br Materials and methods br

Materials and methods

Results
We examined the gross organ morphology, transmission electron microscopy and biochemical changes in rats induced liver cirrhosis with TAA for 16days and confirmed liver cirrhosis. Gross morphology of the tissue and transmission electron microscopy of respective samples showed the theraupeutic effect of drug extract on liver cirrhosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The liver weight: body weight ratio was also calculated and was found to be substantially increased in cirrhotic rats (Table 1). Morphological observations showed an increased size and enlargement of the liver in TAA treated groups. These changes were reversed by treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the doses tested. The levels of serum ALP and GTT were markedly elevated in TAA treated animals, indicating liver damage. ALP levels increased by 44% in the TAA treated group where as in the TAA treated group which received the Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract the elevation of ALP was markedly reduced to only 23% (Table 2). Analysis of LPO levels by thiobarbituric buy paricalcitol reaction showed a significant (P<0.0001) increase in LPO in the TAA treated rats. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at 500mg/kg significantly (P<0.0001) prevented the increase in LPO level which was brought to near normal. TAA treatment caused a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in the level of GSH in the liver tissue when compared with control group. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the dose of 500mg/kg resulted in a significant increase of GSH when compared to TAA treated rats (Table 3). TAA treatment caused a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in the level of GR and GPx in the liver tissue when compared with control group. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the dose of 500mg/kg resulted in a significant increase of GR and GPx when compared to TAA treated rats (Table 4). The drug metabolizing enzymes XOD and GST in TAA treated group showed a significant (P<0.0001) increase in their respective levels as compared to normal control. Following Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at 500mg/kg significantly (P<0.0001) prevented the increase in xanthine oxidase and glutathione-S-transferase levels which were brought to near normal.
Discussion
The liver is one of the vital organs of the animal body and plays a central role in transforming and clearing the chemicals, but it is susceptible to toxicity from other agents. Certain medicinal agents, like paracetamol, when taken in overdoses or sometimes even within therapeutic ranges, may damage the liver. Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g. microcystins) and herbal remedies can also induce hepatotoxins. More than 900 drugs have been implicated in causing liver injury and it is one of the most common reasons for a drug to be withdrawn from the market Jayaweera, 1981. Products of natural origin have been found to be effective in various types of liver disease (Smart et al., 1986). Present study provides much evidence of the therapeutic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dried seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum on an animal model of hepatotoxicity which was evaluated by various assays. Administration of Thioacetamide (TAA) has been reported to inflict liver cirrhosis, depending on the period of exposure. These results were similar to the earlier reported results (Balansky et al., 2007). The mechanism behind its toxicity is thought to be associated with its toxic metabolite (s-oxide). It interferes with the movement of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm which may cause membrane injury. It reduces the number of viable hepatocytes as well as rate of oxygen consumption and also decreases the volume of bile and its content, that is, bile salts, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid Taranalli and Kuppast, 1996.
In the assessment of liver damage by TAA, the enhanced activities of these serum marker enzymes observed in TAA treated rats in our study correspond to the extensive liver damage induced by TAA. Results indicate that Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract administration could blunt TAA induced increase in activities of marker enzymes of heptocellular injury, viz. ALP, GTT suggesting that Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract possibly has a protective influence against TAA- induced