National health surveys are important tools to evaluate

National health surveys are important tools to evaluate such public policies because they describe the health and nutrition profile of the population, identifying risk factors, to allow comparisons among regions and countries as well as the plotting of trends over time. Therefore, given the significance of children\’s growth in the first two years of life and using data from the last Brazilian National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children (PNDS-2006/07), this study aimed to examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological conditions and postnatal weight gain.

Materials and methods

Results
Of the 6,011 children born after January 2001 who were available in the dataset, 1,763 were infants (0-23 months of age) living in the same house as their mothers, having biologically plausible WAZ data (-6 to +5 SD) at birth and at survey date (Fig. 1). The sample\’s characteristics are described in Table 1.
Diarrhea in the past two weeks, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and hospitalization for diarrhea, pneumonia, and Ro 31-8220 methanesulfonate manufacturer in the past 12 months were not considered for multivariable analyses (p-value > 0.20). Sex was kept in the models to adjust for potential sex-related confounding. Sample losses occurred in the Models 2 and 3 due to missing values in the dataset (Table 2).
Both basic causes were inversely associated with the CWG (Table 2 – Model 1). However, this association was lost after adjusting the model for underlying causes (Model 2). When adjusted for immediate causes (Model 3), economic status (-0.09 [-0.15; -0.03]), maternal education (-0.14 [-0.29; -0.01]), and fever in the past two weeks (-0.13 [-0.26; -0.01]) were inversely associated with children\’s weight gain. However, each 1cm increment in maternal height was associated with an increase of 0.02 SD (0.01; 0.03) in children\’s postnatal weight gain.

Discussion
Although geographical factors were highly associated with CWG in Model 1, when the maternal and household characteristics were introduced in the hierarchical model (Model 2), the association between geographical factors and CWG disappeared, and was replaced by economic status and higher maternal height; low maternal education presented only a moderate association. However, when the third level (immediate causes) was introduced into the analysis, fever remained associated with CWG and the level of association between low maternal education and CWG increased.
The trajectory of growth is mediated by a complex network of non-mutually exclusive factors, acting at different levels of causation, from social, economic, and political determinants; followed by access to health services, food security, income, and educational level; to individual factors related to the burden of disease, eating/feeding practices, metabolic programming, and genetic factors.
The present results demonstrated that low income and maternal educational levels are still key factors to weight faltering. However, contrary to expected, geographical characteristics were not independent factors associated with CWG. This lack of association may be a consequence of the coverage expansion of the public primary health care system in Brazil and/or the intense migratory process from the poorest to the richest regions and from rural to urban areas. However, Cotransfection statement may not hold true for geographical disparities within neighborhoods or cities.
Besides geographical factors, the lack of association of CWG and diarrhea can also be explained by the improvement of health and sanitation systems. The increased access to health services enables the provision of adequate rehydration and antibiotic therapy to infants, which prevents important acute weight loss and/or promotes faster recovery. Moreover, one of the components of social programs in Brazil consists of having young children periodically evaluated by health practitioners. Together with the expansion of the water supply and sewerage, Brazil has substantially reduced nutritional disorders and mortality rates from acute infections.

Milk of bovine is the most commonly searched for

Milk of bovine is the most commonly searched for dairy bioactive peptides. In the past few years, developments in molecular biology, genomics, and proteomics have highlighted the extreme complexity and variability of milk proteins across species [3]. However, in most dairy species, other than bovine, the repertoire of potential milk bioactive proteins or their derived peptides remains to be unraveled. It is one of the greatest challenges facing milk science to provide the basis for health-promoting properties of milk proteins and peptides of dairy species other than bovine. The importance of goat milk is intensifying because cow’s milk is a common cause of food allergy in infants [4,5]. In addition, goat milk proteins are more digestible and medically is being recommended for newborn when human milk is lacking [6]. In newborns, milk feeding contributes to protect against oxidative stress and the associated diseases such as cardiovascular disorder [7,8].
Hypertension is recognized as a serious risk factor for cardiovascular disease [9]. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key enzyme in regulation of blood pressure through two different reactions in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the kinin nitric oxide system (KNOS). For this, many synthetic ACE inhibitors, such as captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, and ramipril were identified and used for the treatment of hypertension. However, these synthetic inhibitors have side effects including coughing, taste disturbance and skin rash [10,11]. Thus, one of the major challenges to today’s world healthcare sectors is to identify ACE inhibitors from natural resources.
Milk bioactive peptides constitute alternatives for this, serving directly as ACE inhibitors, or providing a scaffold for the engineering of novel molecules with clinical potential. In earlier work we found that gastric pepsin purchase naag of goat milk proteins generated various bioactive peptides with potent antioxidant activities [12]. The current study aimed to explore the ACE inhibitory activities of hydrolysates and peptides of separated whey proteins and caseins of goat milk, liberated upon cleavage with gastric pepsin. The structures of goat milk peptides for inhibition of ACE enzyme and the potential of whey proteins, by-products of cheese industry, as a source of new therapeutic peptides against hypertension are discussed.

Material and methods

Results

Discussion
Bioactive peptides or hydrolysates of milk proteins are being considered as possible approach for use in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals for prevention and treatment of hypertension [1,16,17]. In the present work, we have shown that ACE inhibitory peptides can be released from goat milk caseins and whey proteins after gastric pepsin digestion. The inhibitory activity was greatly higher in the small peptides-containing fractions of size exclusion chromatography (Fig. 3) and increased as the peptides were further separated based on hydrophobicity, using RP-HPLC, whereas the hydrophobic peptides showed the strongest ACE inhibition (Fig. 4).
The most active peptides in goat milk are one peptide from whey β-lactoglobulin, PEQSLACQCL fragment 113–122 and two peptides from caseins, ARHPHPHLSFM (fragment 96–106 κ-casein), and QSLVYPFTGPI (fragment 56–66 β-casein). These peptides displayed high ACE inhibitory activity which compares favorably with the activity of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, on weight basis. Previously reported MKP peptide from bovine αs2-casein showed IC50 values of 0.12μg/mL, 0.3μM [18] and IVY peptide from wheat germ exhibited IC50 values of 0.48μM [19]. However, most reported food-derived peptides exhibited IC50 values ranging from 32.9 to 128μM [14,20,21], which are much higher than the values of goat peptides found in this study.
ACE-inhibitory activity of peptides seems to rely on a balance between their amino acid sequences and further breaks down into inactive peptides by gastrointestinal enzymes. Many of the known bioactive peptides have been produced in vitro using gastrointestinal enzymes, usually pepsin and trypsin or α-chymotrypsin. While trypsin preferentially cleaves at the carboxyl side of lysine and arginine, α-chymotrypsin preferentially cleaves peptide amide bonds at the carboxyl side of tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. The two peptides, PEQSLACQCL and QSLVYPFTGPI of goat β-lactoglobulin and β-casein found in this study, are not expected to be cleaved by either trypsin or α-chymotrypsin, as the sequences could be protected from proteolysis because of its high hydrophobicity and the presence of proline residues [22]. For the peptide ARHPHPHLSFM, cleavage at arginine (by trypsin) and phenylalanine (by α-chymotrypsin) will produce a more hydrophobic peptide (HPHPHLSF) rich in proline and histidine, which are well known to contribute to ACE inhibitory action [23]. It is worth noting that the ACE inhibitory peptides from goat milk found in this study possess C-terminal hydrophobic amino acid residues. Studies have indicated that binding of inhibitory peptides to ACE is strongly influenced by the C-terminal sequence [24,25]. Hydrophobic amino acid residues with aromatic or branched side chains or proline residues at one or more positions in the C-terminal region are common features among potent peptide inhibitors [23]. Peptides containing proline and hydroxy proline residues have also been found to be resistant to hydrolysis [26]. Residues such as tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are also present at the C-terminal of many potent ACE inhibitors [27]. The three goat milk ACE inhibitory peptides found in this study possess many hydrophobic residues and rich in proline and histidine, characteristics which are known to contribute to ACE inhibitory action [2]. It has been reported that many of hydrophobic antioxidant peptides also present antihypertensive activity through inhibition of ACE, suggesting the existence of multifunctional peptides [28,29].

Identification of the various dematiaceous fungi responsible for black grain

Identification of the various dematiaceous fungi responsible for black-grain mycetoma remains difficult with standard mycologic procedures and can be delayed up to 12 weeks. Phenotypic and biochemical methods cannot distinguish E jeanselmei from E oligosperma. In addition, E spinifera may be confused with E jeanselmei due to similar early colony morphologic characteristics. Sequencing of the rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene has proven to be a useful molecular tool for reliable and rapid identification of most black-grain mycetoma agents.
Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, the latter being at greater risk of treatment failure and subsequent dissemination of the infection. Owing to the rarity of this infection, there are no clinical trials to guide the management of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by E jeanselmei. The optimal antifungal agent in the treatment of E jeanselmei is still unknown. Historically, itraconazole and voriconazole have demonstrated the most consistent in vitro activity against Exophiala species. Severe infections due to E jeanselmei, including pneumonia, fungemia, central bcr-abl inhibitor infection, endocarditis, and peritonitis, have been reported in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapy is recommended until all signs and symptoms of infection have resolved. In Taiwan, three reported cases of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei were identified in the literature, and all three involved immunocompromised patients. Two cases were treated successfully with itraconazole plus either debridement or cryotherapy. Our case showed that surgical excision alone was sufficient to treat and cure subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by E jeanselmei in an immunocompetent host. Although cryotherapy seems effective for treatment of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, it is unknown whether cryotherapy alone is a sufficient treatment in immunocompetent hosts.
In summary, E jeanselmei should be suspected in immunocompetent patients presenting with chronic subcutaneous lesions. The diagnosis can be made by histopathologic and microbiologic evaluation of tissue and exudate. Surgical excision alone appears to be an efficacious therapy in immunocompetent hosts.

Introduction
Hereditary periodic (recurrent) fever syndromes are a group of autoinflammatory diseases characterized by recurrent episodes of unprovoked inflammation without high-titer autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells. Seven diseases exhibit Mendelian patterns of inheritance with identified single gene defects. They include familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), hypergammaglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) and three overlapping conditions, the cryopyrinopathies, with common cryopyrin abnormalities: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS); Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS); and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), also known as chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous articular syndrome (CINCA). Hereditary periodic fevers are characterized by recurrent flares of systemic inflammation presenting as sudden episodes of fever associated with a dramatic elevation of acute phase reactants and a number of clinical manifestations, such as rash, serositis (peritonitis, pleuritis), lymphadenopathy, and arthritis. Disease flares are usually separated by symptom-free intervals of variable duration, characterized by complete well-being, normal growth, and complete normalization of acute phase reactants. The clinical spectrum of these disorders is also extremely variable.
TRAPS is characterized by periodic fever (duration of more than 1 week), migratory cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, periorbital edema, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, arthralgia, and serositis. It is an autosomal dominant disease that is related to heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene encoding TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). Levels of acute-phase reactants are elevated during attacks and also during asymptomatic periods. TRAPS is the second most common disease among hereditary periodic fever syndromes following FMF. Although people of any ethnicity may be affected, there have been few reports to date with regards to patients from Asia. Here, we presented the case of a 14-year-old Asian girl with recurrent fever and abdominal pain for 2 years who was finally diagnosed with TRAPS, and had good response to etanercept, an anti-TNF-α agent.

The child was treated empirically

The child was treated empirically with oral amoxicillin–clavulanate (45 mg/kg/day). Blood culture taken at admission grew after 27 hours of incubation. Following the positive blood culture, treatment was switched to intravenous ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg/day). Susceptibility testing showed that the isolate was sensitive to all tested EZ Cap Reagent AG [penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration 0.012 μg/mL), cefotaxime (<0.016 μg/mL), chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin]. The child became afebrile 1 day after antibiotic treatment—3 days of ceftriaxone and 7 days of oral amoxicillin–clavulanate. The isolate from the patient was identified as serotype 19A. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the bacterium belonged to ST1201. In our locality, invasive disease caused by serotype 19A has been found to increase shortly after the availability of PCV7 and was associated with expansion of the multidrug-resistant ST320 clone. Until now, the ST1201 serotype 19A clone has mainly been detected in Europe and none has been found in Asia (Multi Locus Sequence Typing database at , access on July 27, 2013). In Spain, it is one of the circulating antibiotic-susceptible clones. Immunological studies have shown that after a booster dose in the 2 year of life, the proportions of PCV7- and PCV10-immunized children with opsonization assay (OPA) ≥ 8 against 19A were 30% and 50%, respectively. By contrast, 98–100% of children immunized with the PCV13 vaccine had OPA titers ≥ 8 after receiving the booster. The present report demonstrates that bacteremic serotype 19A infection can occur in children fully immunized with PCV10. Clinicians should bear this possibility in mind when managing febrile children suspected to be suffering from bacteremia.
Conflicts of interest

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by a block grant from the Research Fund for the Control of Infectious Diseases of the Health and Food Bureau of the Hong Kong SAR Government. We thank the parents for giving written consent to publication.

Implementing the RDTM to the

Implementing the RDTM to the two dimensional telegraph Eq. (1), we have the following expressionNow implementing the aforesaid method to the initial conditions (2), we getFrom above two equations we get the values of etc. Applying the differential inverse reduced transform of , one can obtain the approximate solution for and given by

RDTM for three dimensional telegraph equation
Implementing the aforesaid method to the three dimensional telegraph Eq. (4), we get the following equationNow applying the method to the initial conditions (5), we haveFrom above two equations we get the values of etc. Using the differential inverse reduced transform of , we have the approximate solution for and as follows

Computational illustrations
In this dihydrochloride section, the method explained in Section 2 is described by taking several examples of both linear and nonlinear 2D and 3D telegraph equations to validate the efficiency and reliability of the aforesaid technique.Implementing the RDTM to Eq. (11), we get the following relationUsing the aforesaid method to the initial conditions (12), we haveUsing Eq. (14) in Eq. (13), we have the following values successively asUsing the differential inverse reduced transform of , we obtain the expressionThe solution (16), in closed form, is expressed as followsApplying the aforesaid technique to Eq. (18), we obtain the following recurrence formulaUsing the described method to the initial conditions (19), we getUsing Eq. (21) in Eq. (20), one can get the following values successively asUsing the differential inverse reduced transform of , we haveThe solution (23), in closed form, can be given byApplying the aforesaid technique to Eq. (25), we obtain the following iterative expression:Applying the RDTM to the initial conditions (40), we obtainUsing Eq. (28) in Eq. (27), we get the following values successively asUsing the differential inverse reduced transform of , one can getThe solution (30), in closed form, is given byImplementing the aforesaid technique to Eq. (32), we obtain the following iterative expression:Using the aforesaid scheme to the initial conditions (33), we haveUsing Eq. (35) in Eq. (34), we obtain values successively asUsing the differential inverse reduced transform of , we haveThe solution (37), in closed form, is given as follows

Conclusions

Introduction
Zn–Al based composites have continued to find relevance in several technological applications (Can Kurnaz, 2003). The Zn–Al alloys, which serve as the matrix for this class of MMCs, are known for their good combination of physical, mechanical and technological properties. High strength, excellent castability, good machinability, low melting point and good tribological properties, as well as low manufacturing cost are among its notable characteristics (Zhu et al., 2003; Savaskan and Hekimoglu, 2014). They have shown satisfactory service performance when used for the design of components such as bearings, dies, punches and seals which require high mechanical and wear resistance (Bobic et al., 2009). The inability of ZA based alloys to work effectively above operating temperatures of 80°C has been a sour limitation to its application for several other purposes. In order to take advantage of its base properties, reinforcing ZA alloys with ceramic materials has been explored (Xu et al., 2006). The use of reinforcements such as silicon carbide (SiC) and alumina (Al2O3) has resulted in marked improvement in hardness, strength, specific strength, wear and creep resistance of Zn–Al based composites (Mitrović et al., 2007; Bobic et al., 2014). The problem of machinability of Zn–Al based composites has been improved on (without any deleterious effect on mechanical and tribological properties) by the use of graphite as complementing reinforcement to SiC and Al2O3 (Mitrović et al., 2011). The development of low cost Zn based composites with the use of conventional reinforcements such as SiC and alumina and agro waste ashes as complements has been marginally reported on in the literature (Alaneme et al., 2014). The use of such a hybrid combination of reinforcing materials has been well explored for Al based metal matrix composites (MMCs) with great technical promise reported (Alaneme et al., 2013a,b; Escalera-Lozano et al., 2008). For Zn–Al based MMCs this is a virgin area with the potential of offering reduced composite production cost, additional channel for agrowaste recycling, while still maintaining the technical efficiency and performance levels of conventional Zn–Al based composites. In the present study, the mechanical properties of Zn–27Al based composites reinforced with SiC, rice husk ash (RHA), and graphite (Cg) are reported in this paper.

The remainder of the paper is organized as

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, a brief review of research related to the proposed approach is given. In Section 3, the sequential pattern mining problem is defined, and the PrefixSpan algorithm is presented. Our proposed approach using PrefixSpan for product placement in supermarket is explained with examples in Section 4 and the experimental results and performance analysis are discussed in Section 5. Section 6 provides the practical implications and future direction of the research. Finally, our approach is concluded in Section 7.

Review of related works
Literature presents a few of research relevant to product placement and shelf allocation problem. Here, we review seven different techniques available in the literature. Brijs et al. (2004) have integrated the discovery of frequent itemsets with a (microeconomic) model for product selection (PROFSET). The model enabled the integration of both quantitative and qualitative (domain knowledge) criteria. Furthermore, they demonstrated that the impact of product Anti-diabetic Compound Library decisions on overall assortment profitability can easily be evaluated by means of sensitivity analysis. On the other hand, Chen et al. (2005) have integrated customer behavioral variables, demographic variables, and transaction database to establish a method of mining changes in customer behavior. The approach for mining changes in customer behavior can assist managers in developing better marketing strategies.
Chen et al. (2006) have used data mining techniques to discover the implicit, meaningful, relationship between the relative spatial distance of displayed products and the items’ unit sales in a retailer’s store. They presented a representation scheme and developed a robust algorithm based on association analysis. To show its efficiency and effectiveness, an intensive experimental study using self-defined simulation data was conducted. Similar to Chen et al. (2006) and Chen and Lin (2007) have utilized a popular data mining approach, association rule mining, instead of space elasticity to resolve the product assortment and allocation problems in retailing. They have applied multi-level association rule mining to explore the relationships between products as well as between product categories.
The specific problem of how to allocate a fixed amount of shelf space to different products within a particular product category was addressed by Reyes and Frazier (2007). A nonlinear integer goal programing formulation was proposed to consider both profitability and customer service factors. The decision support tool was shown anabolic reactions the tradeoffs between increased profitability and improved customer service allowed the manager to make the best tradeoff for the situation. Nafari and Shahrabi (2010) have developed an approach to optimally select and price the products and allocate them to shelf space with consideration of their prices. The paper has taken advantage of data mining techniques, association rules, to find relationships between products regarding their prices. Finally, to show the efficiency and effectiveness of the approach, the experiment on real world data was executed.
Application of data mining techniques in library data results in interesting and useful patterns that can be used to improve services in University libraries. Sitanggang et al. (2010) have presented the results of the work in applying the sequential pattern mining algorithm namely, AprioriAll on a library transaction dataset. Frequent sequential patterns containing book sequences borrowed by students were generated for minimum supports of 0.3, 0.2, 0.15 and 0.1. These patterns helped to develop the library in providing book recommendation to students, conducting book procurement based on readers’ need, as well as managing books’ layout.
By analyzing the above discussed works, the technique given in Brijs et al. (2004) described about selecting the product and the work given in Chen et al. (2005) and Reyes and Frazier, 2007 discussed about developing the marketing strategies using the patterns mined. Importantly, the techniques presented in Chen et al. (2006), Nafari and Shahrabi (2010) and Chen and Lin (2007) are taken for the product allocation problem that usually happened in supermarket. An interesting work was described in Sitanggang et al. (2010) that provided a technique to book recommendation using the rules mined. These works are real motivation of our research in developing the strategy for product placement. Here, we have used the sequential patterns mined from the database for product placement so that the sequence buying behavior will motivate the customers to buy the nearly located products.

Fox et al proposed a

Fox et al. (2013) proposed a non-clairvoyant algorithm Weighted Latest Arrival Processor Sharing with Energy (WLAPS+E), which is (1+6τ)-speed (5/τ2)-competitive, where , for the objective of weighted flow time plus energy. WLAPS+E schedules late arriving jobs and a job can use number of machines proportioned by job weight. In WLAPS+E all processors are not taken in use, rather some processors remain inactive to save energy. Sun et al. (2014) studied non-clairvoyant scheduling algorithm Non-uniform Equi-partitioning (N-EQUI) for a set of parallel jobs in two circumstances: first, where all jobs are released at the same time; second, where jobs are coming over time, i.e. with arbitrary release time. Sun et al. (2014) proved that N-EQUI is O(ln1/αP)-competitive and O(lnP)-competitive for the objective of minimizing the total flow time plus Dioscin manufacturer in first and second circumstances, respectively, where P is the total number of processors. Bell and Wong (2014) proposed an 24(+2−1)-competitive deterministic online energy efficient deadline scheduling algorithm Dual-Classified Round Robin (DCRR) on multiprocessors, where P is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum job size. DCRR uses traditional power function and classify the jobs according to densities as well as sizes. Im et al. (2015) gave the first analysis of the instantaneously fair algorithm Round Robin (RR), which is 2k(1+10τ)-speed O(k/τ)-competitive for all and the -norms of flow time for temporal fairness in the multiple identical machines setting (general meaning of -norms of flow time considered is (∑(−))1/). At any time, if jobs are more than machines, allocate machines to jobs equally or process each job on a machine completely. Angelopoulos et al. (2015) proposed a framework to study online scheduling algorithms on a uniprocessor system. This framework is based on primal–dual and dual-fitting techniques for design and analysis of algorithms to solve generalized flow time problems (GFP). The proofs are independent of potential functions and based on intuitive geometric interpretations of the primal/dual objectives. In their primal–dual approach when a new job arrives, the dual variables for jobs can be updated without affecting the past portion of the schedule. Angelopoulos et al. (2015) proved that Highest Density First (HDF) is (1+τ)-speed (1+τ/τ)-competitive for GFP with concave functions; this reflects the improvement in analysis of WLAPS (Im et al., 2014b), which is (1+τ)-speed O(1+τ/τ2)-competitive.
We study online non-clairvoyant speed scaling algorithm against an offline adversary. The objective considered is to minimize weighted flow time plus energy consumption. In this paper, the analysis of online non-clairvoyant algorithm is presented using competitive analysis, i.e. the worst case comparison of an online algorithm and optimal offline algorithm. To minimize the cost function of weighted flow time plus energy, an online algorithm is c-competitive, if for any input the cost incurred is never more than c times the cost of optimal offline algorithm. The objective of minimizing weighted flow time plus energy consumption has a natural interpretation, as it can be measured in monetary terms (Chan et al., 2011a). The assumption perceives that the user is eager to pay a unit of energy to decrease certain units (say ρ units) of weighted flow time. Energy is of more concern if there is a large value of ρ and if ρ=0 then the problem is converted to the traditional weighted flow time scheduling. In this paper, an online non-clairvoyant scheduling algorithm Executed-time Round Robin (EtRR) is proposed, wherein the weights of jobs are not system generated, rather they are generated using the executed time of a job by the scheduler, i.e. current time minus release time of a job. The resource augmentation is used along with speed bounded model.
The rest of the paper is divided into the following sections: Section 2 describes notations used in our paper and definitions necessary for discussion. In Section 3, we have given some scheduling algorithms related to our work and their results. In Section 4, we present the online non-clairvoyant algorithm Executed-time Round Robin (EtRR) and compare EtRR against an optimal offline algorithm Opt using amortized analysis (potential function). Section 5 draws some concluding remarks and future scope of our study.

Fox et al proposed a

Fox et al. (2013) proposed a non-clairvoyant algorithm Weighted Latest Arrival Processor Sharing with Energy (WLAPS+E), which is (1+6τ)-speed (5/τ2)-competitive, where , for the objective of weighted flow time plus energy. WLAPS+E schedules late arriving jobs and a job can use number of machines proportioned by job weight. In WLAPS+E all processors are not taken in use, rather some processors remain inactive to save energy. Sun et al. (2014) studied non-clairvoyant scheduling algorithm Non-uniform Equi-partitioning (N-EQUI) for a set of parallel jobs in two circumstances: first, where all jobs are released at the same time; second, where jobs are coming over time, i.e. with arbitrary release time. Sun et al. (2014) proved that N-EQUI is O(ln1/αP)-competitive and O(lnP)-competitive for the objective of minimizing the total flow time plus buy guanidine hydrochloride in first and second circumstances, respectively, where P is the total number of processors. Bell and Wong (2014) proposed an 24(+2−1)-competitive deterministic online energy efficient deadline scheduling algorithm Dual-Classified Round Robin (DCRR) on multiprocessors, where P is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum job size. DCRR uses traditional power function and classify the jobs according to densities as well as sizes. Im et al. (2015) gave the first analysis of the instantaneously fair algorithm Round Robin (RR), which is 2k(1+10τ)-speed O(k/τ)-competitive for all and the -norms of flow time for temporal fairness in the multiple identical machines setting (general meaning of -norms of flow time considered is (∑(−))1/). At any time, if jobs are more than machines, allocate machines to jobs equally or process each job on a machine completely. Angelopoulos et al. (2015) proposed a framework to study online scheduling algorithms on a uniprocessor system. This framework is based on primal–dual and dual-fitting techniques for design and analysis of algorithms to solve generalized flow time problems (GFP). The proofs are independent of potential functions and based on intuitive geometric interpretations of the primal/dual objectives. In their primal–dual approach when a new job arrives, the dual variables for jobs can be updated without affecting the past portion of the schedule. Angelopoulos et al. (2015) proved that Highest Density First (HDF) is (1+τ)-speed (1+τ/τ)-competitive for GFP with concave functions; this reflects the improvement in analysis of WLAPS (Im et al., 2014b), which is (1+τ)-speed O(1+τ/τ2)-competitive.
We study online non-clairvoyant speed scaling algorithm against an offline adversary. The objective considered is to minimize weighted flow time plus energy consumption. In this paper, the analysis of online non-clairvoyant algorithm is presented using competitive analysis, i.e. the worst case comparison of an online algorithm and optimal offline algorithm. To minimize the cost function of weighted flow time plus energy, an online algorithm is c-competitive, if for any input the cost incurred is never more than c times the cost of optimal offline algorithm. The objective of minimizing weighted flow time plus energy consumption has a natural interpretation, as it can be measured in monetary terms (Chan et al., 2011a). The assumption perceives that the user is eager to pay a unit of energy to decrease certain units (say ρ units) of weighted flow time. Energy is of more concern if there is a large value of ρ and if ρ=0 then the problem is converted to the traditional weighted flow time scheduling. In this paper, an online non-clairvoyant scheduling algorithm Executed-time Round Robin (EtRR) is proposed, wherein the weights of jobs are not system generated, rather they are generated using the executed time of a job by the scheduler, i.e. current time minus release time of a job. The resource augmentation is used along with speed bounded model.
The rest of the paper is divided into the following sections: Section 2 describes notations used in our paper and definitions necessary for discussion. In Section 3, we have given some scheduling algorithms related to our work and their results. In Section 4, we present the online non-clairvoyant algorithm Executed-time Round Robin (EtRR) and compare EtRR against an optimal offline algorithm Opt using amortized analysis (potential function). Section 5 draws some concluding remarks and future scope of our study.

Rare earth RE elements addition can improve

Rare earth (RE) elements addition can improve the specific strength and modulus of Mg alloys. Among them, Mg–Nd–Zn alloys can generate excellent mechanical performances with only a small amount of Nd and Zn additions [19–23]. In this Bindarit work, a common commercial Al alloy 6061 and a potential Mg–Nd–Zn–Zr alloy were chosen for friction stir lap linear welding (FLSW). Various welding parameters were performed to optimize the rotation and travel speed. Meanwhile, the temperature fields were monitored to study the effect of welding parameters on system heat input. The optimized weld was then subjected to short time solution to achieve better tensile shear properties.

Experimental procedures
6061 Al alloy and NZ30K Mg alloy sheets with same thicknesses of 3 mm were FSLWed. The chemical compositions of the parent materials are listed in Table 1. All welds were made in lap joint configuration of 6061Al alloy on top and NZ30K on the bottom as shown in Fig. 1. The cylindrical threaded welding tool was made from H13 tool steel and the shoulder diameter, pin diameter, and pin length were 15 mm, 4 mm and 3.8 mm, respectively. The tool tilt angle was 2.5° and the shoulder plunge depth was kept 0.8 mm during welding procedure. The right hand threaded tool used in this research was set to rotate clockwise. The rotation speed of 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm and travel speed of 60, 90 and 120 mm/min were performed.
The temperature field during the FSLW was measured at the overlapping part as shown in Fig. 1. During every single run, eight K-type thermocouples (1 mm in diameter) were inserted into eight small holes (1.2 mm in diameter) drilled in two sides of the two layers for different depths respectively. The graphic scheme of the placements and depths distribution of drilled holes is shown in Fig. 2. Two layers named top layer and bottom layer were measured for all the parameters. In the process, only one layer was measured each pass to avoid the deviation from excessive lack of parent materials. As for the temperature of the center, the average value of the two center holes shown in Fig. 2 was adopted. The thermocouples were linked to a system controlled by the PC, which enabled a temperature sampling frequency of 100 Hz.
The FSLW joints were cross-sectioned perpendicular to the welding direction for microstructure observation. The samples were polished with diamond polishing agent and etched by three steps [21,22]. Firstly, the specimens were etched in a solution of 10 ml acetic acid, 10 ml distilled water, 4.2 g picric acid in 100 ml alcohol for 5 s to reveal the microstructure of NZ30K alloy. Secondly, the specimens were etched in a solution of 20 g NaOH in 100 ml distilled water for 40 s to reveal the grain boundary of Al alloy. The last step was to dye the specimens by the solution consisting of 4 g KMnO4 and 2 g NaOH in distilled water for 10 s. The macrostructure and microstructure were obtained with an optical microscope (OM) (Zeiss Axio Observer A1). The details of the joints microstructure, including the element distribution within the weld zone were analyzed using a FEI company produced low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis system. XRD (RigakuUltima IV) was used to examine the phases of the joints with the analysis angles ranged from 20° to 100°. Tensile shear test was carried out on Zwick Z100 machine according to ASTM D 3164 [24]. The length and width of the specimens were 90 mm and 20 mm, respectively. To ensure tensile loading direction parallel to the weld region, a supporting plate was used. And the displacement rate was 1 mm/min.

Results and discussions

Conclusions
In this work, some parameters were adopted to the friction stir linear welding of magnesium alloy NZ30K and aluminium alloy 6061, and the following conclusions are given:

Acknowledgments

br Introduction A specialty imbalance can lead to many problems

Introduction
A specialty imbalance can lead to many problems. Chang et al contended that monensin the unwillingness of young physicians to choose unpopular specialties causes insufficient labor supply in those specialties, ages the physician structure, generates a medical skills gap, reduces the ability to transfer experience, and lowers care quality. Medical specialist training begins at the student level. When medical students choose a specialty, their choice affects their career paths and the future medical services and quality provided by the medical industry. The considerations regarding factors influencing medical specialty selection should warrant special attention from medical educators for the future long-term development of the medical industry and for the well-being of the public.
By understanding personality traits, students can be provided with appropriate support during counseling and assistance in specialty selection and initiating career planning earlier. Schumacher (1963) and Yufit (1969) have explored the relationship between personality traits and medical specialty selection. Haley (1972) examined the association between personality traits and the performance of medical students during training. Borges (2001) asserted that personality traits are a vital factor influencing medical specialty selection. Thus, we explored and analyzed the relationship between personality traits and medical specialty preference.
Based on the statistical records of the Taiwan Medical Association, the authors noted that from 2002 to 2009, internists led all specialties, comprising approximately 22–23% of all specialists. Practitioners of general medicine ranked second, comprising approximately 9–11% of all specialists; surgeons ranked third, comprising approximately 9–10%; pediatricians ranked fourth, comprising approximately 7–8%; and practitioners of family medicine ranked fifth, comprising approximately 6–7%. From 2002 to 2009, the number of specialists in general medicine, surgery, and obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) decreased yearly, but the number of specialists in family medicine, psychiatry, and emergency medicine increased yearly. Yang and Tsai observed that among the specialties chosen by medical students in 1999, the five leading choices were internal medicine, surgery, dermatology, pediatrics, and family medicine. Meanwhile, Liu et al identified the five leading specialties in 2000 as internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery, family medicine, and dermatology. Therefore, the five most popular specialties of the years were similar, except for OBGYN, which was pushed out from fifth place.

Materials and methods
The participants were 4th- through 7th-year medical students who were enrolled at the College of Medicine at Chang Gung University between 2004 and 2007. Overall, 358 students participated in the study.
Because the EPPS can help the respondents explore their career interests, parasites is suitable and beneficial in college-student vocational or educational counseling. In addition, the traits measured by the EPPS possess neutral implications, reducing the likelihood of respondents purposely distorting their answers. Thus, the EPPS can be used to objectively assess the traits of the respondents. Psychology Press obtained duly authorized in writing from Allen L. Edwards was prepared in April 2005 in Taiwan. Using the Spearman–Brown split-half reliability adjustment, we calculated the split-half reliability of the whole test, and adjusted the split-half reliability of obedience to 0.56; the others were increased to 0.64 or higher. The criterion-related validity of the EPPS (Chinese version) of the 15 variables and 75 questions measuring between criteria is moderate. The reliability of the Chinese version of the EPPS ranges from acceptable to favorable; therefore, this study used the Chinese version of the EPPS to assess the personality traits of medical students.
The survey took about 10 minutes to explain. The students took about 50 minutes to answer the EPPS and 10 minutes to fill in basic information. It took approximately 3 weeks to complete the whole survey process. After the questionnaires had been completed and collected, the results were entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). This study conducted descriptive statistical analysis, t tests, and analysis of variance to analyze various differences between factor groups.