br Introduction Hafnium oxide HfO is an important ceramic

Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is an important ceramic material due to its high dielectric constant (ɛ∼30), high melting point (2758°C) and greater chemical stability [1]. HfO2 and its solid solutions with SiO2 are promising replacements for SiO2 for their potential applications as gate dielectrics [2]. Recently the optical applications of HfO2 are gaining widespread interest. Due to its transparency over a wide range from ultraviolet to mid-infrared, it is used as materials for heat resistant, reflective and protective optical coating [3–5]. HfO2 found promising optical coating applications such as filters, beam splitters, anti-reflection coating, high reflectivity mirrors, etc. [6,7].
Hafnium in bulk can adopt three different crystal structures at ambient temperatures. At room temperature it is stable in monoclinic structure, transforms to tetragonal at about 1720°C and becomes cubic at about 2600°C [8]. Synthesis of advanced ceramics and specialty materials as nanocrystals is one of the major challenges in the development of material processing technology [9]. The advantages of nanocrystalline materials are superior phase homogeneity, sinterability and microstructure leading to unique mechanical, electrical, dielectric, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties [10]. There have been increasing interests in the use of nanoparticles to optical systems because of their enhanced optical properties due to their smaller size [11]. Because of its high chemical stability, high cost and high processing temperatures, hafnium oxide is less studied in the form of nanomaterials than other simple oxides. Recently the synthesis of nanocrystalline hafnia by a sol–gel method was reported [12–14]. The synthesis of nanocrystalline HfO2 by the hydrolysis of hafnium oxychloride in ethanol was reported [15]. The preparation of nanocrystalline HfO2 by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal treatment has also been reported [16].
Recently combustion synthesis technique has been reported as an easy, economical and time-saving method to synthesize advanced ceramic powders and functional materials [17–19]. Since solution mixing is generally used in combustion synthesis, it results in relatively ultra-phase homogeneity than in any other techniques. Generally in combustion synthesis, which uses PVA as a complexing agent and urea as fuel, it requires post-annealing or calcination of the precursor to get phase purity. Recently, with the use of citric sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator as complexing agent and ammonia as fuel instead of PVA and urea, we were able to prepare a number of phase pure perovskites and scheelites as nanopowders in a single-step combustion itself, hence avoiding the need of post-annealing or calcination steps [18]. The powder thus obtained shows superior phase homogeneity, purity, improved sinterability, etc. than that of their conventional coarse-grained and micron-sized counterparts. However there are only a few reports available on the synthesis of nanocrystalline single oxides especially group IVB metals such as hafnia, zirconia, niobium, tin, etc., particularly hafnia, which are widely required as optical functional materials in opto-electronic devices. This may be due to the fact that pure hafnia is costly and availability is hard compared to the other group IVB metals. In the present paper, we focus our attention to prepare highly pure hafnia and report the single-step synthesis of hafnium oxide nanoparticles by a modified combustion synthesis technique, its structural characterization, particulate properties, photoluminescent and related properties. The process also explores a value addition in the synthesize of ultrafine nanocrystalline phase pure hafnium oxide from relatively low cost and easily available coarse-grained hafnium chloride powder.

Materials and methods
In the present study the modified auto-igniting combustion technique [20] was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles of HfO2. In a typical synthesis, aqueous solution containing ions of Hf was prepared by dissolving high purity HfCl4 (99%) in double distilled water (200ml) in a glass beaker. Citric acid (99%) was then added to the solution containing Hf ions. Amount of citric acid was calculated based on total valence of the oxidizing and the reducing agents for maximum release of energy during combustion [20]. Oxidant/fuel ratio of the system was adjusted by adding nitric acid and ammonium hydroxide and the ratio was kept at unity. The solution containing the precursor mixture at a pH of ∼7.0 was heated using a hot plate at ∼250°C in a ventilated fume hood. The solution boils on heating and undergoes dehydration accompanied by foam. The foam then gets ignited by itself and on persistent heating giving voluminous and fluffy product of combustion. The combustion product was subsequently characterized as single-phase nanocrystals of HfO2. A schematic diagram of the modified combustion synthesis technique is shown in Fig. 1.

br Materials and methods Descriptions

Materials and methods
Descriptions and diagnoses of the genus and the species based on the Japanese specimens (Holotype) and Korean specimens are provided. All measurements in this paper are given in millimeters (mm). Terminology mainly follows Weirauch (2008) and Cornelis (2013). The newly recorded region of the species is indicated by an asterisk (*). Depository of the examined specimens is the Insect Collections in Laboratory of Systematic Entomology, Department of Applied Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University (CNU), Daejeon, Korea and the Kyushu University, Entomological Collection (KUEC), Fukuoka, Japan.

Taxonomic accounts

This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR201501203) and supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF–2014R1A1A1005338).

Metopiinae Förster, 1869 is a moderately large ichneumonid group comprising more than 830 described species worldwide. According to Baltazar (1964), the group consists of koinobiont endoparasitoids in pyraloids and tortricoids of lepidopterous larvae, which emerge from the pupae of their hosts. The genus TriecesTownes, 1946 comprises 69 species (Tolkanitz 2010; Yu et al 2012; Zhang et al 2016), including the newly described species, Trieces etuokensis Sheng, 2016, from China by Zhang et al (2016). Also, the purchase CM-272 PeriopeHaliday, 1838 and StethoncusTownes & Townes, 1959 comprise only 5 species worldwide (Yu et al 2012). The genera Periope, Stethoncus, and Trieces have not been studied yet in South Korea. Three genera of South Korean Metopiinae are discussed here: Periope with one species, Stethoncus with one species, and Trieces with three species (one of them new to science). In this study, we report a new species and four newly recorded species from South Korea.

Materials and methods
Materials used in this study were collected by sweeping and Malaise trapping, after which reverse transcription were deposited in the animal systematic laboratory of Yeungnam University (YNU, Gyeongsan, South Korea). Morphological terminology follows mostly that of Gauld et al (2002). Specimens were examined using an AxioCam MRc5 camera attached to a stereomicroscope (Zeiss SteREO Discovery. V20; Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany), processed using AxioVision SE64 software (Carl Zeiss), and optimized using a Delta imaging system (i-solution; IMT i-Solution Inc., Vancouver, Canada). Distributional data mainly follow that of Yu et al (2012). Species description and diagnoses are based on South Korean specimens.

Systematic accounts
Family Ichneumonidae
Subfamily Metopiinae

PeriopeHaliday, 1838: 112–121. Type species: Periope auscultator Haliday.
MonoplectronHolmgren, 1856: 1–104. Type species: Monoplectron zygaenator Holmgren.
OligoplectronFörster, 1869: 135–221. Type species: Periope auscultator Haliday. New name for primary homonym.
MonoplectrochusHeinrich, 1949: 101–127. Type species: Monoplectrochus hoerhammeri Heinrich
Monoplectrochus hoerhammeriHeinrich, 1949: 101–127. Type: male; Type depository: AEI.
Diagnosis. Color. Black. Labrum, palpi, projection of upper face, fore and mid legs except basal coxae, spots on dorsal femora of fore and mid legs, hind trochanter and tibia except apically, hind tarsi and tegula yellow (Figures 1A and 1B). Antenna except scape and first flagellomere brown.
Face rugosely punctate. Malar space granulate, shorter than basal width of mandible. Projection of upper face recurved. Vertex densely punctate. Antenna with at least 21 flagellomeres. Pronotum polished, with hairs. Scutellum convex. Epicnemial carina incomplete; mesopleuron densely punctate; speculum shiny (Figure 1C). Metapleuron slightly punctate. Propodeum with parallel median longitudinal carinae (Figure 1D). Fore wing with stalked areolet (Figure 1E). Hind wing with nine distal hamuli. Tergites coarsely punctate; first tergite with lateral carinae at anterior half of first tergite in lateral view.

The liver contains all the

The liver contains all the detoxification enzymes that are needed for the urea cycle, which helps in the excretion of excess ammonia. The increased blood ammonia and decreased urea indicate the hyperammonemic condition in NH4Cl-treated rats. This may be due to the liver damage caused by the urea cycle disorder and ammonia intoxication. Naringin-administered hyperammonemic rats showed a significantly decreased level of circulatory ammonia and an increase in urea biosynthesis when compared with corresponding NH4Cl-treated rats. Various investigations have documented that phytochemicals containing flavonoids offer ammonia detoxification by removing excess ammonia, uric acid, and creatinine during various disease conditions such as hyperammonemia, nephrotoxicity, etc. The reduction in ammonia and enhancement in urea synthesis showed antihyperammonemic effects of naringin, favoring normalization of urea cycle defects and reduction of hyperammonemic complications. These observations clearly indicate that naringin could exert a potent antihyperammonemic effect.
Administration of NH4Cl to rats exhibited a significant increase in plasma uric adenosine receptor antagonist and serum creatinine, and a decrease in plasma urea concentration when compared with the control group. Blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and creatinine levels are useful indicators of renal function. Renal damage can be accompanied by an increase in blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and creatinine, indicating reduced urea, uric acid, and creatinine clearance. In addition to the hepatic damage, renal damages were also present, as was evident by the elevation in plasma urea levels, which was considered as a significant marker of renal dysfunction. The earliest research investigated that the levels of plasma uric acid and serum creatinine were increased, and the level of plasma urea concentration was decreased after the administration of NH4Cl. It might be due to dysfunctional and dystrophic changes in the liver and kidney due to severe renal impairments; as a result, urea excretion decreased and its concentration in plasma increased rapidly. Hyperammonemic rats treated with naringin showed significantly decreased levels of plasma uric acid and serum creatinine, and an increase in plasma urea concentration when compared with NH4Cl-treated rats, indicating the antihyperammonemic effect of naringin.
Serum bilirubin is used as an index for the assessment of hepatic function, and any abnormal increase in the level of bilirubin in the serum indicates hepatobiliary diseases and severe disturbance of the hepatocellular function. In the present investigation, the rats induced with NH4Cl showed a significantly increased level of bilirubin as compared with to normal rats.

Naringin is abundantly present in grapefruit. The juice composition is very different from that of sweet orange, but quite similar to that of grapefruit, being rich in naringin (24, 1.96 mg/100 mL). Therefore, approximately 2 L of grape juice is needed for 40 mg/kg b.w. of naringin that one adult needs to ingest to achieve a protective effect. In the present study, overall findings suggest that the bioflavonoid naringin has the potential of an excellent antihyperammonemic agent. The NH4Cl induced hyperammonemia treated with the naringin in different concentration (40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, and 160 mg/kg b.w.) in the albino Wistar rats with consequences of alterations in biochemical parameters components 80 mg/kg b.w. act as an effective dose of hyperammonemia function.

Conflict of interest

The financial support is in the form of research project from (Grant No. SERB/LS-849/2013) DST-SERB, New Delhi.

Flank pain is a common complaint in the emergency department with a variety of causes. The causes could be as trifling as myofascial pain to more severe such as renal calculus and extend to critical such as abdominal aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection. Overall, acute ureteral obstructions are the most common and disturbing cause. Due to the complex innervation pattern of the flank, pain can arise from a number of different organ systems. Multiple studies have shown that after using noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scans in patients who were thought to have renal colic, ∼10% are ultimately given an alternate diagnosis.

The most important rendering of

The most important rendering of nano-CaP therapy observed in the present study was improvement of neurotransmitters content in thigh muscle because novel neurological aspects of tumors were more elucidated and many evidences have further shown that tumors growth process is also related to the nervous system. More important, numerous neurotransmitters influence tumor vascularization and cell migration [31]; in addition, they may also suppress the immune response in cancer [32]. These influences are increased by the ability of the cancer purchase Atractyloside Dipotassium Salt to secret neurogenic factors [33], which influences neurons development. Numerous papers have pointed a correlation between the GABA and tumor cells migration, indicating a local antitumor effect of GABA [34]. Another neurotransmitter, which is the dopamine, plays an important role within the neuro-tumoral interactions and has effects on both cancer growth and anticancer drugs. It blocks VEGF-induced angiogenesis of endothelial progenitors in the bone marrow and contributes in the growth diminution of cancers. In this aspect, further evidence provided by [35,36] that DA can inhibit the functions of adult endothelial cells by suppressing phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and by acting through its D2 receptors, can inhibit the mobilization of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Joseph et al. [37] reported that GABA could inhibit colon cancer migration associated with the norepinephrine-induced pathway [38]. On the other hand, Alves et al. [39] reported a decrease in hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA) levels and increase in NA turnover in Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice.
The performance of CaP nano-particles validated the general view of the literature because the development of multifunctional nanoparticles might eventually render nanoparticles able to target and kill cancer cells simultaneously providing low side effects [40]. Targeting tumor tissues occurs through the extravasations of nanoparticles post-injection into the systemic blood circulation. The biodistribution of these particles is dependent on the characteristics of blood capillaries in the organs and tissues as well as the administration site, particle size and particle surface properties. Even in intratumoral (IT) administration, understanding the mechanism of the extravasations is critical to retain the particles at the injection sites. In addition to such macro bio-distribution of particles, their diffusion in the tissues, association to cells, internalization into the cells and intracellular distribution are important issues in cancer therapy and diagnosis [41].

The newly-formed nano-calcium phosphates particle had shown good biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity to normal cells when injected intraperitoneally. It has potent therapeutic effect on implanted solid tumor within four weeks and achieved complete recovery of EAC after three months. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the mode of action of the usage of nanoparticle of CaP in vivo as a therapy of solid tumor.

Conflict of interests
The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


Lactobacillus sakei is a psychotrophic lactic acid bacterium naturally found on fresh meat and fish, and is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation [1–3]. Lb. sakei influences color, flavor and texture of products during meat processing [4–6]. Although autolysis of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus helveticus by peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) has been shown to play an important role in the organoleptic properties of fermented dairy products [7,8], the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. Improved understanding may help to expand our knowledge of their role in fermentation processes and their survival during the processing of meat products.

There are several potential explanations for the association between

There are several potential explanations for the association between low EPCs counts and severity of CAD. First was the presence of other cardiac risk factors. Several studies have identified an inverse relation between EPCs counts and cardiac risk factors. Second explanation was that both low EPCs and sever CAD were associated with older age. We can say that harmful processes that contribute to atherosclerosis (diabetes, aging, inflammation, etc.) can also suppress bone marrow production of EPCs, without any relationship between EPCs levels and CAD. It may be hypothesized that EPCs counts decreased with age, and that low EPCs and atherosclerosis coexist in the elderly without cause and effect relationship [25].
As regards the quantitative values of genes expression by Real-time PCR and analysis, we found that there was a significant elevation of eNOS gene expression & VEGFR-2 (KDR) gene expression in good collateral group of patients as compared to poor collateral group of patients. Murohara et al. [26] identified that cell clusters, spindle-shaped and cord-like structures could develop from cultures of CB MNCs. These dexamethasone acetate have property incorporation of acetylated-LDL, released nitric oxide and expressed VEGFR-2, VE-cadherin, CD31 and vWF but not CD45. Locally transplanted cells had multiple endothelial phenotypes, survived and participated in capillary networks in the ischemic tissues of immunodeficient nude rats in vivo.
Umbilical cord blood EPCs transplanted via tail vein into nude mice, they incorporated into capillary networks in ischemic hind limb and augmented neovascularisation. In addition, in ischemic tissues, there were elevated expressions of VEGF and stromal-derived factor 1-α, both of which had chemotactic effect on EPCs [27].
In our vivo study demonstrated that intramyocardial transplantation of EPCs in canine model of AMI was associated with neovascularization and improvement of cardiac function. The localization and homing of transplanted DILDL-UEA-1human EPCs in canine cardiac tissues were identified by detection of these labeled EPCs as fluorescent collected cells between striated cardiac muscles. The survival of human EPCs in the transplanted cardiac tissue was observed as positive-DAPI cells. Immunofluorescence studies done by Silva et al. [28] identified that DAPI- and DILDL-UEA-1-positive cells were localized primarily in the anterolateral wall of cardiac tissue of canine chronic ischemia model. However, in every transplanted dog, some lateral and posterior sections showed labeled cells suggesting migration of transplanted cells.
Our in vivo results suggested that injected EPCs into ischemic myocardium improved myocardial function and increased vascularity. Histopathological cardiac tissue analysis of infarctioned cardiac muscle transplanted with human EPCs showed many congested capillaries, congested large blood vessels with budding & branching, indicating neovascularization in the area of infarction.
In vivo transplantation of bone marrow-derived cells has shown regenerated areas of infracted myocardium and new coronary capillaries formation and this led to limiting functional impairment after myocardial infarction [29]. Transendocardial injection of autologous bone marrow MNCs has shown increase in myocardial contractility and perfusion in swine [30]. In vitro study showed evidence of bone marrow stem cells differentiation into cardiomyocytes, endothelium, and smooth muscle cells [31]. Autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells transplantation in surgically induced experimental hindlimb ischemia revealed cells incorporation into the capillary network among preserved skeletal myocytes [32]. Comparative Study between transendocardial (TE) delivery of bone marrow MSCs after AMI and intracoronary (IC) delivery. The TE group showed higher cell retention (clusters even in the injury center of the infarct) with an increased vascularity and greater functional improvement than the IC group (no clusters; cells at the border of the infarct). The higher local cell density in the TE group may be important for therapeutic effectiveness [33]. Human cord blood MNCs transplantation in ischemic animal models increased the number of capillaries, angiogenic genes expression and factors [34]. Our findings suggested that EPCs express VEGFR-2, which is linked to both neoangiogenesis and stem cell homing and migration, also support a contribution of paracrine stimulation of endogenous repair.

br Conflicts of interest br Introduction

Conflicts of interest

Childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) is defined by nephrotic-range proteinuria, generalized edema, hypoalbuminuria, and hyperlipidemia with normal renal function. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is the most frequent renal disease in children. Childhood NS typically follows a relapsing-remitting course, often requiring recurrent courses of myeloperoxidase (GC), but with low systemic inflammation during remission.
Bone mass deposition begins during fetal life and continues during infancy and adolescence, stabilizing at the beginning of adulthood. During childhood and adolescence, skeletal modeling results in sex- and maturation-specific increases in bone density. Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is characterized by changes in skeletal mineralization due to poor bone mineral content (BMC). Children may be especially vulnerable to the effects of GC on bone formation and peak bone mass.
Prednisone is the first-line treatment for INS to induce remission, to prevent relapses and to avoid side effects of the disease. Prolonged administration of prednisone interferes with growth and bone mineralization, and has deleterious effect on basic cellular mechanisms that are important in the development and maintenance of bone strength. Steroids are known to cause osteoporosis and affect BMC and bone mineral density (BMD) in children. Glucocorticoids have a suppressive effect on osteoblastogenesis in the bone marrow and promote the apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes, thus leading to decreased bone formation. There is some evidence to suggest that GC may increase bone resorption by extending the lifespan of pre-existing osteoclasts. Glucocorticoids may also promote calcium loss through the kidneys and gut, and this negative calcium balance can itself lead to increased bone remodeling and osteoclastic activity due to secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Children with INS are at risk for MBD, accompanied by important alterations of mineral and bone metabolism.


Demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the participants with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), and the control groups are summarized in Table 1. Weight and BMI Z-scores were significantly higher in the SSNS and SRNS patients than the controls, with no significant difference between them regarding the height Z-scores. In terms of serum markers of bone turnover, serum Ca (total and ionized) were significantly lower, while serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in both SSNS and SRNS patients vs. the controls. Bone aches were found in eight patients (32%).
No significant statistical differences were found between SSNS and SRNS patients regarding the drugs received and DXA measurements (Table 2). Seventy-two percent of SSNS patients received immunosuppressive drugs, as follows: 48% were cyclosporine therapy, 4% on Mycophenolate Mofetil, 8% on cyclophosphamide, and 12% on mixed immunosuppressive therapy.
Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk between nephrotic syndrome participants are given in Table 3. Osteopenia was documented by DXA scan in 11 patients (44%) (seven SDNS, four SRNS), and osteoporosis in two patients (8%) (two SDNS). Fracture risk was mild in six patients (24%) (one IFRNS, two SDNS, three SRNS), moderate in two (8%) (one SDNS, one SRNS), and marked in three (12%) (two SDNS, one SRNS).
A significant statistical correlation was observed between BMD Z-scores and age of patients (r=0.43; p<0.05), weight Z-score (r=0.56; p<0.001), height Z-score (r=0.57; p<0.05), BMI (r=0.34; p<0.05), duration (r=−0.46; p<0.05), and cumulative dose of GC therapy(r=−0.88; p<0.001). Linear regression analyses in Table 4 show that the steroid cumulative dose was the only significant independent risk factor.
Although GCs are the treatment of choice for children with idiopathic NS, obesity and bone mineralization side effects should be considered. In this study, the analyses clearly showed an impact of GCs on body weight and BMI in nephrotic syndrome participants. Not surprisingly, the SSNS and SDNS patients had significantly higher weight and BMI Z-scores than the controls, but with insignificant statistical difference between SSNS and SDNS. Similar results were reported by Lestari et al. and Ribeiro et al. in their analyses of obesity in SSNS and SDNS. The use of high-dose and long-term steroids leads to increased food intake and inhibited energy expenditure through stimulation of neuropeptide-Y and inhibited release of corticotrophin hormone. The process triggers an anabolic process and leads to obesity. Hypocalcemia in patients with NS reported in this study was in line with Koşan et al. GCs cause hypocalcemia by decreased Ca adsorption from gut and kidneys.

oleuropein Experimental analyses have shown that DNA double strand breaks DSB

Experimental analyses have shown that DNA double strand breaks [DSB] are the principal lesions in the process of CA formation [30–32]. The majority of chemical mutagens are not able to induce DSB directly but lead to other lesions in chromosomal DNA which during repair, or DNA synthesis, may give rise to DSB and eventually to CA [33,34].
More than two DSB can be involved in the formation of CA by the DSB-repair mechanisms, and it is imaginable that these different mechanisms can participate in the formation of complex aberrations [29].
Sister-chromatid exchange [SCE] is a reciprocal exchange of DNA segments between sister-chromatids at identical loci. This event occurs during DNA synthesis, although the underlying mechanism is not clear up till now, it is known to be associated with DNA replication and repair [20]. The assessment of SCE has been considered to be a highly sensitive tool to evaluate mutagenic/carcinogenic potential of various environmental agents. This test has gained popularity in order to detect and differentiate among chromosome fragility caused by human diseases that may predispose to neoplasia [21,22].
In the present study, peripheral blood oleuropein from controls and persons exposed to waste gases of anesthesia examined for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations. The results showed significant increase of total chromosomal aberrations [including and excluding gaps] in exposed personnel than control. These chromosomal aberrations were in the form of [gaps, breaks, fragments, dicentrics, and deletions that not found in controls]. In agreement with our results, Lamberti et al. (1989) [35], who compared hospital workers occupationally exposed to low level anesthetic gases with normal population, and a significant difference were observed for the frequencies of the different chromosomal abnormalities examined, they also added that operating room environments should be closely monitored to minimize risk factors while safeguarding patients. In fact, however mild in the long run, the effects could add up to and prove harm to personnel.
The increased frequency of aberrations in the exposed subjects in this study confirmed previous results of Rozgaj et al. (1999) [36], and the results of other authors [37–41].
Rozgaj et al. (2001) [42] examined whether chromosomal damage could serve to indicate exposure to anesthetics and recorded that, while the increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency was not significant, chromosome aberrations frequency increased significantly.
A significant higher rate of cellular genetic damage in terms of SCEs were recorded in this investigate regarding the exposed opposing the non-exposed persons. These results coincide with that of Bilban et al. (2005) [41] and also with Hoerauf et al. (1999) [7] who studied the incidence of waste anesthetic gases induced sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of operating room personnel and concluded that exposure to even trace concentrations of waste anesthetic gases may cause genetic damage comparable with smoking 11–20 cigarettes per day.
In agreement with our results Chandrasekhar et al. (2006) [10] evaluated the genetic damage in operating room personnel exposed to anesthetic gases and found chromosome aberrations and micronucleus frequencies increased significantly in the study subjects in comparison to the controls.
Similar results for CA were obtained by some authors [35,37,43], even as others [38,44] reported also a significant increase in SCE frequency in medical workers exposed to volatile anesthetics. However, other studies could not identify a significant increase in SCE frequencies in the exposed groups than in controls as Natarajan and Santhiya (1990) [45] who found an increase in SCEs in medical personnel exposed to anesthetics, although it was not significant.
In the same consequence Szyfter et al. (2004) [5] estimated the genotoxic effect of exposure to halogenated anesthetics in 29 operating room personnel but using comet assay and compared with those from a control non-exposed group. No significant differences were detected between the groups.

In their detailed study that concerns with weathering of

In their detailed study that concerns with weathering of the Bi’r Tawilah sulfides in granodiorite [7], documented the common alteration arsenopyrite into a yokunite-like alteration mixture that comprises ferric calcium arsenate (FCA) and arsenian oxyhydroxide (AOH) whereas pyrite is altered to ferric oxyhydroxide (FOH). The same features are recorded here in the present work and it is believed that oxidation took place at elevated pH (>7) and temperature up to ∼75°C. The availability of Ca2+ and high pH buffered by the dissolution of calcite in the marble, in addition to the prevailing temperature upon weathering, played important roles in the formation of these pseudomorphs at the Bi’r Tawilah prospect [7]. The processes thought to explain the release of As from phorbol in the bedrock include oxidation of arsenian pyrite or arsenopyrite, or carbonation of As-bearing sulfides and desorption of As by the surface Fe-oxyhydroxide [36]. Oxyhydroxides are amorphous or nano-crystalline phases that are either hydrogenetic or hydrothermal [37] but the case of the Bi’r Tawilah is exclusively pedogenic as products of weathering. Similarly, Fe–Mn oxyhydroxides were reported in weathered felsic volcanic rocks [38].

Magmatic ore paragenesis in the serpentinites prior to ocean floor metamorphism are Cr-spinel (now chromite) and pyrrhotite whereas they are homogeneous ilmenite, hemo-ilmenite and homogeneous magnetite in the granitic rocks. Hydrothermal alterations in terms of listwaenitization of serpentinites lead to formation of pyrite and gold while the deuteric-hydrothermal alterations of granitic rocks alter ilmenite into rutile, titanite and alter magnetite to specularite particularly in more sheared samples. Hydrothermal ore paragenesis represents >90% of total ores in the Bi’r Tawilah mineralized samples and they are arranged chronologically from oldest to youngest as follows: rutile, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite (with visible gold inclusions) and arsenopyrite. Gold is either native or electrum with up to 27.19wt% Ag. Due to weathering, some supergene ore minerals are formed (ferric Ca-arsenate and ferric oxyhydroxide).
Pyrite is non-arsenian with no invisible gold, and it forms at the expense of pyrrhotite as the mineralizing hydrothermal fluids change from relatively reducing at low f to more oxidizing at high f and pH <5. Supergene ferric Ca-arsenate is a cellular-structured hydrous phase with distinct As5+↔Fe3++Ca2+ ionic substitution, and it forms from exclusively oxidizing fluids (pH >7) at temperature up to ∼75°C.

Conflict of interest


To deeply explain the experiment the subsequent

To deeply explain the experiment, the subsequent steps are schematized in Fig. 4.
Therefore, we focus on the two following most important points in this experiment:

Evaluation and discussion
Unlike the works proposed in the literature (Al-Yahya et al., 2016; Al Zamil and Al-Radaideh, 2014) to evaluate our approach, we conducted a glutathione s-transferase of RCA constructs to the corresponding ontological components. The target ontology was compared to a hand-crafted ontology, manually created by researchers in the ontology field within our laboratory.


Many social media platforms (e.g. such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) allow people, businesses and organizations to share their information and thoughts online. Understanding public sentiment and concerns expressed on these different platforms is a crucial issue for both policy makers, business leaders, and the public (Vargas et al., 2016; Imran et al., 2015; Verma et al., 2011). For example, Google currently tracks political issues, and diseases to help policy makers better prepare for what will happen next (Google, 2016). Sentiment analysis (SA) is an automated task of rapidly determining the sentiment of large amounts of text or speech (Pang et al., 2008). It’s worth mentioning that SA is deeper than hashtag counts that many social media platforms offer, as the earlier studies the meanings of post contents to come up with an overall mood instead of simply counting hashtags used by users.
Arabic is a major language, used (standard and its dialects) by around 422 million speakers (UNESCO, 2012). Still, while research on sentiment analysis has been done in other major languages (Agarwal et al., 2011; Schulz et al., 2013), little has been done in Arabic (Abdul-Mageed et al., 2014; Salem and Mourtada, 2012).

Related work
There is a large amount of work on using different techniques for sentiment analysis. The work in (Pang et al., 2008) is one of the early approaches that applied sentiment analysis on online movie reviews using machine learning. The results show that especially support vector machine and Naïve Bayes can be efficiently used to extract the sentiment from movie reviews when Papovaviruses compared their work to human analysis.
Other works, e.g. (Lai, 2010) brought sentiment analysis to the Twitter domain by applying similar machine learning techniques to classifying the sentiment of tweets.
The research in (Conover et al., 2011) showed that Twitter can be used as a platform for political deliberation. In addition, the work uses a database for sentiment lexicons and their results show that sentiment extraction can produce result similar to traditional election polls, which mean if they expand the lexicon the result will be more efficient.
Only few studies have been performed on Arabic social media. For example, the work of (Abdul-Mageed et al., 2014) has focused on movie and product reviews. The work of (Abbasi et al., 2008) uses a genetic algorithm for sentiment detection in both English and Arabic Web forums on the document level. They exploit both syntactic and stylistic features, but do not use morphological features. The work of (Shoukry and Rafea, 2012) studies the effect of preprocessing on sentiment analysis of Egyptian dialect tweets.

In this section we describe the details of our model for analyzing the sentiments of social media posts. In Fig. 1 we show the different components of our model. The first three steps shown in the figure are just to prepare the posts for classification. The majority of our contributions are in the following step, the “Classify” step which relies on the ASO. We therefore show the details of this step in Fig. 2. In the following, we will first introduce our work on the Arabic Sentiment Ontology, and then proceed to explain the steps we use to analyze posts.

Arabic Sentiment Ontology (ASO)
Below are two parts of our ontology. Fig. 3 shows words with positive sentiment, and Fig. 4 shows words with negative sentiment.

HIF is consistently and dramatically upregulated in a

HIF-1α is consistently and dramatically upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. In this study, we found that the upregulation of HIF-1α leukotriene receptor antagonists in HGFs stimulated by CsA. Chronic hypoxia has been newly proposed as a common mechanism of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the progression of various chronic inflammatory renal diseases, where PAI-1 plays an important role in the accumulation of ECM through inhibition of plasmin-dependent ECM degradation. HIF-1α can induce expression of profibrogenic genes such as PAI-1. Recent results suggest that PAI-1 expression is significantly upregulated in CsA-induced gingival overgrowth specimens. We have found that CsA could upregulate PAI-1 protein expression under hypoxia than normoxia. In addition, PAI-1 protein was markedly abolished by HIF-1α inbitior CAY10585 treatment under hypoxic condition. Hypoxic augmentation of the PAI-1 is, at least in part, responsible for the fibrotic phenotype of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth by driving the steady state of ECM metabolism to a state of excessive accumulation. Our data suggest that HIF-1α may exert its profibrotic effect through the upregulation of CsA-induced PAI-1 protein accumulation.
Recently, it has been known that CsA induces transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression in gingival fibroblasts. HIF-1α was also found to mediate TGF-β-induced PAI-1 production in alveolar macrophages in pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, the CsA-induced HIF-1α and PAI-1 protein expression in this study could be the effects of CsA-induced TGF-β1 expression. The interaction among TGF-β1, HIF-1α, and PAI-1 is worthy of further investigation.
As far as we known, this is the first systematic attempt to evaluate the role of HIF-1α expression in CsA-induced gingival overgrowth in human at both in vivo and in vitro. We have demonstrated that HIF-1α is elevated in CsA-induced gingival overgrowth than normal gingival tissues. Data from our in vitro experiments show that CsA is capable of stimulating HIF-1α expression in HGFs. Hypoxia through HIF-1α may promote fibrogenesis via stimulation of PAI-1 that promotes ECM accumulation in gingival connective tissues (Fig. 5).
Further research is required, however, including knockout experiments on HIF-1α, using small interfering-RNA for example, specifically to determine whether CsA-induced gingival overgrowth evolves solely as a result of increased/altered de novo synthesis and deposition of HIF-1α by CsA. In addition, it would be interesting to know how other HIF-1α regulated profibrogenic factors such as connective tissue growth factor or tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 will perform in hypoxic conditions.

This study was supported by a research grant from National Science Council, Taiwan (NSC97-2314-B-040-020-MY3).

Emergency department (ED) overcrowding deters timely delivery of health care and is becoming a public crisis worldwide. Researchers proposed conceptual models to explain ED management and thus to enhance the understanding of ED overcrowding.
Previous studies proposed solutions of ED overcrowding through managing the input, throughput, and output process of ED. According to the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, patients who arrived by ambulance accounted for 15.5% of total ED visits. Of ambulance-transported visits, 68% were triaged as emergency or urgency, and 37% resulted in hospital admission. Because ambulance-transported patients tend to be sicker and may use more ED resources, ambulance diversion (AD) is considered one of the possible solutions to relieve ED overcrowding by reducing the input component.
AD is implemented if the ED requests ambulances that would normally bring patients to the hospital go instead to the other hospitals presumed less crowded. The policy of AD affects regional health care. Different AD strategies are implemented in different communities. Policymakers need a tool to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of individual AD strategies and to tailor policies for local practices.