Discussion and recommendations
The research acknowledges that despite following similar Islamic faiths, the seven Muslim corticotropin-releasing factor interviewed managed to adapt with the use of Western sitting toilets without any major difficulty. Muslims in Australia may have different interpretations of Islamic teachings while living in a Western context. This does not determine one׳s religiousness but one׳s ability to adapt themselves through minor modifications or behavioural changes to comply with their traditional traditions or religious faiths. The contribution of this exploratory study is limited and may not be applicable to those of different cultural or religious backgrounds because of its small sample from one focus group and within one city. Further research using larger population sample at state or national level and with participants from different cultural or religious backgrounds may provide better understanding on the feasibility and suitability of the use of squat toilets and shattaf in the country. However, the recommendations from the research findings provide useful new knowledge to architects, builders, and home renovators who previously are not aware of these variations of toilet habits. Future research and design explorations by researchers, architects and designers are essential in order to offer universal design solutions for culturally adaptable and inclusive toilet systems that can accommodate the needs of the users from diverse backgrounds and traditions.