Se afirma que A muscaria fue

Se afirma que A. muscaria fue usada en América después de que los siberianos cruzaron el estrecho de Bering, entre Asia y Alaska, en la época glacial. Los indígenas Ojibwa, en la región de los Grandes Lagos, situada entre Canadá y Estados Unidos, aún consumen A. muscaria (Wasson, 1979). Al emigrar hacia el sur, dichas tribus llegaron hop over to these guys México y Guatemala, en donde varias figuras y códices revelan el uso del hongo. En México, en la cultura capacha de Jalisco se encontró una estatuilla de arcilla de unos 15cm de alto (fig. 3) en forma de A. muscaria. Esta tiene debajo la figura de un pequeño indígena sentado; vemos aquí nuevamente el efecto del enanismo y el éxtasis por el rostro y la posición de los brazos del personaje. Otro ejemplo prehispánico de A. muscaria es una pequeña piedra en forma de un botón (fig. 4-5) que fue encontrada en un sitio arqueológico cerca de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán. Se atribuye a los purépecha, pero estos indígenas en la actualidad no consumen A. muscaria y la consideran venenosa, pero con respeto, especialmente en su etapa botón (fig. 2). El porqué la pequeña piedra tiene tallada una calavera en el lado opuesto (fig. 5) puede ser como una posible señal de los efectos neurotrópicos en la cabeza. En las culturas contemporáneas indígenas de México y Guatemala A. muscaria no se utiliza en sus tradiciones debido al cambio que hicieron por especies de Psilocybe (fig. 16) (véase adelante).
En cuanto al uso de A. muscaria en las culturas náhuatl y maya, hay dos interesantes piezas arqueológicas que representan cabezas indígenas en relación con este hongo y la mente (figs. 6-7). La primera muestra A. muscaria en el lugar de los ojos y a su vez la cara de la persona distorsionada. En la figura 7, el lado derecho de la cara de la cabeza tiene representada una A. muscaria, mientras que en el izquierdo la cara está distorsionado, lo que probablemente significa que el hongo provoca visiones (véase más información de esta figura en de Borhegyi y de Borhegyi-Forrest, 2013). Lowy (1972) estudió interesantes representaciones de A. muscaria en los códices Dresde, Galindo y Madrid de la cultura maya y sugirió que hubo un culto de este hongo, observación propuesta por primera vez por Borhegyi De (1957). Lowy (1974) discutió además la leyenda del rayo, en Guatemala y México (Chiapas), que relaciona los rayos y truenos con A. muscaria. Dichos fenómenos naturales inspiran miedo, respeto y reverencia por el poder que despliegan. Los antiguos mayas pensaban que este fenómeno estaba relacionado con una alianza mágica con el hongo. Hoy los indígenas dicen que A. muscaria nace en el lugar donde cae un rayo, y que esa es la razón por la que tiene gran poder. Otra leyenda sobre el rayo, pero con Psilocybe en Oaxaca (México) (Wasson, 1980), fue escuchada del curandero Aristeo Matías en la zona de San Agustín Loxicha (Oaxaca), en donde tienen como hongo sagrado a coelomates P. zapotecorum (fig. 16) y al que llaman «corona de Cristo». Según Aristeo, dicho hongo crece en el lugar en donde cae un rayo y en el que se deposita sangre de Cristo. Esta observación une interesantemente la cultura maya con la zapoteca.

La época del «teonanácatl»
Los indígenas mesoamericanos que utilizaron primero A. muscaria como un hongo sagrado cambiaron a Psilocybe al descubrir las propiedades alucinógenas de varias especies de este, debido a que A. muscaria no es abundante y a su vez causa malestares estomacales. Los psilocibes, por el contrario, son comunes e inofensivos. El «teonanácatl», descrito por Sahagún (1955) en relación con unos hongos sagrados de los aztecas, es un Psilocybe, como lo ha hecho ver Guzmán (2012) y no un Panaeolus, como erróneamente fue considerado por Reko (1919, 1945) y Schultes (1939). El «teonanácatl» fue confusamente estudiado por Schultes (1939), al identificar los hongos de los mazatecos de Oaxaca como «teonanácatl». Schultes y Reko en Huautla de Jiménez, en 1938, al escudriñar cuáles eran los hongos sagrados, recibieron por parte de los indígenas dos paquetes con hongos secos. Pero además, Reko y Schultes colectaron en el campo hongos frescos. Posteriormente, todos los hongos se estudiaron en Harvard, pero los únicos identificados fueron los colectados por Reko y Schultes. Estos como Panaeolus sphinctrinus (fig. 12:11). Con ello Schultes (1939) publicó un artículo sobre la identificación del «teonanácatl» de los aztecas y se inició una gran confusión sobre la verdadera identidad del «teonanácatl» (Davis, 1997; Guzmán, 2012).

Otros de los males que tratan y cuya presencia es

Otros de los males que tratan, y cuya presencia es común en la vida cotidiana e implica en ocasiones la asistencia de un ritualista, serán descritos PR-171 manufacturer continuación con más detalle.

Conclusiones
Por un lado, sus propias bases hacen referencia a un nivel específico de la organización social: el espacio inmediato del hogar o la familia extensa que se abre para incluir las relaciones de compadrazgo o el ámbito vecinal. Sumodusoperandi pareciera enfatizar las relaciones sociales, sus interacciones y la participación y dimensión colectiva del proceso de curación. Se trata de un proceso sutilmente ordenado (en ocasiones jerarquizado), con frecuencia centralizado en la figura de la madre, pero a menudo también constituido por una intervención diferencial de personas, especialmente mujeres pertenecientes a diversas generaciones, aunque también hombres y niños, que se desenvuelven en su contexto y en su espacio original: madres de familia, abuelas maternas o paternas, ciertos parientes rituales —madrinas—, vecinas experimentadas que actúan como asistentes o terapeutas, y otras categorías de participantes, como sacerdotes, hijos de vecinos o los propios vecinos anfitriones, en el caso de la tiricia (paradigmático en el sentido de la intervención acumulativa y colectiva). Existe una dimensión fuertemente social, en la que las secuencias y tiempos de la curación suelen encontrarse en relación con personas distintas y con la convergencia de sus acciones combinadas sobre el niño enfermo. En este sentido, en el campo de las afecciones infantiles, el lenguaje sobre la terapéutica muchas veces atañe directamente al campo de las relaciones sociales, en tanto discurso de la etiología nosológica, en el que las causas de los males son vinculados en buena medida con distintos tipos de relación social: la envidia o deseo ajeno (en el mal de ojo), el exceso de juego e interacción con los adultos (en la caída de mollera) o el estado opuesto: la soledad o ausencia de compañía (en la tiricia).

Introducción

La Costa Chica de Oaxaca. Antecedentes históricos y situación actual
La llegada de los colonizadores españoles a lo que hoy conocemos como territorio mexicano trajo consigo cambios significativos en materia demográfica. La aparición de enfermedades desconocidas para la población nativa de estas tierras aumentó el índice de mortalidad. Otro factor que influyó de manera decisiva en el descenso demográfico fue la inserción de los indígenas como trabajadores en las encomiendas y los repartimientos.
Lo anterior tuvo como resultado la necesidad de incorporar mano de obra que sustituyera en las actividades económicas novohispanas las cuantiosas bajas entre los colonizados. Los seleccionados para cubrir este déficit poblacional fueron los esclavos africanos. Con la expansión colonial europea, la trata de esclavos constituyó un negocio próspero que servía como paliativo ante la insuficiencia de mano de obra en las colonias. Sin embargo, los embarques debían pasar por Europa para registrar las cargas y pagar el impuesto correspondiente. Dado el elevado costo de este tipo de transacciones, los comerciantes crearon la ruta directa de África hacia los principales puertos americanos (Martínez, 2010: 28), de tal manera que los primeros africanos llegaron directamente del lejano continente.
Más adelante, otros esclavos arribaron con sus amos españoles en calidad de siervos o criados domésticos (Meza, 2003). La economía colonial española fundamentada principalmente en la minería, hizo necesario una mayor importación de mano de obra, la cual provenía tanto de España como de Portugal, así como de la región caribeña. De acuerdo con los estudios historiográficos, se tiene registrado el ingreso de alrededor de 200 000 africanos a la Nueva España (Velázquez 2005:29).
Si bien la presencia de los africanos se diversificó en los diferentes puntos geográficos del territorio novohispano, fueron cuatro las zonas donde su presencia fue más significativa: en la región del Golfo, con Veracruz como centro rector; en el norte y oeste de la ciudad de México; por Puebla hacia la costa del Pacífico (Acapulco) y, principalmente, la ciudad y el valle de México (Davidson, 1981: 81). La mano de obra de origen africano se instauró en los ingenios azucareros, la ganadería, obrajes y agricultura de cacao, pero también como trabajadores urbanos en diferentes oficios, como sastres, zapateros y pintores.

Caspofungin is an echinocandin that

Caspofungin is an echinocandin that inhibits the synthesis of β(1,3)-d-glucan, an essential component of the A-443654 cost of susceptible Aspergillus and Candida species. It has been approved by the FDA for use in adults and pediatric patients (⩾3months of age) for empirical therapy for presumed fungal infections in febrile, neutropenic patients; treatment of candidemia and the Candida infections (intra-abdominal abscesses, peritonitis, and pleural space infections); treatment of esophageal candidiasis; and treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other therapies (e.g., amphotericin B, lipid formulations of amphotericin B, itraconazole) (Merck Sharp et al., 2013).
Imipenem is a Thienamycin that inhibits cell-wall synthesis. Cilastatin is a dehydropeptidase I inhibitor that prevents renal metabolism of imipenem. Imipenem has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), skin and skin structure infections (SSSI), and intra-abdominal and gynecologic infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms (Merck Sharp et al., 2013).
Meropenem is a carbapenem that penetrates bacterial cell walls to reach penicillin-binding-protein targets, thus inhibiting cell wall synthesis, resulting in cell death. The FDA has approved meropenem for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections (complicated appendicitis and peritonitis), bacterial meningitis, and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms. It is useful as presumptive therapy in the indicated condition prior to identification of causative organisms (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, 2013).

Methods

Results and discussion
Duration of therapy analysis showed significant reduction in the average duration of use of imipenem and meropenem, in the second and fourth periods of the study. Average Caspofungin duration of therapy was (12.15, 7.70, 13.15, 10.97) days, for Periods I, II, III, and IV respectively (F(3,93)=0.84 , p=0.4756), while average imipenem duration of therapy was (10.52, 7.61, 8.86, 6.68) days, for the same periods respectively (F(3,214)=3.60, p=0.0144). Meropenem duration of therapy was (12.74, 7.38, 10.35, 7.99) days for the same periods respectively (F(3,240)=3.95, p=0.0089). DBD analysis showed similar results for the same periods and drugs.
Non-significance of reduction of caspofungin DBD resulted from the drug being used in culture-negative patients, as illustrated in Fig. 1, and failing to de-escalate therapy appropriately (Levy et al., 2012). Off-label (Mukattash et al., 2011) and prophylactic prescribing may impair control of caspofungin. In these cases causative organisms were not identified and drug therapy was empirical. The analysis was not expanded to the number of microorganisms and number of infection sites which could affect the result of the analysis (Jourdan et al., 2003).
Results from implementing and fostering antimicrobial policy by clinical pharmacist and ID resulted in (37%) reduction in consumption of imipenem and meropenem, which correlate with reduction in antimicrobial resistance and associated costs. Velickovic-Radovanovic et al. (2012) reported a similar result (37.8%) (see Table 1).
Table 2 provides the analysis of antimicrobial use in all wards and captures the prescribing A-443654 cost habits in these wards. Once wards with high consumption rate were identified a more focused approach was done to dictate the use of the antimicrobial under study to verify rational use of the drug and minimize prolonged unnecessary use of the antimicrobial. For example, the ICU was consuming the highest amount of all three antimicrobials. The open structure of ICU ward allows a higher consumption of antimicrobials with less control to antibiotic prescription (Murunga et al., 2005). This pattern is of concern as the ICU is associated with increased emergence of resistance to treated organisms (Fish et al., 1995). In the first period, major sites of prolonged therapy were: medical ward for all three antimicrobials, CCU for caspofungin, and the cardiac ward for meropenem. In the second period, prolonged therapy peaked in: specialized surgery consumption for caspofungin and meropenem, hematology, ICU, and medical for imipenem, and Oncology for meropenem. The third period showed prolonged therapy in: ICU using caspofungin, hematology, ICU, and medical ward using imipenem, and CSICU using meropenem. In the last period prolonged therapy was in: cardiac ward with caspofungin and meropenem, hematology with imipenem, and specialized surgery with meropenem.

Pharmacists in Dubai are perceiving themselves chemists n and pharmacologists

Pharmacists in Dubai are perceiving themselves chemists (48.5%, n=96) and pharmacologists (35.4%, n=70) so that healthcare professionals concerned with dispensing medicines ignoring the important management part as only 14.1% (n=28) of the respondents perceived themselves managers and 13.1% (n=26) saw that they have some sales responsibilities. The findings of this study are analogous with similar study where how to do molarity pharmacists used the word ‘dispensing’ or dispensing-related terms to describe their professional role (Rosenthal et al., 2011).
The new trend of community pharmacists in Dubai is providing extra pharmacy services. According to this study, community pharmacists provide services like educating patients on the use of nutritional supplements (67.7%, n=134), suitable diet plans (58.6%, n=116), skin care (49.5%, n=98), herbal medicines (48.5%, n=96), and weight reduction methods (48.5%, n=96). Similar findings were gathered from a study that was done in rural community pharmacies in Western Australia where patients were more keen to ask pharmacists questions related to issues above and over the traditional dispensing role of pharmacists (Wibowo et al., 2010).
The decision to choose one particular pharmacy by patients depends on many factors such as pharmacy location, friendly staff, fast and quality service, and appearance of a pharmacy (Merks et al., 2014). Similar outcomes were shown in the neighbor state ‘Qatar’, where the location of a pharmacy, provision of a good range of products and services, convenient pharmacy opening hours, and pharmacist’s professional knowledge were considered primary choice factors (El Hajj et al., 2011). These findings were persistent with results extracted from this study. Pharmacists in Dubai were found keen in taking care of their patients in a good way to ensure retaining them for long time (Table 6).

Study limitations

Conclusion

Disclaimer

Funding Information

Ethical Approval

Introduction
With a steady increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1980 to 2011, it is estimated that by the year 2030, 552 million people will have diabetes (Whiting et al., 2011), thus the great burden will be brought worldwide by the huge increase in type 1 and 2 diabetes population, of which type 2 diabetes people account for about 90–95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Gavin et al., 2010; Nyenwe et al., 2011). Although current therapies for type 2 diabetes include lifestyle modification of diet and exercise as first-line therapy, pharmacotherapy is considered an essential component for effective glycemic control (Nathan, 2009). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a novel class of pharmacotherapies that provide effective glycemic control with low risk of hypoglycemia and weight loss (Drucker, 2007; Sebokova et al., 2010a). Taspoglutide is a long-acting human GLP-1 analogue and considered to have equivalent potency to natural GLP-1 (Nauck et al., 2009). This GLP-1 analogue has been shown to elicit a long-lasting incretin effect, and sustained glycemic control (Raz et al., 2012).
Taspoglutide contains aminoisobutyric acid which is covalently attached to the GLP-1 sequence at positions 8 and 35 of the native GLP-1 peptide (Dong et al., 2011). These structure modifications prolong the half-life of the circulating complex without otherwise changing its biological activity. Also, apparently, the aminoisobutyric acid molecule sterically inhibits DPP-4 enzyme from degrading taspoglutide (Sebokova et al., 2010b). Taspoglutide shows high binding affinity to the human GLP-1 receptor (Pratley et al., 2013) and its biological activity is not affected through assessment of its relative activity on cyclic adenosine monophosphate stimulation (Sebokova et al., 2010b). Its resistance to DPP-4 enzyme degradation and a zinc-based sustained release formulation confer an extended half-life and allow for QW subcutaneous administration (Ratner et al., 2010). Several multiple dosing regimens in clinical trials have showed that taspoglutide 10 or 20mg compared with placebo to patients with type 2 diabetes reduced FPG levels, stimulated insulin secretion and reduced glucagon levels with weight loss (Nauck et al., 2009; Bergenstal et al., 2012; Henry et al., 2012; Raz et al., 2012).

Near to half of the participants in this study

Near to half of the participants in this study indicated that they consider the pharmacist as a mere vendor/dispenser. Similarly in the study done in Saudi Arabia by Bawazir, about 56% of participants considered that the pharmacists are more concerned with business (Bawazir, 2010). However, most of the participants considered pharmacists as an integral part of health care system which is an encouraging finding. Similar results were found in the study by Al-Arifi in Saudi Arabia and Perepelkin J in Canada (Al Arifi, 2012; Perepelkin, 2011). This demonstrates that pharmacists in Oman like in many other countries enjoy recognition as a vital member of the health care team.
Majority of participants opined that pharmacists should provide extended services such as health screening; BP monitoring, and blood glucose monitoring. Peterson G in his study of public perceptions on the role of Australian pharmacists in cardiovascular diseases reported a similar finding (Peterson et al., 2010). Our study results demonstrate that the time has arrived for the pharmacists in Oman to consider positively to include these allied health care services with the changing potentials of practice and expectations of consumers.
A high number of participants (93.9%) agreed that a pharmacist should check the prescription for accuracy in terms of drug name, dose, any problem in taking the medication together, etc before dispensing the medication. In the UK or Sweden, pharmacists are perceived as having the ability to check doctors’ prescriptions (Tang and Sporrong, 2008). It is quite evident that EMD638683 are very clear about the primary responsibilities of pharmacists and they expect pharmacists to deliver the same in the optimal way. Almost all of them expected that the pharmacist should let them know how to use medication and warn of any side effects and how to prevent it, quite similar to the response of participants in the Saudi study (Al Arifi, 2012). Promotion of drug safety by appropriate information sharing is considered as a prime responsibility of pharmacists and consumers acknowledge the same.
In this age of information explosion and sharing, it is not surprising to note that vast majority of the participants opined that it would be ideal that pharmacists provide advice on general health issues in addition to drugs. In the study by Sharma et al. and Eades et al. as well customers found the pharmacy a convenient setting to provide public health services (Sharma et al., 2009; Eades et al., 2011). This demonstrates the changing health information seeking behavior of patients as they might find physicians or nurses ‘too occupied’ to discuss about general health issues. Similar concerns regarding privacy as reported in present study were reported in other studies and they considered having a private consultation area in the pharmacy as an integral component (Hajj et al., 2011; Eades et al., 2011; Wirth et al., 2011).
Majority of participants (72.1%) indicated satisfaction with the kind of response pharmacists provide on questions related to drugs. Nevertheless, only marginally above half of the participants indicated that they were satisfied with the level of knowledge that pharmacist demonstrated related to drugs, while a good number (32.1%) were not sure about it. Ambiguity in the participant’s outlook on pharmacist’s knowledge level could be probably because many did not have an opportunity to have a professional interaction at a higher level to draw conclusions on the same. Indeed, the situation is better than EMD638683 what is reported in Qatar where only 37% of the public agreed that Qatar’s pharmacists were knowledgeable enough and were always ready to answer questions (Hajj et al., 2011). There were participants who were not satisfied with the language used by the pharmacist in discussing drug related matters. This could be influenced by the fact that a good number of pharmacists working in Oman health sector, especially in the community pharmacy setting are expatriates and majority from non-Arabic speaking countries. This could definitely influence their fluency while interacting with patients and affect the patient’s level of satisfaction. In the study conducted in Qatar, communication in the native language was an important quality expected by 72% of participants (Hajj et al., 2011). It is reported that lack of time, high pharmacist workloads and restricted funding result in limited patient interaction impeding the formation of interpersonal trust (Gidman et al., 2012). The amount of time spent by pharmacists during interactions was of concern for a good number of participants in our study similar to other (Wirth et al., 2011).

br Discussion The outcomes of this study

Discussion
The outcomes of this study indicate that the 3D CISS MRI scanning demonstrated that there is a larger structure free space at orbital depths of 12.5 than 25mm which was useful as a non-invasive sequence to confirm the presumed clinical findings that there was greater free space for the important orbital structures at 12.5mm compared to the 25mm depth. 3D CISS MRI with multi-planar reconstructions in axial, coronal and sagittal planes provides an excellent method to demonstrate the orbital anatomy in relation to ophthalmic anesthesia and to characterize the relationship between the adjacent orbital structures with high spatial intrinsic resolution.
The orbit can be divided into 3 anatomical spaces (anterior, mid and posterior) for a better appreciation of the relationship of the injection site. The mid-orbit ends posteriorly about 10–12mm from the back surface of the globe. It contains primarily muscle bellies and adipose connective tissue. The posterior orbit ends at the optic canal and consists mainly of muscle origins and a collection of neurovascular bundles.
A previous study of 150 patients reported that a 15mm needle with digital pressure (with thumb and index finger around the needle hub during injection) gives comparable results to a 25mm needle.
Liu et al. investigated the MRI appearance of the optic nerve in extremes of gaze with implications for the position of the globe for retrobulbar anesthesia and showed that the safe locations for needle insertion are at the extreme inferotemporal corner of the orbit and in the medial area due to a compartment with larger volumes of fat containing adipose connective tissue. Our results using the CISS sequence concur with Liu et al. For example, we found that the inferotemporal fat area is statistically significantly larger at the 12.5mm plane (P=0.033). At deeper planes, the structures are more tightly packed together and the posterior orbital fat is smaller in comparison to the size of the inferior and lateral recti muscle bellies which are closer to each other with little intervening fat at the orbital floor and lateral orbital wall respectively.

Conclusion
There is a larger structure-free space at a depth of 12.5 than at 25mm. Therefore, the inference is that, a needle inserted in the infero-temporal zone to a depth of 12.5mm is less likely to injure the eyeball or extra-ocular muscles than one advanced to 25mm.

Conflict of interest

Introduction
Trauma with foreign bodies in the eye are not uncommon and may trigger a wide range of complications, including hyphema, cataract, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal tears and detachment. Missed IOFBs may present with different clinical aspects that may limit their detection and symptoms may only become apparent after a prolonged time period. Certain metallic foreign bodies within the eye may produce retinotoxic ions. Ferrous ions can destroy retinal photoreceptors and pigment epithelial dub ubiquitin leading to siderosis, on the other hand copper containing intraocular foreign body can induce chalcosis. Thus, most metallic IOFBs should be removed promptly to prevent these reactions and minimize intraocular inflammation. Other indication to remove intraocular foreign body is to prevent endophthalmitis, which commonly causes a destructive fibro-vascular response that may ultimately result in blindness. A good patient history and a thorough ocular examination are still the most important factors for diagnosing IOFB. Radiological investigations such as plain X-rays, ocular ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to detect and localize IOFBs. Most intraocular metallic foreign bodies are composed of iron, steel or one of their alloys. We report on a case of a thread-like IOFB in the AC of the right eye that was observed over a five-year period in which the patient first presented with decreased vision.

Case report
In January 2007, a seven-year-old boy presented with decreased vision in his right eye after sustaining a trauma while playing with fireworks 2months prior to presentation. He was managed in a suburban hospital with a topical antibiotic and a topical steroid. No surgical intervention was performed at that time. In an examination of the right eye: the un-aided visual acuity was 6/60 on a Snellen chart. A slit lamp examination revealed central horizontal corneal scaring approximately 6mm in length, with the iris adherent to the nasal edge of the scar, which caused a slight irregularity in the AC. A whitish thread that was approximately 5mm in length, was lying obliquely over the iris superiorly at 11 o’clock, and its superior end was hidden at an angle. The inferior end of the thread was embedded within the iris away from the pupil, without touching the endothelium, non-mobile, and with a quiet AC (Fig. 1). It seemed that the trauma caused a full thickness corneal laceration nasally and allowed the foreign body to enter into the AC, which was then sealed by the iris. The iris was adherent to the corneal laceration and caused a slight irregularity of the pupil but maintained the AC form. The pupil was reactive and the intra-ocular pressure was 16mmHg. The lens was clear. Examination of the left eye was normal. A fundus examination showed flat retinas in both eyes. The initial management plan was to remove the IOFB under general anesthesia. The patient did not appear for his appointment and was lost to follow-up. He returned in January 2011, and at that time, the examination of the right eye was as follows: the un-aided visual acuity of 6/12, un-changed findings on the slit lamp examination. A cycloplegic refraction was performed which returned the following results: right eye: +1.75/−2.25×30, left eye was: +0.50/−0.50×165. The patient’s vision improved in the right eye to 6/9 with +1.00/−2.25×30. The un-aided visual acuity of the left eye was 6/6 with normal anterior and posterior segments. The patient was orthophoric and had full extra-ocular muscle movement in both eyes. No further investigations were requested. The patient was again lost to follow-up but returned in September 2012 complaining of headaches after lengthy reading. The right eye vision was 6/6 without correction with the same slit lamp examination. The right eye had an IOP of 16mmHg with a normal fundus, and the left eye dub ubiquitin was normal and had an IOP of 16mmHg. The cycloplegic refraction of the right eye was: +0.25/−4.00×15, the left eye was: +0.50/−0.75×175. By subjective refraction, the vision of the right eye was 6/6 with −3.25×15, the left eye was 6/6 with-0.50×175. The patient’s sight was clear with spectacles.

Introduction br Root resorption Root

Introduction

Root resorption
Root resorption is common during orthodontic tooth movement (Krishnan, 2005). Limited root resorption, involving a number of teeth, can be considered a consequence of orthodontic treatment (Ketcham, 1927). If the patient develops additional pathosis, such as periodontal disease, this may further compromise the support of the tooth and the patient can eventually loose that tooth (Ketcham, 1927). However, no reports in the literature have documented tooth loss caused by root resorption. A long-term case report documented a follow-up of a case of severe root resorption that occurred for 33years, and the affected teeth were found to be functional (Parker, 1997). However, lack of reports in the literature on tooth loss due to root resorption does not exclude this as a potential risk.
The problem of root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment was first discussed by Ketcham (1927). He was also the first to indicate other factors, such as hormonal disturbance and dietary deficiency in addition to orthodontic treatment variables, which may be contributing factors in root resorption (Davidovitch et al., 1996). The etiology of root resorption still remains unclear and is complex, including genetic predisposition and environmental factors (Al-Qawasmi et al., 2003; Abass and Hartsfield, 2007). The genetic predisposition makes root resorption associated with orthodontic treatment more predictable (Abass and Hartsfield, 2007).
The best approach toward root resorption is to consider the risk factors, discuss the identified factors with the patient seeking orthodontic treatment, and include these factors in the treatment consent form. These risk factors include the duration of treatment. The risk for root resorption increases with the length of treatment (Krishnan, 2005; Brezniek and Wasserstein, 1993; Baumrind, 1996). Treatment of impacted canines can extend treatment time or the movement of these canines may lead to an increase in the risk for root resorption (Krishnan, 2005). Thin, tapered, and dilacerated root morphology, results in mct2 pathway that are more prone to resorption (Mirabella and Artun, 1995; Levander et al., 1998; Killiany, 1999; Sameshima and Sinclair, 2001). Additionally, history of trauma associated with the anterior teeth increases the risk for root resorption (Malmgren et al., 1982). Therefore, documentation of the condition through pre-treatment periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors is necessary. Potential extraction of maxillary and mandibular first or second premolars as well as the use of intermaxillary elastics during treatment should also be considered (Mirabella and Artun, 1995; Sameshima and Sinclair, 2001). Root resorption from previous orthodontic treatment is a risk that may result in further root shortening (Brezniak and Wasserstein, 2002). Orthodontic re-treatment of such cases should be performed with caution and treatment objectives should be limited. Some habits, such as thumb sucking, occlusal trauma, or history of chronic bruxism, may increase the risk for root resorption (Linge and Linge, 1991; Harris, 2000).
Assessment of the condition through a progress radiograph at 6–12months after the initiation of orthodontic treatment is recommended. These could be either periapical or panoramic radiographs. The patient must be informed that if root resorption is observed, then active treatment must be stopped for at least 3months (Levander et al., 1994). The reparative process of root resorption begins two weeks after active treatment is stopped (Krishnan, 2005). At this stage, an alternative treatment plan should be considered and treatment should be discontinued when severe root resorption is observed.

Pain associated with orthodontic treatment
Pain and discomfort is a common adverse effect associated with orthodontic treatment (Pollat, 2007). Previous studies have shown that 70–95% of orthodontic patients experience pain (Lew, 1993; Scheurer et al., 1996; Firestone et al., 1999). This pain could be a reason for discontinuing treatment; previous studies have indicated that 8% and even upto 30% of orthodontic patients discontinue treatment because of pain (Pollat, 2007). The pain and discomfort associated with orthodontic treatment is characterized by pressure, tension, or soreness of the teeth (Ngan et al., 1989). Pain in the anterior teeth is greater than the posterior teeth (Scheurer et al., 1996). Pain has been reported to begin 4h after the placement of separators or orthodontic wire, and the worst pain was found to occur on the second day of treatment (Ngan et al., 1989; Lew, 1993; Scheurer et al., 1996; Firestone et al., 1999). Usually, pain lasts for seven days (Ngan et al., 1989). Clinical anticipation of the need to use fixed appliances makes the risk for pain and discomfort greater (Stewart et al., 1997; Sergl et al., 1998). Management of pain should include informing the patient of the possibility of experiencing pain to reduce anxiety. Furthermore, the clinician can ask the patient to chew on plastic wafers or chewing gums containing aspirin (White et al., 1984; Hwang et al., 1994; Ngan et al., 1994). Chewing on plastic wafers theoretically increases the circulation in the periodontal ligament, which reduces the pain and discomfort. Additionally, clinicians are recommended to prescribe Ibuprofen or acetaminophen analgesics preoperatively and for a short duration after the placement of separators and initial wires (Ngan et al., 1994; Law et al., 2000; Polat and Karaman, 2005).

br Materials and methods br

Materials and methods

Results
We examined the gross organ morphology, transmission electron microscopy and biochemical changes in rats induced liver cirrhosis with TAA for 16days and confirmed liver cirrhosis. Gross morphology of the tissue and transmission electron microscopy of respective samples showed the theraupeutic effect of drug extract on liver cirrhosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The liver weight: body weight ratio was also calculated and was found to be substantially increased in cirrhotic rats (Table 1). Morphological observations showed an increased size and enlargement of the liver in TAA treated groups. These changes were reversed by treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the doses tested. The levels of serum ALP and GTT were markedly elevated in TAA treated animals, indicating liver damage. ALP levels increased by 44% in the TAA treated group where as in the TAA treated group which received the Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract the elevation of ALP was markedly reduced to only 23% (Table 2). Analysis of LPO levels by thiobarbituric buy paricalcitol reaction showed a significant (P<0.0001) increase in LPO in the TAA treated rats. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at 500mg/kg significantly (P<0.0001) prevented the increase in LPO level which was brought to near normal. TAA treatment caused a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in the level of GSH in the liver tissue when compared with control group. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the dose of 500mg/kg resulted in a significant increase of GSH when compared to TAA treated rats (Table 3). TAA treatment caused a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in the level of GR and GPx in the liver tissue when compared with control group. Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at the dose of 500mg/kg resulted in a significant increase of GR and GPx when compared to TAA treated rats (Table 4). The drug metabolizing enzymes XOD and GST in TAA treated group showed a significant (P<0.0001) increase in their respective levels as compared to normal control. Following Treatment with Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at 500mg/kg significantly (P<0.0001) prevented the increase in xanthine oxidase and glutathione-S-transferase levels which were brought to near normal.
Discussion
The liver is one of the vital organs of the animal body and plays a central role in transforming and clearing the chemicals, but it is susceptible to toxicity from other agents. Certain medicinal agents, like paracetamol, when taken in overdoses or sometimes even within therapeutic ranges, may damage the liver. Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g. microcystins) and herbal remedies can also induce hepatotoxins. More than 900 drugs have been implicated in causing liver injury and it is one of the most common reasons for a drug to be withdrawn from the market Jayaweera, 1981. Products of natural origin have been found to be effective in various types of liver disease (Smart et al., 1986). Present study provides much evidence of the therapeutic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dried seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum on an animal model of hepatotoxicity which was evaluated by various assays. Administration of Thioacetamide (TAA) has been reported to inflict liver cirrhosis, depending on the period of exposure. These results were similar to the earlier reported results (Balansky et al., 2007). The mechanism behind its toxicity is thought to be associated with its toxic metabolite (s-oxide). It interferes with the movement of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm which may cause membrane injury. It reduces the number of viable hepatocytes as well as rate of oxygen consumption and also decreases the volume of bile and its content, that is, bile salts, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid Taranalli and Kuppast, 1996.
In the assessment of liver damage by TAA, the enhanced activities of these serum marker enzymes observed in TAA treated rats in our study correspond to the extensive liver damage induced by TAA. Results indicate that Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract administration could blunt TAA induced increase in activities of marker enzymes of heptocellular injury, viz. ALP, GTT suggesting that Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract possibly has a protective influence against TAA- induced

The ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase rbcL sequence method has been extensively used

The ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) sequence method has been extensively used in studies of evolution, phylogeny, biogeography, population genetics, and systematics because it can be readily copied and not strikingly different for related species (Sheng-Guo et al., 2008; Doyle et al., 1997). The sequence of rbcL has been recorded in many studies and it is clear that this marker has great potential and benefit in terms of studying the genetic variations of the natural populations (Hamdam et al., 2013). This gene is far more variable in sequence. Because of the relatively rapid rate at which new mutants are fixed, these regions may be distinguished closely with other related species that otherwise would show little genetic divergence (Hamdam et al., 2013).
Our study aimed to determine the molecular identification, genetic relationships, and development of DNA markers of S. ellipsospora, using microsatellite markers and rbcL sequencing.

Materials and methods

Results
The general morphology of Spirogyra is characterized by a coiled chloroplast and a light green color. The cell is cylindrical. Apical HMBA Linker cost are tapering, with rounded tips and thick cell walls. There are five different morphological triads of the Spirogyra specimens. The arrangement of chloroplast spirals and granules of patterns 1 and 5 was highly condensed and compacted, while patterns 2, 3 and 4 were relatively scattered, as indicated (Triads 1): condensed and slightly compacted chloroplast spiral, (Triads 2): short cell with scattered chloroplast spiral, (Triads 3): long cell with less chloroplast spiral, (Triads 4): short cell with less chloroplast spiral and (Triads 5): long cell with condensed and compacted chloroplast spiral (see Fig. 1).
In terms of the molecular investigation, ninety-two scorable markers were produced using ten ISSR primers. The cluster analysis of the ISSR markers separated S. ellipsospora, other Spirogyra species and Cladophora sp. as out-groups into two district clusters, which included (cluster 1): S. ellipsospora, Spirogyra sp.1, and Spirogyra sp.4 and (cluster 2): Spirogyra sp.3, Spirogyra sp.2, and Cladophora sp. (Fig. 2).
Nucleotide amplification of rbcL revealed about 570bp fragments in each Spirogyra specimen. Based on the rbcL sequencing data we obtained, they were trimmed to provide an equivalence sequence among each morphological triad. The specific DNA fragment of rbcL was analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. Sequence data of S. ellipsospora from our study revealed definitive identity matches for S. ellipsospora for consensus sequences with 2 accession numbers of S. ellipsospora that are available on the NCBI database.
Phylogenetic trees were analyzed for the rbcL sequences using UPGMA. The phylogram could be separated into two district clusters (cluster 1): S. ellipsospora, Spirogyra sp.2, and Spirogyramaxima and (cluster 2): Spirogyra sp.1, Spirogyra sp.3, Spirogyra sp.4, and Spirogyra sp. (Fig. 3).

Discussion
At present, classical morphologically based methods and molecularly based methods are used for the identification of Spirogyra specimens, which are wildly distributed throughout all parts of Thailand. However, the phenotypic traits may lead to misidentifications and they may be more sensitive than with the molecular identification approach. The Spirogyra specimens were collected and then classified into five patterns under a light microscope.
The species concept of Spirogyra is based on morphological characteristics, which are probably not accurately distinguishable in terms of classification, except by a specially trained individual (McCourt et al., 1986). Moreover, difficulties arise because they are small and soft and also have only a few stable morphological characteristics and are subject to phenotypic variations. Thus, an identification of the closely related species of Spirogyra has only been based on morphological characteristics and as a result they can be confused or misidentified.

Rice which is China s main food crop was considered

Rice, which is China’s main food crop, was considered in the present study. An SVM was incorporated into the developed crop model, which is here presented as SVM-based open crop model (SBOCM). The basic idea of this study was the use of basic geographic information obtained from surface weather observation stations in China (i.e., daily published meteorological data and the 1:1000000 soil database published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences [CAS] (Shi et al., 2002)) as input, and the rice development and yield records of all agricultural observation stations in China as output. A dynamic open reading frame was designed to dynamically input the daily meteorological data, and a scheduled developmental stage prediction was obtained by SVM classification (SVC), and yield prediction by SVM regression (SVR).

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Introduction
Brain functional connectivity has played a variety of roles in the study of human cognition and behavior over the past four decades. Functional connectivity has revealed the reorganization of purchase citco networks during cognitive tasks (Sporns, 2011). Thus, in this paper, dynamic evolution model is constructed to understand cognitive process by dynamic programing algorithm based on brain network. Initially, computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to probe the large-scale organization of the brain which is estimated by correlation of BOLD activity, identifies coherent brain activity in distributed and reproducible networks (Vincent et al., 2006). More recently, a variety of imaging modalities—including structural and functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown characteristic changes in the brains, but thus far has been limited in its capacity to study their temporal evolution. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a data-driven dynamic construction of the state space for the one-pass dynamic programing algorithm so that only the actually active hypotheses are explicitly generated during the process of cognition.
A fair amount of investigation has been directed at linking spiking activity to the fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response (Nagai et al., 2004), but far less research has sought to relate spiking activity and EEG. The EEG is thought to reflect the postsynaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells resulting from their mutual alignment, which allows summation of electric fields (Kopal and Burian, 2014). The strength of the signal is related to both the magnitude of the postsynaptic activity and its coherence: postsynaptic currents with low spatiotemporal coherence tend to destructively interfere at the level of the scalp (Lachaux et al., 2002; Onnela et al., 2005). The common synaptic activity that drives variability in the EEG signal likely also generates spike count correlation across neurons. Their cortical generator was calculated using wavelet coherence for each group. Coherence analysis has been extensively applied to the study of neural activity. To overcome the problems due to non-stationary raised in the previous section, it has recently been proposed to apply wavelet analysis for the estimation of coherence among non-stationary signals (Milligen et al., 1995; Santoso et al., 1997). In contrast to Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis has been devised to analyze signals with rapidly changing spectra (Torrence and Compo, 1998). It performs what is called a time–frequency analysis of the signal, which means the estimation of the spectral characteristics of the signal as a function of time. In some sense, wavelet analysis is close to the windowed short-term Fourier transform, especially when using the Morlet wavelet (Osofsky, 2000), but the major difference is that the size of the window is fixed for the short-term Fourier, and it is adapted to the frequency of the signal in wavelet analysis. Because of this difference, wavelet analysis has a more accurate time–frequency resolution (Lachaux et al., 2000; Bonato et al., 1996). However, the utility of wavelet analysis is that it provides not only the time-varying power-spectrum, but also the phase spectrum, which is needed to compute the coherence. This makes wavelet analysis a natural choice for the estimation of coherence between non-stationary signals (Lachaux et al., 1999).