br Experimental design materials and methods br Conflicts of interest

Experimental design, materials and methods

Conflicts of interest

This work was supported by grants from Proyecto del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (SAF2013-47556-R, co-financed with FEDER funds), and the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (ISCIII-RETIC RD12/0018/0009-FEDER). An institutional grant from the Fundación Ramón Areces is also acknowledged.

The presented dataset contains 10 “shotgun” human gut metagenomes assessed from stool samples from the patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The total read length for the dataset is 87.6Gbp (the metagenomes contain 34.1±13.6mln of reads per sample, mean±s.d.). Details about the dataset are shown in Table 1.

Experimental design, materials and methods

This work was financially supported by Russian Scientific Foundation (project ID 15-14-00066).

The data represent 99 “shotgun” metagenomes of stool samples collected from the patients with ADS and ALC in 3 clinical centers from 3 Russian cities – Moscow, Kazan and Saint-Petersburg. The datasets include 25.8±16.1mln of 50bp reads per sample (mean±s.d., 127.5Gbp in total). The description of the data is listed in Table rock pathway 1.

Experimental design, materials and methods

This work was financially supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (unique project identifier RFMEFI60414X0119).


Experimental design, materials and methods

To patients that voluntarily collaborated in this rock pathway study and Eunice Matos for collaborating in sample biobanking. Project partially supported by Harvard Medical School-Portugal Program (HMSP-ICJ/0022/2011), ToxOmics – Centre for Toxicogenomics and Human Health (FCT-UID/BIM/00009/2013), FCT/Poly-Annual Funding Program and FEDER/Saúde XXI Program (Portugal) and postdoctoral fellowship SFRH/BPD/43365/2008 of Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.

Experimental design, materials and methods
We designed and implemented a comprehensive, standardized, and scalable RNA-sequencing bioinformatics analysis pipeline as a workflow on the Galaxy platform [2] ( to analyze prostate cancer RNA-sequencing datasets from the Array Express archive of the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) ( experiments/E-MTAB-567/). As described in the primary study by Ren et al., the samples comprised poly-A containing RNA sequencing paired-end reads and replicates from fourteen prostate cancer patients [3]. The poly(A) random primed containing RNA were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000 at a read length of 200-250nt producing on average 400 million reads for each library. The workflow requires eight input read files, one file of the human reference genome (UCSC hg19), as well as one file of the gene annotations of the reference genome. The workflow in total performs forty-four steps, using thirteen bioinformatics tools and requires approximately 84h on a 4 core processor server, with four stages:

Work in Dr. Ogunwobi׳s laboratory is supported by the NIMHD/NIH grant to Hunter College: 8 G12 MD007599.

describes genotypic frequencies regarding several ANRIL SNPs in an hemodialysis cohort of patients together with the corresponding Hardy-Weinberg p-values.
summarizes the main statistical parameters in the linkage disequilibrium analysis and illustrates the Haploview linkage disequilibrium plot.
2. Experimental design, materials and methods

Nuria Lloberas is a researcher from ISCIII Miguel Servet (CP06/00067) and REDinRENRD12/0021/003. Ariadna Arbiol enjoys a post residence grant from Fundación José Luis Castaño. This study was supported by grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III and Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (PI12/01564 and PI15/00871), and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER).

In this analysis the PCI values

In this analysis, the PCI values of less than 10 represent a uniform distribution of rainfall (i.e. low dexamethasone acetate concentration); the PCI values between 11 and 15 denote a moderate precipitation concentration; values from 16 to 20 denote irregular distribution and values above 20 represent a strong irregularity (i.e. high precipitation concentration) of precipitation distribution [1].
According to de Luis et al. [1] classification, the PCI values between 11% and 15% denote a moderate precipitation concentration; values from 16% to 20% denote irregular distribution and values above 20% represent a strong irregularity of precipitation distribution. Based on this category, five of the sample sites (Arba-Minch, Ciro, Dire-Dawa, Jigjiga and Ziway) lie within moderate precipitation concentration; while two of them (Adama and Moyale) are characterized by irregularity of rainfall. The PCI value of Gode is over 20% denoting a strong irregularity of precipitation distribution in the area.
Fig. 12 (A–H) shows trends of spring (belg) rains of the stations.


Experimental design, materials and methods
115 bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences (both short and long) were obtained in FASTA format from NCBI repository (Table 1). These sequences of bacteria and archaea were used for graphical representations. The generated graphical representations in the form of Chaose Game Representations (Fig. 1) and Chose Game Representations of Frequencies (Fig. 2) obtained in the form of visual images [1,2]. Graphical representations of oligonucleotides in the form of CGR and FCGR pictorial representations were created using ENDMEMO tool [3,4] for studies on primary sequence organization and representation of oligonucleotides frequency in the given sequence.

BNR is thankful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi (India) for the financial support in the form postdoctoral fellowship for this research (Grant no. PDFSS-2013-14-ST-MAH-4350).

The present article contains data on body parameters, microclimatic variables, and subjective assessment of thermal sensation, overall comfort and preference regarding thermal sensation, reported through questionnaires answered by five individuals. The datasets are in two Excel files: BodyParametersData.xlsx and QuestionnaireData.xlsx. The BodyParametersData.xlsx contains in different sheets per minute measurements of body parameters for each participant. The QuestionnaireData.xlsx file contains data on self-reported thermal responses based on a questionnaire and on meteorological variables monitored during the completion of the questionnaire.

Experimental design, materials and methods

Funding sources


Experimental design, materials and methods
Data were gathered from literature (references in Table 4). Methods for the development of the selection criteria for including the data is outlined in Nuske et al. [1]. Briefly, dietary studies of Australian mammals were searched from Web of Science and Google Scholar. Relevant theses and books were searched also. Because fungal spores are smaller than many other common dietary materials and spores are needed for identification of fungal taxa consumed, only studies that used conservative methods for collecting and examining dietary material were used in the dataset. Specially, these methods were the examination of fine fraction material (no material discarded), the use of 100× or greater magnification, and spores must have been identified by use of mycological literature and/or a mycological expert.
For each data point in each study, the location of the study was used as the lowest grouping variable. Data across studies were compared by pooling data together if they occurred within 100km from a random central point. In comparisons, fungal names included both formally published and as yet unpublished names, identified at least to genus (value=1 in ‘Cf’ column of Table 4), but not taxa in the form ׳Unknown sp. 1׳ that were not identified to at least genus level (value=0) nor a few taxa (such as Endoptychum sp.) that could not be equated to modern genera.

Among the reported cases of systemic

Among the reported cases of systemic FL with skin involvement, a mid-dermal to subcutaneous diffuse or nodular infiltrate with a free grenz zone was the main histological finding. Dabski et al reviewed and analyzed the histological patterns of cutaneous manifestation in 11 patients with systemic FL. In 10 patients, skin lesions developed after the onset of the lymph node disease (mean, 3.7 years); in one patient, lymph node and skin abnormalities were simultaneously diagnosed. Skin biopsy specimens of six patients revealed a follicular pattern of lymphoid infiltrate characterized by massive, bottom-heavy dermal involvement, and the remaining five patients showed a diffuse growth pattern of lymphoid infiltrate. Franco et al reported four patients with Stage IV FL diagnosed on the basis of skin biopsies, in which cutaneous infiltration was the most evident clinical manifestation. Three of the four patients presented with skin lesions involving the head and neck region, and the remaining patient presented with lesions on the trunk. Histological findings of skin biopsy specimens of all patients revealed a nodular or diffuse dermal and subcutaneous infiltrate composed of centrocytes and centroblasts with a B immunophenotype (CD20 and CD79a). Moreover, the papillary dermis and epidermis were spared without epidermotropism. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that all patients were positive for CD10, bcl2, and bcl6, but negative for tropisetron cost D1 and CD5. None of the aforementioned cases of FL revealed a histological feature of a superficial band-like infiltrate with epidermotropism, as observed in our patient.
Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is usually easy to differentiate from cutaneous T-cell lymphoma through routine histopathological examination alone. B-cell lymphomas typically consist of nodular to diffuse lymphoid infiltrates within the mid to deep dermis, with sparing of the subepidermal zone of collagen. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas characteristically show a band-like infiltrate in the upper dermis, epidermotropism, and lack of a grenz zone. However, a few patients did not follow these architectural patterns. Glusac et al reported four cases of B-cell lymphomas that were incorrectly categorized as T-cell lymphomas because of histological features of an atypical lymphoid infiltrate limited to the papillary dermis, epidermotropism, and lack of a grenz zone. In two of the four cases, the intraepidermal lymphocytes were primarily reactive T cells; in another case, abundant epidermotropic B cells were identified, which may have a higher diagnostic value than reactive T cells. Three of the four patients were diagnosed with large-cell lymphoma, and the remaining patient had mixed-cell lymphoma. This report also suggested that B-large-cell lymphomas may more often mimic the typical patterns of a T-cell lymphoma; however, in our case, FL belongs to the B-small-cell lymphomas. Chui et al described the first case of Stage IV extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) clinically and histopathologically mimicking MF. The skin biopsy specimen showed a dense band-like infiltrate of atypical lymphocytes with prominent epidermotropism but no spongiosis. Immunophenotypical studies confirmed a B-cell lineage of the neoplastic cells. Thereafter, four similar cases of epidermotropic MZL have been reported, of which two were primary cutaneous MZL tropisetron cost and two exhibited widespread disease. Furudate et al reported a case of epidermotropic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as Sister Mary Joseph\’s nodule of the umbilicus. Histologically, atypical large cells densely infiltrated through the dermal papillae to the subcutaneous tissue with epidermotropism involving the overlying epidermis. This report suggested that matrix metallopeptidase 9 present on lymphoma cells enhances the invasion of neoplastic cells into the epidermis, promoting the epidermotropism of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. According to our review of literature regarding cutaneous B-cell lymphomas with epidermotropism, only MZL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but not FL, have been reported (Table 1).

br Experimental work br Results

Experimental work

The samples were friction welded. It can be seen from Fig. 6 that the heating time, upset time and interlayer thickness are the major criteria for joint performance. When the weld interfaces of Sample 13 were analyzed after experimentation, the friction and upset times were 1.2s and 6.5s, respectively. The macro examination of the fractured surface after the tensile test shows the major diffusion of copper on both the sides. For Sample 15, the heating and upset times were 1.2s and 7s, respectively. In this sample, the interlayer thickness was 0.65 mm, and the fractured surface reveals more copper diffused on the titanium alloy side and stainless steel side.
Micro-hardness survey was done by Vickers hardness machine. The hardness values of the different samples are presented in Fig. 10. It is observed that the hardnesses of stainless steel varied between 271 VHN to 297 VHN which is more than that of GSK1070916 metal. The hardnesses of Ti alloy and copper vary from 298 VHN to 320 VHN and 77 VHN to 107 VHN, respectively.
The tensile test results of different samples are listed in Table 6. 523.6 MPa tensile strength was obtained for 0.65 mm thick interlayer. The tensile strength reduces gradually as the interlayer thickness increases. The values of tensile strength ranges between 302.3 and 523.6 MPa. The diffusion of copper on both the sides of the joint is good and the tensile strength is remarkable with interlayer thickness between 0.65 and 0.85 mm.


A comparative study was performed to understand the friction welding characteristics of Ti–6Al–4V and SS304L with copper as interlayer and without interlayer. Based on the investigations performed, we conclude the following.


Conventional radar signal distribution networks are designed with coaxial cable or space-feeds, which make the system bulky, complex, massive and inflexible [1,2]. The inherent advantages of optical link is reduced size, weight and loss, low attenuation, immunity to electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and high bandwidth capacity [3]. Along with the advancements in microwave photonic device technology, the possibility for distribution of signals in optical domain had been opened up.
During 1980\’s, the components capable of working in the microwave domain emerged. Pan [2] describes an optical link capable of working at 5 GHz. By 1984, a Ti: LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder interferometer type external modulator capable of working at 17-GHz was developed to work in 830 nm [4]. In 1987, Stephens et al. [5] described a complete radio over fiber (RoF) link while comparing the performances of direct modulation and external modulation using loss, SNR (signal to noise ratio), linearity, etc., as the parameters for 4.1–4.7 GHz and 2.0–12.0 GHz. In 1988, the applications of radar X-band signal in fiber optic links were studied by a team in Malibu [6]. They were primarily interested in providing RF delay using fiber optic link for application in radar phase noise test set and radar repeater test. Link characterisation was also done for AM and FM modulations in direct and external modulations using 1300 nm InGaAs laser. Cox et al. [7] described an analytical lumped-element small-signal model of directly and externally modulated analog fiber optic link. The designed link was described to be superior to others in providing a maximum bandwidth of 22 MHz for externally modulated link (11 dB transducer gain, 6 dB noise figure) and 1 GHz bandwidth for directly modulated link (−14 dB transducer gain, 33 dB noise margin). They theoretically proved that the efficiency of externally modulated Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) operated at moderate bandwidth with high optical power is several times higher than that of direct modulation. Due to the versatility and practicality of optical links, soon results were available in introducing true time delays in phased array antennas [8]. The paper also provides a method to overcome beam squinting and describes the use of fiber delay loops in introducing a phase delay in microwave regime, which is expected to have a great impact on phased array antenna construction. It is only a matter of time that the optical system finds its way into the avionics industry, where light weight and immunity to EMI are highly desirable. Slaveski et al. [9] discussed the transmission of analog AM and FM signals over a WDM link along with FSK digital modulated signal between antennas and on-board avionic equipment. The results were promising with insertion loss of −55 dB, carrier to noise ratio (CNR) and SNR of more than 40 dB, total harmonic distortion (THD) of less than 7% and BER of more than 1.85e-07. This proves that the link works as efficiently as coaxial cable in antenna-cockpit link with the additional benefits of WDM optical systems.

br a escritora sudafricana Nadine Gordimer en

a escritora sudafricana Nadine Gordimer, en una entrevista de los reportajes de , y citando elastase Franz Kafka, dijo que “un libro debe ser un pico que quiebre el helado mar que nos rodea”. Una bella frase que sirve muy bien de introducción para esta charla, para este encuentro, con el libro de Aline Davidoff, el cual nos ha reunido esta noche y nos anima a iniciar un viaje. ha sido publicado por la Editorial Mexicana Ítaca, nombre eternamente literario, unido por siempre al Gran Homero, y a Odiseo / Ulises y su regreso a casa. Ese maravilloso viaje de un regreso inauguró las bases de la narrativa occidental, sin acotarla ni ponerle barreras, sino por el contrario, ampliando los horizontes, los enfoques y las estructuras hasta el infinito.

stamos ante una novela desesperante. Estamos ante una novela de una inteligencia excepcional. de Aline Davidoff consta de 28 capítulos breves; a lo largo de 27 de ellos el lector se inquieta más y más, se rasca el cuerpo, se pregunta con impaciencia si es él o es el texto, alberga oscuros deseos de tirar a los personajes por la ventana, se exaspera al enfrentar la impotencia demostrada por estos para nombrar lo que les pasa, se angustia. A la postre, en la apenas media paginita que integra el último capítulo, comprende todo y experimenta un inmenso alivio. A lo largo de su sostenido y resbaloso trayecto, quien se aventura por los desfiladeros de esta novela es mirado por la autora con ironía, como dentro de un personal del que permanece inadvertido hasta el final. La vivencia es significativa: lo que tiene lugar es una , una maduración íntima inherente a la experiencia literaria. , es entonces, como una singular contemporánea mexicana.
El relato es llano. En el frío del invierno inmediatamente anterior al año 2001, dos amantes cosmopolitas vuelan desde distintos puntos del planeta, la ciudad de México y otro bastante más remoto, para darse cita durante un largo fin de semana en una ciudad del hemisferio norte. Conocemos, desde el punto de vista de Laura, las vicisitudes de su relación y sus consuetudinarios desencuentros con Fénix, un caballero fino de nombre irritante, si los hay, quien sutil y continuamente la maltrata. Pertenecientes a cierto estrato ejecutivo poseedor de tarjetas de crédito internacionales, así como de la posibilidad de pagarlas mes con mes (sin ser tampoco cosa del otro mundo…), las personalidades de se deslizan por entre asientos de aeronave, taxis amarillos, lujosos pasillos de departamentos prestados, habitaciones de hotel, mesas de restaurante, calles transitadas, tiendas de moda, salas de cine, autos rentados y alguna extraña morada de un amigo dentista. La presencia de los protagonistas halla complemento en la de otros: Eduardo y Mina, antiguos amantes de Laura y Fénix, más Jim, asiduo coleccionista de Kandinskys, cliente de un mediocre merendero local. Laura y Fénix hablan por teléfono, se reúnen para separarse inmediatamente después, conversan, compran, se distraen, hacen alguna visita, beben demasiado y duermen juntos durante solo una de las noches que podrían compartir. Si de cine se tratara, estaríamos ante un filme de bajísimo presupuesto en el que no sucede mayormente nada. El lector, impaciente, se enfrenta al imperio de lo banal mundializado (del que, por si fuera poco, tiene amplia referencia previa). Presiden esta escritura las “deidades del anonimato y de la simplicidad”, que figuran en alguna importante página de la novela.
Desprovisto de patines, el lector resbala y cae a lo largo de las páginas. Pero, al atender con más cuidado, constata la maestría meticulosa con la cual nuestra autora ha construido sus sigilosos surcos. Su eficacia es la de un tránsito de fragmentos, parcialidades, atascos, elipsis, distracciones, inacabamientos y desazones, en cuya última llamada asoma la posibilidad de pasar a otra cosa.
Los mojones están allí. Narro brevemente la evolución de mi propia lectura del rigor logrado por Davidoff. Lo primero que me sacudió fue la extraña belleza iterativa de su párrafo inaugural, que sugiere una estética de perspectivas parciales:

El presente estudio cr tico tiene como objetivo entonces tomar

El presente estudio crítico tiene como objetivo entonces tomar como punto de partida la publicación en castellano del libro de una de sus teóricas más relevantes para así evaluar los alcances y paradojas de una tradición que ha llegado para enriquecer más de un debate. Se trata de de Lauren Berlant (n.1957), un texto breve que resume con claridad los ejes aquí en disputa. Allí, buy T-5224 través de tres artículos, Berlant despliega su hipótesis central: los afectos son elementos clave a la hora de evaluar la política pero, así como en algunos casos pueden devenir en transformadores, en otros no hacen más que refrendar el . Nuestro recorrido entonces estará marcado por los siguientes pasos:
Afectos y teorías de género
El rastreo del debate nos obliga a retrotraernos a la década de los 80 cuando el feminismo generó la llamada teoría del cuidado. Encabezada por Carol Gilligan esta tradición desarrolló una ética sostenida en la idea de que las mujeres despliegan sus emociones de manera más abierta que los varones y establecen sus vínculos morales basadas en la lógica del cuidado —valorada positivamente— más que en la de justicia —sostenida en una abstracción que legitima la descorporización—. El cuidado implica una estrategia femenina de pensar: atenta al detalle, cercana a las necesidades del otro y predominantemente narrativa. En palabras de Gilligan: “Es un hecho que nacemos en el marco de una familia y que la primera sociedad a la que pertenecemos es la de padres e hijos (…) esto es un simple recuerdo del papel que las emociones humanas tanto como las razones humanas tienen en el desarrollo moral” (Gilligan 1993: 23). Hoy en día algo desacreditada por dualista y esencialista (Noddings 1995; Mendus 2000) la teoría del cuidado abrió sin lugar a dudas un debate, implícito durante décadas en el seno del feminismo.
Otros de los aportes centrales que tiene un papel como antecedente y trasfondo del giro afectivo son los trabajos de Martha Nussbaum en relación, fundamentalmente, con la cuestión de la justicia. En Upheavals of Thought (2001) Nussbaum se ocupa de argumentar a favor de una justicia donde las emociones sean atendidas, pero poco después en Hiding from Humanity (2006) y en From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law (2010) advierte sobre los efectos adversos de la presencia de la vergüenza y el asco en el marco del derecho y la vida pública. Al ser, sostiene, emociones esencialmente jerárquicas capaces de legitimar la subordinación que han cumplido históricamente un rol clave en políticas discriminatorias deben ser fuertemente combatidas.
El debate desplegado alrededor de la democracia deliberativa implicó también un acercamiento a ionic bond la cuestión de las emociones por parte de teóricas feministas. Así, Iris Marion Young (1990) argumenta a favor de la inclusión en la deliberación pública de la retórica, las pasiones y el testimonio en tanto modalidades que dan cuenta de experiencias situadas, no meramente abstractas y por ello más realistas. En el mismo contexto Chantal Mouffe desarrolló argumentos a favor de una democracia radical —en términos de una radicalización de ciertos aspectos del liberalismo y el rechazo de otros— que implica también una especial atención a las emociones (Mouffe 2000). Efectivamente, en su valorización del rol de la conflictividad en la política Mouffe entiende que las pasiones cumplen un papel fundamental: mientras que la razón parece poner límites al debate político, las emociones exponen el rol fundamental del agonismo político, para ella irrenunciable (Mouffe 2000: 93). Tal como hemos argumentado extensamente en otro lado (Macón 2010) entendemos que varios de estos análisis redundan —a su pesar— en una asociación necesaria entre emoción y autenticidad, uno de los problemas que ciertos miembros del autodenominado giro afectivo desplegado en los últimos años intentan evitar. Efectivamente, algunos de estos primeros desarrollos feministas —paradigmáticamente los de Gilligan, pero también los de Mouffe— encuentran en las emociones el origen de comportamientos más auténticos —en el sentido de más cercanos a una naturaleza humana incontaminada— que los sostenidos en estrategias racionales; concepción que, como veremos más adelante, no compartimos. Al respecto se ha señalado que esta asociación de emoción a naturaleza y de razón a artificio redunda en un debilitamiento de la capacidad transformadora de la política: si las emociones son un reservorio natural que hay que respetar para evitar la intromisión de una lógica artificial —donde el artificio se identifica con una instancia empobrecedora— el cambio político resulta obturado.

br Material and methods Post occupancy evaluation

Material and methods
Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is the process of evaluating any type of buildings in a systematic and rigorous approach after they have been built and occupied (Preiser et al., 1988). This type of evaluation methodology emerged in the 1960s (Preiser et al., 1988; Pati and Pati, 2013). Over the years, the scope and nature of POEs have evolved and expanded, and new nomenclature has been propose to reflect those changes, such as building performance evaluation (BPE) and universal design evaluation (UDE), as proposed by Preiser in 2001 (Pati and Pati, 2013).
Preiser et al. (1988) and Jaunzens et al. (2002) have recognized the benefits of POE to clients, end users, managers, and the project team, over short, medium, and long terms (Table 1).
HEFCE et al. (2006) have developed a POE process that can be applied to any type of building, even if it AMN-107 cost was designed to assess higher education buildings. This process is formed by seven steps: (1) identify the need for the evaluation; (2) decide on which approach; (3) brief for the POE; (4) plan the POE; (5) carry out the POE; (6) prepare the report; and (7) take action in response to the POE findings, such as feed information into the organization policies and into future projects or publications.
Due to the time, resources, and personnel available for this research project, an indicative level of effort was chosen for this POE study. The method adopted for this evaluation is a qualitative study including a historical research of the building and the area, an analysis of the conversion strategy of the case study building, a walkthrough investigation within the building, and a user survey. The survey was developed through the design and distribution of a questionnaire. Unfortunately, physical measurements of light, temperature, air quality, and acoustics were not collected because of the gallery׳s administration policies.
The main objective of this research is to show the advantages and disadvantages of a specific revitalization strategy of an Industrial Heritage building from the occupants’ point of view. The sustainability approach of the intervention made in La Violeta is discussed.

The La Violeta factory was located in an area called “Estanque de los Pescaditos” (fish pond) and the San Francisco Convent, with the address 12 norte 607, Barrio del Alto (Leicht, 1980). The factory was established in 1908 by Luis Cué Romano and José González Soto. It shut down in 1995, when Prophage was a property of the Real de la Mora family, together with other businesses Atoyac Textil and San Juan Amandi. The last name of the fabric was Multied (Barquero, 2006:197) (Figure 6).
The art gallery opened in 2000 and is comprised the following areas: ticket office, cloakroom, toilets, hall, ceramics workshop, museum shop, archaeological site museum, gallery exhibition area, and shopping area, with a total area of 2000m2. The building has a rectangular plan with 6m high stonewalls and brick details in windows and doors. The main structure is a steel frame structure with 30cm-diameter columns, which are 5.20m high. The roof is made of masonry vaults (the construction system is called “losa catalana”). Refurbishment works were carried out by architect Armando Reyes Oliver. Figures 7 and 8 show the conversion plans and elevations. Architect Reyes Oliver provided these drawings.

Respondents were asked to select the most important interior environmental factor, from their point of view, that needs to be addressed when designing an art gallery. 33% of them selected lighting, followed by visual relationship with the exterior, temperature, ventilation, and humidity (Figure 9).
For most respondents, the general environmental behavior of the building is very good and/or good (70%). Daylight availability is also good according to 50% of the people surveyed; 48% think that ventilation is good, but 41% responded neutral. On the other hand, 20% of the users believe the acoustics and artificial lighting in the building are bad and/or very bad. In general, the majority of users experienced good environmental conditions inside the building (Figure 10).

br Conclusions according to the Charter of

Conclusions according to the “Charter of Venice”
The palimpsest of Trajan׳s Market refers to the archeological site and urban context, the observation of the historical relationships of different objects, and the inventory of remains, monuments, paths, new buildings, and spaces. All these elements must be jointly considered as an organic combination that should always be recognized as a place.

The paper consists of three sections: Section 2 presents the urban historical context, Section 3 illustrates the archaeological structures that emerged during works, and Section 4 explicates the criteria and modality of museum design and preparation.

Palazzo Valentini: location and historical development
Palazzo Valentini, the historical site of Rome׳s Provincial Administration and its Prefecture, is located at the NVP-TNKS656 of the city, rising on a trapezoidal block located on top of one of Rome׳s most interesting archaeological sites (Figures 1 and 2).
The Palazzo, commissioned by Cardinal Michele Bonelli (1541–1598), a nephew of Pope Pius V Ghislieri (1566–1572), was erected on the site of a previous building of the early 16th century. After renovation works and additions, during the 17th century, the building was leased to the Ruspoli princes and hosted musical events of great importance. From 1707 to 1708, the building was home to the German composer G. F. Haendel. In 1752, the building was sold to Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli, nephew and executor of Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali, who renovated and decorated the rooms and built a large public library at the ground floor (Figure 3).

The works started in 2005 in the cellars of the building and were originally intended to guide a simple rehabilitation of underground spaces, finally freed from waste and archival materials, in order to reuse them as multi-functional exhibition areas. A certain number of essays were also planned, aiming to investigate the archaeological situation of these environments (Figure 4).
The archaeological investigations at the underground level represented the first phase of a complicated project, which was connected to the study of the building׳s history and architecture, to its conservation, and to the redevelopment of the area. The excavations were particularly complicated because of the presence of the Palazzo above and of very deep earth fillings. Moreover, the groundwater outcrops—today as in antiquity—at about 6m below the street level. The result is a very humid microclimate despite the air-conditioning system that is planned for the site and is always kept in function. We must regularly control the situation with the help of colleagues from the Department of Chemistry of “Sapienza” University of Rome, who are also studying the correct lighting to reduce or prevent the growth of microorganisms.
Up until now, excavations have been conducted in four different areas: in the rooms under the Consiliar Hall, along vicolo di S. Bernardo on the west side of the Palazzo, in the cellars under the southern aisle, the so-called “ex-carceri” (the former dungeons), in the rooms along via di S. Eufemia on the eastern side, and in the so-called “Piccole Terme” (small baths) at the northwest corner. In the first two areas, archaeological findings suggest the presence of a public building; in the others, the relics clearly belong to ancient Roman domus (upper-class one-family houses).
In the area along vicolo di S. Bernardo, limited excavations have revealed the presence of walls in opus latericium (made of brick craftwork) dating back to the beginning of Hadrian׳s time, probably related to the vaulted cellars of a public building, whose function is still unsure, probably the Temple of the Deified Emperors, Traianus and Plotina, also built during the rule of Hadrian (Figure 5).
In the area facing piazza Traiana, the excavations have revealed a strong platform in opus caementicium, which carries large blocks in travertine and compact tuff and certainly belonging to the same building and probably corresponding to the staircase of the Temple. On Linkage platform, two fragments of huge Egyptian grey granite columns (originally 15m tall) have been found and probably belong to the same Temple of Traianus and Plotina Divi (Figure 6).

The diagnosis of suspected appendicitis remains challenging to

The diagnosis of suspected appendicitis remains challenging to physicians or surgeons in the emergency service. The state-of-the art diagnosis of Ap involves the use of CT and ultrasonography. The accuracy of clinical diagnosis is approximately 80%, which corresponds to a negative appendectomy rate of approximately 20%. The challenge was that Ap-perforation or Ap-peritonitis was inversely related to the negative appendectomy rate. Both conditions could typically be avoided through urgent appendectomy. Approximately half of our patients who were preoperatively diagnosed using CT had Ap-perforation and Ap-peritonitis. In our series, one-third of the patients were diagnosed using CT, one-third using ultrasound only, and one-third using physical findings and laboratory data. The merits of ultrasound can be re-evaluated during emergency service or hospital admission. Quality assurance should focus on the accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis and on patients\’ conditions. Negative appendectomy rates and false negative diagnosis for patients who present with perforated appendicitis should be kept as low as possible.
Diagnosis through CT was much more prominent among the highest-risk patients with CCI = 1 and ≥2 in our series (Figure 1). In addition, CT was used O4I1 more commonly in older patients with higher severities of Ap for evaluating abdominal diseases in addition to Ap, and a similar trend was followed in our study. O4I1 of clinical evaluation and CT findings by the surgeon responsible for a patient\’s care typically resulted in the avoidance of an unnecessary appendectomy, and no patient received a delayed appendectomy. Although the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria, which are evidence-based guidelines based on an extensive analysis of the current medical literature and the application of a well-established consensus methodology to rate the appropriateness of imaging studies, are available, evaluation based on physical examinations, laboratory tests, and imaging studies was key in the selection of treatment. Concrete and definitive evidence is lacking, and experts\’ opinions may be used to recommend imaging or treatment for Ap. However, some reports showed that the use of CT scans increased the appendectomy rate only in patients with a low clinical suspicion for appendicitis, and preoperative CT scans did not reduce the negative appendectomy rate; thus, avoiding the overuse of CT, if possible, is advisable. Controversy regarding the overuse of ultrasound or CT for the diagnosis of Ap still depends on the points of view of the care provider, care giver and buyer.
The use of imaging techniques for the diagnosis of Ap in adults is increasing and is likely to elevate appendicitis hospital expenditure. If a surgeon decided Jurassic Period the appendicitis was equivocal, either ultrasound or CT scanning was deemed necessary. Usually, imaging studies and expenditure of patients after a diagnosis of appendicitis required evaluation by health-care providers under the Tw-DRG payment system. As imaging utilization has increased, the average hospital expenditure for appendicitis has increased by 16.3%, while imaging charges, as a fraction of hospital expenditure, have increased from 7.89% to 10.87%. In our study, the total hospital expenditure of Ap was affected by patients\’ conditions in addition to the use of CT. Avoiding the excessive use of CT in patients suspected of having Ap will probably reduced the savings per patient in some institutes. The ratio of the average cost of appendectomy to the average cost of CT has been reported to be 16:1 in one study and 22:1 in another. However, the charge of CT diagnosis accounts for 9–11% of the total hospital charge for appendicitis under Tw-DRG reimbursement. Hospital managers and care givers must take care about using CT in suspected Ap and trends in the future and current Tw-DRG payment system. Nevertheless, preoperative diagnosis through ultrasound or/and CT will enable a benefit of early diagnosis and can prevent a negative appendectomy. However, the hospital\’s burden under Tw-DRG reimbursement is likely to increase. Patients with appendicitis have different sets of variables and a diverging number of DRGs for appendectomy in each country. However, the total hospital expenditure of operative appendicitis after discharge was approximately 1200–1500 US$ under the Tw–DRG payment system. The charge of CT was a relatively high in a fraction of total hospital expenditure for operative appendicitis in Tw-DRG reimbursement. In Taiwan, health providers are learning to effectively manage the Tw-DRG system nowadays. The difference in expenditure between the diagnosis of Ap with or without the use of CT was greater than the cost of CT diagnosis itself. Therefore, the high cost associated with the use of CT for the diagnosis of Ap was based on clinical requirements and could not be the only reason for the increase in medical expenditure. Therefore, the necessity of using ultrasound followed by CT in Tw-DRGs in the care of some patients must be re-evaluated.

The mechanism of hepatoprotection by methanolic extracts of

The mechanism of hepatoprotection by methanolic extracts of C. hystrix and C. maxima (Red & White) corticotropin releasing factor is due to their antioxidant potential. This suggests that leaf extracts can reduce ROS that may lessen the oxidative damage to the hepatocytes and improve the activities of the liver antioxidant enzymes, thus protecting the liver from paracetamol induced damage. Also, the possible mechanism could be by the stimulation of hepatic regeneration through an improved synthesis of protein or accelerated detoxification and excretion. Akachi et al. [31] demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect of polymethoxy flavonoids such as citromitin, tangeretin and nobiletin from juice of Citrus depressa could act against D-Galactosamine induced liver injury in rats. Park et al. [32] evaluated the oral administration of narirutin fraction from the peel of C. unshiu against alcohol induced hepatic damage in rats could block the development of alcoholic fatty liver and hepatic tissue damage. Mahmoud et al. [33] reported that the hepatoprotective effect of limonin from the seed of C. aurantium var bigaradia on D-Galactosamine induced liver injury in rats. They have also been noted as rich phytoconstituents such as dietary phenolics and flavonoids which are mainly responsible for the antioxidant power.

All profiles of hepatoprotective analysis indicate the C. hystrix and C. maxima (Red and White) leaves can serve as hepatoprotectants as they restore all the liver function and oxidative stress markers to the desirable levels. Further verification by their histological micrographs reveals the attenuation of liver damage. This is aided by the superior antioxidant potential of the leaf extracts against the sequential events of free radical toxicity by paracetamol. It can be concluded from the observations in our study that C. hystrix and C. maxima (Red and White) leaf extract may have a protective effect against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, further studies using more models of experimental hepatic damage are required to elucidate exact molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved and to establish its therapeutic role as a hepatoprotective agent.

Conflict of interest


Free radicals are fundamental to any biochemical process and represent an essential part of aerobic life and metabolism [1]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are products of normal cellular metabolism. The most common ROS include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxyl (ROO) radicals and reactive hydroxyl (OH) radicals and the nitrogen derived free radicals are nitric oxide and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO) [2]. These reactive species play an important role in pathogenesis of several oxidative stress related diseases like carcinogenesis, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and neurological degenerative diseases [3]. It is possible to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and prevent disease progression by either enhancing the body\’s natural antioxidant defenses or by supplementing with dietary antioxidants [4]. Antioxidants offer resistance against oxidative stress by scavenging the free radicals, inhibiting the lipid peroxidation and by many other mechanisms and thus prevent the disease progression [5]. The most commonly used synthetic antioxidants at present are butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate and tert-butylhydroquinone. However, they are suspected of being responsible for liver damage and acting as carcinogens in laboratory animals [6]. The search for new products with antioxidative properties and fewer side effects is very active domain of research. Therefore, the development and utilization of more effective antioxidants of natural origin is desirable [7]. Since ancient times, many official herbs have provoked interest as sources of natural products. They have been screened for their potential uses as alternative remedies for the treatment of any infections and preservation of foods from the toxic effects of oxidants [8]. Novel natural antioxidants from some plants have been extensively studied in the past few years for their antioxidant and radical scavenging properties [9]. Kedrostis foetidissima belong to the family of Cucurbitaceae, traditionally the plant was found to be effective in treatment of diarrhea, measles, asthma, small pox and opportunistic infections. The present work was aimed to evaluate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of various leaf extracts of K. foetidissima.