowledge, the first article describing the behavior of oxygen saturation during sleep in individuals with OSA, living at high altitude (above 2500m), contributing for better understanding of this pathology among our population and in populations living in similar altitudes.
Due to the fact that patients with more severe AHI were older and had higher BMI, additional future studies are dully required to evaluate the impact of these variables upon SpO2 at Bogota׳s altitude, as well as the possible differences that might exist between genders.

Conflict of interest

Sleep duration (SD) is a predictor of an individual׳s health status. Insufficient sleep is a common characteristic in our 24h/7 days a week modern society and can lead to metabolic dysfunction, obesity, hypertension, heart attack, stroke [1] and coronary heart disease [2]. On the other hand, there is conflicting evidence that we are not as deprived of sleep as we think we are; because in some countries, people are sleeping more [3,4]. However, sleep duration figures as an important outcome, while its extremes (short or long sleep) may be hazardous and might result in type 2 diabetes mellitus [5,6], increased mortality hazard [7], coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke [8], obesity [9] and other comorbidities/impairments. These problems are frequently associated with short and long sleepers. As one of the major problems in our society, shortened sleep, or insufficient sleep, is a public health concern. Currently, short and long sleepers exhibit increased mortality rates, independent of sleep duration [10,11]. Studies on sleep have traditionally examined the effects of perceived sleep duration and its impact on health.

THZ531 The high prevalences of overweight and obesity found in the

The high prevalences of overweight and obesity found in the present study represent a worrying situation given the pilots were young adults and that excess weight is associated with many chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, arterial hypertension, stroke, cardiopathies, dyslipidemias and many other debilitating diseases [27,28].



Sleep disorder diagnosis is usually based on Electroencephalography (EEG) and Polysomnography (PSG) recordings that involve unpractical and invasive sleep assessment, high costs, and usually demand a great effort from the patient [1–4]. An easier and cheaper alternative to assess circadian sleep disorders is the Daily Sleep Diary in which the person performs a subjective record about his/her sleep habits, including sleep onset and offset. While the Diary is practical to identify general sleep patterns and weekday/weekend differences, it THZ531 is not a reliable instrument because personal sleep assessment is clearly affected by subjective recollections [1,5,6].
In recent years, with the spread of mobile telephony, the ease to connect to the internet wirelessly and the development of online applications, different companies have started to offer portable devices for the monitoring and recording of sleep. While these devices were initially used for investigation purposes, this type of portable technology started to be commercialized so that athletes could personally monitor their activity patterns, including distance and speed [7–10].
Activity or Sleep (activity/sleep trackers) monitors are portable, non-invasive and relatively cheap devices developed to track and quantify different movement patterns through accelerometers that measures the force of inertia generated when a mass is affected by a change in velocity. Actigraphy is based on the monitoring of movements during sleep or activity for long periods of time and, thanks to the use of specific computer algorithms, small devices can offer information regarding individual sleep patterns. Many software applications are able to record, analyze and score physical activity and, in turn, infer sleep/wake characteristics which allow to diagnose and even prevent sleep-related disease [2,3,11–18].

Materials and methods


Some works have studied and compared different actigraphs [8,10–12,23,24] but, to our knowledge, this is the first to examine and compare five different actigraphs weared simultaneously (two commonly used in sleep and temperature researches: Micro-Mini Motion Logger and Thermochron; two commercial actigraphs: Misfit and Fitbit Flex and a newer one, Act Trust) and their validity for the measurement of activity, sleep and temperature patterns.
We also analyzed skin temperature rhythms. As expected, this diurnal variation is in opposite phase to that of central temperature. Analysis of thermal rhythms with CAT or TH indicated relatively minor differences for mesor and amplitude, possible due to differences regarding the placing of each device (i.e. TH is placed in direct contact with the forearm skin while CAT is a clock-like device which can be slightly loose and not fully attached to the skin). No differences were found in amplitude or acrophase, supporting the idea that both devices are equally useful for temperature rhythm research. The peripheral temperature rhythm assessed in the wrist differs from the core temperature rhythm, mainly in phase, for this reason the acrophase values were find at night [25,26].
In addition, we encountered major difficulties associated to the format of the data offered by the different software or smartphone applications. Commercially available actigraphs (FF and MF) return activity data as points or steps; indeed, the lack of detail in movement information makes the interpretation of data quite vague and too general. In other words, these devices might represent a good choice as early indicators of circadian or sleep disruption, but for a further and complete analysis of possible disorders, more specific data collection and analysis is needed in order to elaborate strategies and develop tools for self-control [27].

The following parasitic behavior is quite

The following parasitic behavior is quite typical: on the one hand, they provide protection and enforce contracts of small businesses, but on the other hand the “price” of these services is charged through extortion. This is the well known modus operandi of mafia: problem solving, which should be a state responsibility, is handled by violent groups that extort the agents. Although it is possible to find examples of such groups in developed countries (e.g. Sicilian mafia), the presence of olopatadine hcl cost is more common in developing nations (see Campos, 2000 for eastern European economies in transition in general, Volkov, 2002 for Russia and Naím, 2006 for Latin American countries, for example).
Our paper contributes to the literature on economic development that considers the institutional environment and its influence on the economic growth (e.g. Besley and Ghatak, 2010; Mehlum et al., 2003a,b; Grossman, 1998) by stressing the importance of parameters like property rights and law enforcement, for example. Concerning to the use of Lotka–Volterra model in Economics, we follow the tradition of seminal paper by Goodwin (1967). Among its many extensions (e.g. Desai, 1973; van der Ploeg, 1988; Sportelli, 1995), one of the most innovative is Vadasz (2007), which incorporates time lag (and expectations) in the economy\’s dynamics in order to consider informational failure in the model. Because of this desirable feature, we adopt in our modified model the same framework as proposed by the latter author.
This paper is divided into two sections, besides this introduction. Section 2 presents the baseline model of producer and parasite dynamics as well as the modified one, which includes a time lag, and studies the stability of the found equilibria. Section 3 concludes by presenting the possibility of identifying a poverty trap and how it is possible to overcome it. Our findings also provide some policy implications, discussed in this section. Appendix A shows the proofs omitted from the text.

The dynamics of producers and parasites

Policy implications and poverty traps
A direct conclusion from Section 2.2 (from Proposition 2.3, in particular) is that a developing economy, once in equilibrium, is not able to grow continuously. Such a situation may be considered a poverty trap.

Observe that we define a poverty trap slightly different than the literature (e.g. Azariadis and Stachurski, 2005): there is an upper bound that the economy\’s output must not surpass; and the output presents cyclical behavior. Therefore, the equilibrium E2=(β1/θ1, α1/γ1) may be considered a poverty trap, depending on its parameter values.
It is well documented that developing countries present values for α1, β1, γ1 and θ1 which often lead to a poverty trap. For example, they present weak property rights, reflected in high values of γ1 and θ1. However, the main parameter to be affected by their bad institutions is β1, the rate of parasite extinction, because states’ actions are ineffective and their police power is weak. Thus, β1/θ1 is low in these countries, such that E2 may be characterized as a poverty trap.
A direct implication of Definition 3.1 is that the state may promote growth by improving its police power, β1, and through other actions that decrease the profit rate of parasite activity, θ1.

Although in marginally different versions, Corollary 3.2 is well established in the literature. In fact, Acemoglu and Robinson (2010) and Azariadis and Stachurski (2005), among others, identify different types of traps. The above statement is rather strong by putting in the hands of the state all the responsibility for the development. However, our basic model captures a crucial aspect of growth, relegated in many development theories: the creation – or improvement – of incentives for truly productive activities and the effort to inhibit those activities which do not aggregate value – and, in our model, even disaggregate. The main contribution of the Lotka–Volterra model is to provide the perception that whenever an incentive is created, it may affect both producers and parasites.

In the formalin test ketorolac at

In the formalin test, ketorolac at a dose levels of 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg exerted better analgesic effect demonstrated at the late phase of the nociceptive response which may be due to its peripheral anti-inflammatory effect. Following irradiation, treatment with ketorolac exerted a more powerful analgesic activity. Thus, our results suggest the presence of synergism between irradiation and NSAID (ketorolac) at both phases. However, prostaglandin E2 levels for all groups did not significantly changed from normal control. This may be explained by the finding of Gilroy et al. [32,33] who revealed that there were differential contributions of COX-1 and COX-2 derived prostanoids in models of acute and chronic inflammation. In contrast, another study of Brzozowski et al. [34] reported that COX-1 and COX-2 products act synergistically in healing of ischemia reperfusion induced gastric lesions. Our results further indicate that, both irradiation and ketorolac analgesic effects were associated with the increase in serotonin content of the neomycin sulfate stem area of the animals. These results suggesting that ketorolac may have an effect on brain serotonin which causes the reduction in the duration of licking response in both phases.
We studied the safety of ketorolac administration to animals exposed to fractionated gamma irradiation. Our results showed that the acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in the irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 in normal animals which revealed increased toxicity of irradiated animals. This may be attributed to cellular change and the high sensitivity of the body organs after exposure to radiation [2].
In the present study, the activity of serum ALT was augmented. The elevation of the liver enzyme ALT was in agreement with Franken et al. [35] and El-Gabry et al. [36] They demonstrated that the increase in serum enzymes following radiation exposure may be a response to the oxidative stress and damage of liver cells and consequently the elaboration of its intracellular enzymes into the blood stream [37]. The recorded elevations could be also due to a hypoxia state in the parenchymal liver cells and increased permeability of cell membrane or mitochondrial membrane causing the release of intracellular enzymes into circulation [38]. These findings were confirmed by the histological examination of the liver tissue of rats exposed to irradiation which revealed dilatation of hepatic sinusoids associated with few inflammatory cells infiltration. Gamma irradiation stimulates acute phase response essential for generation and limitation of inflammation. This response is usually orchestrated through cytokines and hepatocyte stimulatory factors associated with characteristic metabolic changes in protein synthesis [39]. This may explain the elevation of globulin level when ketorolac was administered for 7 days to irradiated rats. Ketorolac administration for 7 days to irradiated rats was also associated with lowering of serum albumin level. This effect may be attributed to liver injury that lead to enhanced degradation of liver cells which are responsible for albumin synthesis as well as the enhanced loss of albumin through the gastrointestinal tract [40] as a result of free radicals generation which induce damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa and loss of albumin.
Our study showed that there was a deterioration of renal function as manifested by the elevation of serum creatinine level associated with congestion of renal blood vessels demonstrated in the histopathological examination after radiation exposure. Furthermore, serum urea and BUN levels were also increased which may be due to the ammonia formed by deamination of amino acids in the liver, which neomycin sulfate subsequently is converted to urea. As creatinine is formed largely in muscles and occurs freely in blood, its increased levels in serum serve as an index of renal function impairment [41]. Single dose of ketorolac prevented functional and structural changes demonstrated in kidney and caused by irradiation. Furthermore, ketorolac administration for 7 days to irradiated rats prevents the vacuolization of epithelial cells and perivascular edema recorded in the histopathological examination.

We found evidence of this

We found evidence of this in a study conducted fluoxetine hydrochloride in the United States by Heydenberk et al. (2003), in which ten groups of elementary school students were trained in integrated (i.e. cooperative) resolution conflict strategies, alongside with their teachers. The ten groups were compared with eight witness groups which took no training. The research was conducted over a period of five years. The effects of the students’ moral reasoning abilities were measured for the ten groups and compared with the eight witness groups. The research concluded that there was a significant improvement in the students’ moral reasoning abilities.
In the field of management Soliman et al. (2014) report on the follow-up of a group of 64 managers over 6 months, prior, during and after negotiation training, and on the prolonged follow-up of a subset of 11 people from the larger group of 64, over 12 more months. They identify that people who manage to reduce the gap between how they are perceived and how they see themselves do benefit from the training. They learn to better analyze the context of a negotiation and they are more likely to choose a cooperative strategy when it is appropriate. However, to the best of our knowledge this is the only direct investigation in the field of management of how an increase in knowledge can help negotiators chose a cooperative strategy.

This led us to the belief that although the organization and its environment can be a source for conflict, it is only “managed” positively or negatively at the individual level. The individual is at the fluoxetine hydrochloride of action in conflict management (Fig. 4). It all depends on “his” or “her” capacity to reach agreement with the “other” during conflict, in such a context.
Of course the main limitation of this article is that it is based on a review of literature. The need that we mentioned in part II, for more research illuminating “the conditions that give rise to naturally occurring cooperation” in organizations (Smith et al., 1995) still remains to be answered.

According to Kamarudin, Sufian, and Nassir (2016) Islamic and conventional banks operate on different principles. Among others the Islamic banking system prohibits interest (Riba’) and substitutes it with the principle of Profit and Loss Sharing (PLS) and is based on Syari’ah rules (Ariff, 1988; Ariff, 2006). Despite differences in principles, Islamic banks share the same objective as their conventional bank peers i.e. to enhance shareholders’ value or wealth creation through profit maximization (Olson & Zoubi, 2008). To remain competitive Islamic banks have to efficiently utilize their scarce resources so as to attain the most optimal profit level. Therefore, it would be reasonable to expect Islamic banks strive to be profit efficient.
Southeast Asian countries especially Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are one of the largest concentration Muslims in the world. There were approximately 61.4%, 88.1%, and 51.9% of Muslim population in Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei respectively (Pew Research Center, 2011). Khan and Bhatti (2008) reported that Southeast Asia represent as one of the central hubs of Islamic banking and finance.
Islam has greatly influenced the economic growth of these countries in last three decades. Islamic financial institutions such as Islamic banks are well-established and operating efficiently. The efficient Islamic banking industry contributed to the stability of the financial system and better able to withstand negative shocks (Venardos, 2005). Given the rapid development of the Islamic banking sector, it is reasonable to expect that the performance of Islamic banks has become the center of attention among Islamic bank managers, stakeholders, policymakers, and regulators.
Despite its humble beginning, Islamic banks have blossomed throughout the world. The Islamic banking system has today become more competitive compared to the conventional banking system. At present, Islamic banks have presence in more than 75 countries, from Malaysia to Bahrain to Europe and the U.S. Qorchi (2005) reported that the number of Islamic financial institutions has quadrupled to more than 300 institutions over the past three decades. Total assets of Islamic financial institutions are estimated to be US$250 billion and are projected to be increase at about 15% rate per year, three times the rate of conventional banks. According to Ghafour (2007), the size of the world Islamic banking industry assets is estimated to have grown in excess of $265 billion from merely hundreds of thousands of dollars in the 1970s.

br Osteochondritis dissecans OCD is

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a subchondral bone lesion that mainly affects juveniles and young adults. Healing rates of stable OCD lesions treated by nonoperative methods are reported to be between 50% and 94%. The clinical staging system of OCD is mainly based on the findings of arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiography, as first published by Dipaola et al. The stage I OCD lesion is classified as a stable lesion. Stage II and III lesions are classified as unstable lesions. Stage II is defined as the MG 149 of time with articular cartilage breached with a definable but not displaceable fragment. Stage III is defined to be the same as stage II, but with a displaceable fragment. Stage IV is for a loose body. Unstable lesions are thought to require surgical fixation, including drilling, debridement, bone grafting, and fixation with implant. Wang et al had collected eight cases that had been diagnosed with OCD and had undergone Herbert screw insertion. In the short-term follow-up, seven out of the eight patients demonstrated a satisfactory result according to the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score.
Several methods of management exist for stable and unstable OCD lesions. For stable lesions, drilling the subchondral bone with intention to stimulate vascular ingrowth and subchondral bone healing is thought to be effective for stable OCD lesion healing. For unstable lesions, Smillie has developed open reduction and internal fixation with a nail. Surgical interventions for fixation of the loose body of the knee include Kirschner wires, cannulated screws, Herbert screws, and bone pegs. Johnson et al have performed fragment fixation with cannulated AO-type screws via an arthroscopic method for treating 35 knees. The results, compared with other methods, were good or excellent in 90% of cases. The Herbert screw, bone pegs, and biodegradable screw fixation method have the advantage of not requiring removal of the implant. I believe using Herbert screw fixation for unstable OCD is a good option to treat troublesome disease.

Sigmoid volvulus is quite rare in children, but its true incidence is unknown. There have been many reports of this condition in adults. In the United States, sigmoid volvulus accounts for 3–8% of all cases of intestinal obstruction. In Eastern Europe it is the cause of 30–50% of all intestinal obstructions. The most important predisposing factor, both in children and in adults, is the presence of a large redundant sigmoid loop with a narrow mesenteric base of attachment. Chronic constipation is often present and may be a contributing factor. In addition, a high-roughage diet and mental illness have been implicated in adults. We report here a case of sigmoid volvulus in a 14-year-old girl with intellectual disability.

Case report
A 14-year-old girl with intellectual disability and a 1-year history of chronic diarrhea despite supportive treatment, was brought to the emergency department because ofintermittent abdominal pain associated with vomiting of bile and passage of bloody stools. She complained of abdominal discomfort on physical examination. Her temperature was 37°C; pulse, 104 beats/minute; and respirations, 16 breaths/minute. The abdomen was soft without rebound tenderness, and bowel sounds were increased. A digital rectal examination disclosed a bloody stool. Laboratory test results indicated hemoglobin, 15.3 gm/dL; white blood cell count, 17,960 mm3; and normal urinalysis. A plain X-ray showed dilated bowel loops (Figure 1). A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed a markedly dilated bowel loop with both limbs tapering and inferiorly forming a round soft-tissue mass with a whirled configuration in the left colonic compartment (Figure 2).

Sigmoid volvulus occurs more often in adults than in children. In 1961, Drapanas and Stewart reported 88% of cases in a series occurred in patients 50 years and older. Since 1964, in the United States, the largest series of children with sigmoid volvulus was MG 149 reported by Allen and colleagues, who observed seven cases at the Denver Children’s Hospital; six of them occurred during the time that 190 cases of intussusception were diagnosed in the same hospital. Carter and Hinshaw reported a case of an infant whose abdomen became distended on the second day of life. He required daily enemas; at age 2 weeks laparotomy revealed he had a sigmoid volvulus.

In general without consideration of the

In general, without consideration of the location of the structural lesion, surgical strategies for intractable lesional TLE include: (1) lesionectomy alone; (2) lesionectomy with removal of the adjacent electrical abnormal cortex; (3) lesionectomy with removal of the mesial temporal structures (dual pathology); (4) removal of the electrical abnormal ddr1 alone; (5) anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL); and (6) disconnecting the pathway of seizure propagation. The epileptogenic cortex can be defined by epileptogenic discharges on intracranial ECoG or by the ictal onset zone localized by invasive intracranial EEG. The completeness of the resection of the lesion, the underlying pathology and the extent of the removal of the associated epileptogenic cortex may affect the outcome of intractable lesional TLE.
Temporal lobe structural lesions can be classified as: (1) developmental abnormalities including cortical dysplasia and heterotopias; (2) vascular lesions including AVMs and cavernous malformations; (3) tumors including astrocytomas, gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumor (DNET); and (4) encephalomalacia due to trauma or ischemia. In our unpublished series, there were 107 (25.3%) cases of lesional TLE out of 420 cases of TLE operated upon in the period between 1987 and 2010 (Table 1). The structural lesions within the temporal lobes are classified by the location defined by MRI into the mesial temporal group and the lateral temporal (extrahippocampal) group. Different surgical strategies were employed to maximize preservation of functionally intact mesial structures in the treatment of epileptogenic mesial and lateral temporal lobe lesions.
The mesial temporal group patient usually presents with mesial TLE (MTLE). MTLE is a well-defined clinical entity with a characteristic semeiology, an EEG pattern and pathological findings. Seizures usually consist of auras followed by oral and/or gestural automatisms, and sometimes secondary generalization. Some authors perform ATL, which may or may not imply complete lesionectomy and usually includes mesial structures. In most cases, ATL is associated with good seizure control outcomes, and up to 80% of patients turn seizure-free. However, in terms of maximal resection of the structural lesion and seizure irritating zone while preserving hippocampal function, several alternative surgical procedures have been advocated. If the structural lesion is separated from mesial structures on MRI and the hippocampus shows normal size and function, the lesion is resected while preserving mesial structures. In the nondominant hemisphere, mesial structures are removed despite a normal functioning hippocampus if the lesion is adjacent to or infiltrating the hippocampus. However, more conservative procedures should be considered in the dominant hemisphere.
The lateral temporal (extrahippocampal) group patients with a structural lesion located within the neocortex varies in seizure characteristics. The neocortical temporal lobe epilepsies (NTLE) often present with olfactory and gustatory auras, complex gestures, ictal speech and secondary generalizations. NTLE can be treated with a variety of surgical strategies, and may include resection of mesial temporal structures (dual pathology). Usui et al reported the intracranial EEG findings in 15 patients with lesional lateral TLE. They routinely implanted subdural grids covering the lesion, and bilaterally placed depth electrodes in the hippocampi and amygdalas to confirm the origin of ictal discharges, and then decided upon the part of the brain that should be excised. They concluded that approximately 50% of the patients with structural lesions in the lateral cortex showed independent epileptogenic areas in ipsilateral mesial structures. Interictal spikes are not an indicator of whether mesial structures should be resected. In our institute, we implant a subdural grid covering the lesion and a depth electrode within the ipsilateral hippocampus (Figs. 1 and 2). The recordings of epileptiform discharges from the subdural grid and depth electrode can provide the information on ictal onset and the propagation pathway. Some authors have adopted surgical strategies using hippocampal atrophy on MRI as an indicator of whether to include the mesial temporal structures in surgical resection. However, long-term extraoperative invasive intracranial EEG recording remains the most reliable method to confirm epileptogenicity. After confirmation, surgical strategies fall into three major groups: (1) lesionectomy alone; (2) lesionectomy with removal of adjacent epileptogenic cortex; and (3) lesionectomy with removal of mesial temporal structures. If EEG recordings are concordant with the lesion, lesionectomy alone will result in a high rate of seizure freedom. Incomplete lesionectomy and resection of electrically active cortex alone seem less successful. The underlying pathology and extent of removal of the associated epileptogenic cortex also affect seizure control outcome.

Numerous researchers have pointed out

Numerous researchers have pointed out that RC and its extracts possess functional properties from where advantages can be taken for developing new products with additional nutritious characteristics that may provide health benefits to consumers. In this orexin agonist sense, one of the main challenges that companies face today is the development of new value-added products to meet the consumer’s demands [5]. Using RC into food products would also provide a cost effective products with “clean” label.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion
The results of nutritional characteristics of RC and cupcakes are summarized in Table 2.

Roselle calyces (RC) are sources of acids that would enhance the stability of anthocyanins pigment and have numerous of phytochemicals. Roselle calyx extracts was used to enrich cupcake. The panelists gave a closer score (statistically significant at P<0.05) to the RC cupcakes. The a* value was increased significantly while the b* value was significantly reduced. The consumption of 100g of the RC cupcakes provided 465mg/100g anthocyanins, along 8% total dietary fiber and 4.2% ash.
Conflicts of interest

br Materials and methods br

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Silver nanoparticles are produced by the reduction of silver ions to colloidal silver. The present studies were confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles using N. nimmoniana fruit extract from UV–vis, XRD, FE-SEM, and with EDX and FTIR respectively. In addition, antibacterial and cytotoxicity assessment of biosynthesized AgNPs shows enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer potential. The findings of our study, suggest that synthesized AgNPs can be developed into a promising drug candidate for biomedical applications.

Author G. Mahendran thankful to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing financial assistance in the form of Dr. D. S. Kothari Postdoctoral Fellowship (BSR/BL/14-15/0100).

Superior quality bread is defined in terms of sponginess and even texture, better aroma, brighter color, nutritious, with extended shelf life. Deliberately preventing mould growth and eliminating major reaction conditions, delaying staling and eventually longer shelf life bread can be made [1]. In recent years, the baking industry is paying attention to the replacement of several chemical additives by microbial enzymes. Improved dough properties, better machinability, better quality, and enhanced shelf life of bread resulted by incorporating selected glp-2 manufacturer instead of chemical additives. Chemical free processed food products are growing fast. Biotechnology can play a crucial role to meet the demands for fiber enriched healthier, nutritious bread [2].
Epidemiological interpretation revealed that several diseases such as high blood serum cholesterol, cardiovascular, coronary heart, diabetes and colon cancer can be prevented by consuming fiber rich diet [3,4]. Fiber rich bread is manufactured using whole wheat flour as a replacement for refined wheat flour. This replacement can lead to a reduction in concentration of gluten protein and undesired features in the final products [5,6]. Presence of fiber in whole wheat flour perturbs the starch–gluten protein matrix in the dough and eventually in the gelatinization process during baking, and thereby leads to reduction in swelling power of starch granules. Consequently, small gas cells swell in a particular direction and adversely affect the visco-elastic behavior of dough, restrict gas holding power of dough and subsequently poor machinability. Ultimately, poor bread volume due to insufficient hydration of gluten, falling of gas retention power which produces hard bread of poor quality with unpleasant granular texture, taste and mouthfeel. Addition of external gluten, surfactant, surfactant/shortening blend and hemicellulases minimize these undesirable effects [7–9]. Application of microbial hemicellulase is lacking in comparison to other synthetic texture modifying agent. Incorporation of cellulases and hemicellulases in dough produce larger sized and evenly distributed porous crumb structure [10]. Hemicellulases/pentosanases generate free sugars such as pentoses and hexoses by hydrolyzing starch. Subsequently free sugars are consumed by the yeast and as a result theporous crumb develops. Among hemicellulase, xylanase plays an important role on bread quality by degrading arabinoxylan as well as increasing water absorption, interaction and cross linking with gluten. It improves manufacturing conditions making the dough softer, more elastic, less sticky, glutinous, machine friendly during sheeting, molding operation as well as xylanase acts as an anti-staling agent in bread manufacturing [11–13].
Staling (retrogradation) rate of bread can be enumerated by the change of physicochemical and thermal properties of bread during storage [14–16]. Reduction of moisture content, drop of quantity of water soluble starch, change of enzyme digestibility, increase of firmness, alteration of glass transition temperature and change of enthalpy can be correlated with crystallization of starch during staling [11,17]. However, systematic studies on quality of bread manufactured using freshly prepared and purified xylanases are lacking.

br Ketone bodies in a cell culture model

Ketone bodies in a cell culture model of AD
Neuroprotective properties of ketone bodies have been investigated in cell cultures. A proteolytic fragment of the β chain of amyloid precursor protein, Aβ1–42, is toxic to hippocampal cells. The exposure of 6-day cultured hippocampal neurons from 18-day-old embryos to 5μM Aβ1–42 reduced cell number as well as neurite number and length compared to control [53]. When the cells were simultaneously exposed to 4mM -β-hydroxybutyrate, the surviving cell number doubled and both cell size and neurite outgrowth increased in comparison with cells exposed to Aβ1–42 alone [53]. These findings show that β-hydroxybutyrate may provide neuroprotection from Aβ1–42 toxicity. In addition, exposure of cells to ketone bodies for 14h increased both surviving cell number and neurite number compared to control cells, suggesting that ketone bodies can act as growth factors to neurons in culture [53]. The ability of ketone bodies to protect neurons in culture suggests that defects in mitochondrial energy generation contribute to the pathophysiology of AD and that ketone bodies may have therapeutic potential. This needs to be investigated using in vivo studies.

Ketogenic diets in animal models of AD
Animal models have provided insight into the underlying mechanisms of AD and have been useful in the preclinical evaluation of potential treatments [54]. Genetically modified animals exhibiting critical aspects of AD neuropathology have helped understand the function of genes associated with AD. Several studies have used genetically modified rodents as AD models in order to assess the therapeutic efficacy of ketogenic diet and ketone bodies in regard to pathological changes and behavioral deficits.
In a transgenic mouse model, the effects of a ketogenic diet composed of very high saturated fat and extremely low carbohydrate content were investigated [55]. These mice exhibit significant levels of soluble Aβ at three months of age and extensive plaque deposition at age 12–14 months [56]. Two groups of female transgenic mice carrying the “London” APP mutation (APP/V717I) were fed ad libitum for 43days either a standard diet composed of high carbohydrate/low fat chow or a ketogenic diet composed of very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat chow [55]. Animals fed the ketogenic diet showed greatly increased serum ketone body concentrations and significantly reduced tsa inhibitor Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels while no changes in cognitive performance were found [55]. The finding that Aβ reduction did not improve cognitive performance may be due to the relatively short intervention. Long-term administration of the ketogenic diet may be required in order to produce behavioral effects.
Another study assessed the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines [57]. Five-month-old APP/PS1 mice (model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 mice (model of tau deposition) were fed either a ketogenic or a control diet for three months. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment showed that mice fed the ketogenic diet performed significantly better on a rotarod than those in the control group independent of genotype [57]. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by the ketogenic diet [57]. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines without significant differences between the diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between mice fed the ketogenic or control diet [57]. These findings suggest that ketogenic diets may play a role in enhancing motor performance in the two mouse models while not affecting amyloid or tau deposition.
An effect on amyloid or tau deposition may not be necessary in order to achieve improvements in cognitive functions following dietary interventions. In the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD mice), two different energy restriction regimens (40% calorie restriction and intermittent fasting) were tested in regard to their ability to protect against cognitive decline [58]. Groups of 3xTgAD mice were maintained on calorie restriction, intermittent fasting or an ad libitum control diet starting at three months of age. Half of the mice in each diet group were tested using the open field and the Morris swim task at age 10 months and the other half at 17 months [58]. At 10 months 3xTgAD mice on the control diet showed reduced exploratory activity compared to non-transgenic mice and 3xTgAD mice on calorie restriction and intermittent fasting [58]. No significant differences were found in performance in the water maze between genotypes or diets in 10-month-old mice [58]. In 17-month-old 3xTgAD mice, the calorie restriction and intermittent fasting groups exhibited higher levels of exploratory behavior and better performance in the swim task, compared to 3xTgAD mice on the control diet [58]. 3xTgAD mice in the calorie restriction group showed lower levels of Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus compared to the control diet group, while Aβ and phosphorylated tau levels were not decreased in 3xTgAD mice in the intermittent fasting group [58]. These findings suggest that intermittent fasting, which may increase levels of ketone bodies, can ameliorate age-related cognitive deficits without affecting Aβ or tau levels.