Conclusions and recommendations In this paper we demonstrated

4. Conclusions and recommendations
In this paper we demonstrated a methodology for modifying the existing CRE structure. Our multiobjective approach maximizes the use of the existing structure, defines trade-offs between competing objectives, and significantly reduces the set of alternatives to consider. We demonstrated that in the absence of resource constraints, we can improve coverage by more than 15%, approximately 49 million people. Furthermore, with only 23 unit relocations (less than a 30% modification of the entire structure) coverage will exceed 98%, an improvement of an additional 45 million people covered. Finally, we demonstrated that the enforcement of the CCP constraint reduces the risk of an LSE neutralizing CRE assets and improves redundancy of coverage.
Potential improvements to our model merit further study. First, our use of county-based network Epigenetics Compound Library the Continental U.S. population to 3109 possible locations, which may overly simplify the number of possible facility locations. Counties also vary greatly in size, resulting in nodes in our network model representing varying area sizes. One possible alternative to county-level aggregation is to establish a network with population nodes corresponding to postal zip codes, which entail over 40,000 nodes. Whereas this expansion of the instance size would provide result in a network having a higher granularity representation of the population, it also would increase the complexity of the problem, which would likely preclude the use of an exact solution method and require the development of a customized heuristic. Second, our model assumed that a CRE unit could be relocated to any node (i.e., county) in the network. Depending on the availability of real estate and facilities to base such units, a modeling extension might consider a modification of possible facility locations to only consider sites predetermined by a governing authority. Finally, it merits mention that societies are not egalitarian; some population areas merit a higher level of protection due to their contribution to critical sectors of a national economy and/or governance, as these locations are more likely to incur a CBRN attack. As such, a modeling extension should also examine a third objective: minimizing either the average or the maximum response time for a subset of CBRN targets that are weighted by importance. Thus, the resulting model would seek to balance service quality to priority nodes, total coverage, and the cost of changing the existing enterprise unit locations.
AcknowledgmentThe authors gratefully thank the Area Editor, the Associate Editor, and two reviewers for their constructive comments that have helped improve the presentation of this paper.Disclaimer. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, the United States Army, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government.
OR in service industries; Employee scheduling; Integer programming; Flexible contract; Flexible service demand
1. Introduction
Efficient management of workforce is one of the most important concerns in both manufacturing and service organizations, since it has a direct effect on the productivity of day-to-day operations and the quality of the service provided. Especially the employee scheduling problem has attracted considerable amount of research due to high costs associated with employee utilization. Employee scheduling problem is NP-Hard [27], and this, by itself, indicates a major challenge. However, in addition to this major challenge, concerns like large number of strict rules and regulations set by governments and labor unions, which impose hard constraints over the feasible utilization of employees, and non-numerical objectives such as well-being and happiness of the employees, and fairness between employees makes the problem even more interesting as a research topic.
In this study, we investigate an employee scheduling problem that we frequently face in a group of special health-care organizations, such as care centers for children with disabilities and nursing homes for elderly. Operating environment of these special organizations involves two basic forms of flexibility. The first flexibility is in the demand for services rendered in these organizations. The types of patients served require special personalized care. Timing, content and length of services vary significantly, and it is virtually impossible to generate a balanced pattern of services for a prolonged period of time. Services such as emergency health-care, social events, and educational activities that need case specific resources (personnel and equipment) in an irregular manner must be provided regularly. The second flexibility is in the availability of human resources that is utilized in the delivery of these highly flexible services. The span of skills required is very large, and consequently, it is almost impossible to have full time contracts with all the required human personnel. Hence, these health-care organizations need to provide a set of flexible services using employees with flexible contracts in addition to regular full time employees.

a Electric field angular wheel for

(a) Electric field angular wheel for triangular array of nanoporous ferroelectric and (b) an enlarged view. (c) Hysteresis loops and the corresponding ranges of electric field.
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4. Discussion
In the present study, a relatively simple structure is employed to demonstrate the concept of hysteresis loop control for nanoporous ferroelectrics. Deliberately designing a highly symmetrical nanostructure can increase the number of equivalent stable states up to the symmetry order of the nanostructure, which fulfill the necessary prerequisite for multilevel polarization switching. The use of a homogeneous electric field with the appropriate orientation can ensure that the polarization switching passes through all stable states. Therefore, the present study provides a general rule for nanostructure-state-level of switching, from which a higher-level hysteresis loop beyond three can be achieved in a structure with a rational design.
Multilevel switching shows promise in allowing the development of precise control of nanoscale ferroelectric materials and can potentially lead to interesting multilevel data storage memory, multi-logic gates, and electromechanical devices with multilevel control. Since the characteristics of the hysteresis loop in nanoporous ferroelectrics can be easily tailored by controlling the homogeneous electric field orientation, our finding is significant for the development of reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices. Moreover, fine-tuning of the hysteresis loop in ferroelectrics may provide a route to engineering the electrocaloric effect, which particularly useful for the application of ferroelectric materials to solid cooling devices [34].
Finally, the present study opens exciting opportunities for tailoring ferroelectric properties through deliberate control of the internal structure, based on the ferroelectric nano-metamaterials concept. This, in turn, would further advance metamaterials researches. Therefore, the present study would stimulate efforts from both experimentation and simulation works to explore and achieve more novel or even unprecedented functionalities in ferroelectric nano-metamaterials.
5. Conclusion
We have demonstrated the deterministic control of polarization switching, and hence multilevel hysteresis loops, in a nanoporous ferroelectric under a unidirectional electric field. This not only represents the first demonstration of a triple hysteresis loop in ferroelectric system, but more importantly, it heme oxygenase also establishes a new general rule for nanostructure-state-level of switching that will help to achieve even higher levels of polarization switching. The present results pave the way for the control of polarization switching mechanisms, leading to the capability to design a wide range of ferroelectric devices with the desired properties and functionalities based on polarization configuration and polarization switching.
Competing financial interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
1. Introduction
Over the last several years, a great deal of effort has been made to understand the mechanical behavior of ultrathin one-dimensional structures like nanopillars and nanowires. As a result, numerous phenomena of interest have been discovered with regard to the plastic deformation of such nanostructures. Interestingly, there is a lack of generality and every system is associated with a set of features unique to the type of the material. For instance, ceramic nanostructures show peculiar stress-strain effects due to factors like phase transformation [1] and microstructural variations [2]. Similarly, the method of processing is known to dictate the mechanical properties of Cu-Zr metallic glass nanowires [3]. In the case of crystalline metallic one-dimensional nanostructures, strain-rate-dependent mechanisms govern the plasticity in fcc-Cu nanowires [4], whereas the hcp-Co nanostructures are linked to the phenomenon of pseudo-elasticity at large strain [5].
Keeping up with the general trend, the bcc metallic nanostructures also have their fair share of uniqueness. The most elaborately studied effect in such materials is the compression-tension asymmetry. In general, a one-dimensional metallic nanostructure is expected to show qualitatively similar trend of deformation regardless of whether the deformation is tensile or compressive. This is because in both cases, the magnitude of resolved shear stress on the glide plane remains the same. However, experimental investigations on bcc nanostructures have revealed fundamental differences between the deformation behaviors under tensile and compressive loadings. The stress vs. strain plots obtained during the compressive deformation of bcc metallic nanopillars display characteristic serrations, a feature clearly absent in the tensile deformation [6]. In addition, the yield strength and flow stress also depend upon the sense of the applied load [7]. Despite several experimental studies [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12] carried out to observe the plastic deformation of bcc nanopillars, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms could not be obtained. In this backdrop, atomistic simulations have played a key role in unveiling the mechanistic details of these deformation processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed by Healy and Ackland [13] have shown different deformation mechanisms at work during the tensile and compressive loading of a bcc-iron nanopillar. The tensile deformation is found to occur through twinning, whereas the glide of screw dislocations is deemed responsible for the compressive deformation. This difference was initially attributed to the twinning-antitwinning asymmetry in bcc lattice [6]. Subsequently, three-dimensional spreading of the bcc screw dislocation core has also been proposed as a significant factor contributing to the compression-tension asymmetry [13]. Here it must be pointed out that in general, the compression-tension asymmetry is an intrinsic feature of the bcc lattice and hence, it is found in the bulk metal as well. In the bulk phase, this effect typically manifests in the form of different Peierls barrier experienced by a dislocation depending upon the sense of the applied load. Nevertheless, the asymmetry becomes more drastic in materials with extremely small dimensions, where the surface sources of dislocations can play a key role. In such source-dominated yielding, like that observed in the atomistic simulations [13], the asymmetry is not merely confined to the Peierls barrier, but causes entirely different deformation mechanisms (twinning vs. dislocation slip) under tension and compression.

KAM maps of a heavily strained twin GB

KAM maps of (a) heavily strained twin-GB and (b) DTW network containing deformed grains showing the stored CA-074 Me Supplier distribution (for indexed areas, the higher degree of misorientation is seen in the brighter green colour. The non-indexed areas have the highest local strain). The axes systems are all the same as shown in Fig. 12(b). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
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As shown in Fig. 7, Vdtw is nearly equal to Vt after annealing for 18 min. High local strain caused by intensive basal slip in soft orientation DTWs results in DTWs becoming preferential sites for nucleation and growth of recrystallization. This effect is further enhanced around the intersections between DTWs. During further annealing, new recrystallized grains had no growth advantage when they met already existed larger recrystallized grains originating from DTW-DTW or DTW-GB intersections. Therefore, the recrystallized volume fraction from double twins (Vdtw) should increase during subsequent annealing, and indeed this is shown in Fig. 7. Recrystallized grains originating from twin nucleation sites have random orientations [13]. Therefore, texture modification during annealing shown in Fig. 8 can be attributed to the combined effects of preferential nucleation site, random orientated recrystallized grains, and high stored energy around DTWs and DTW-GB intersections required for grain growth.
As a result of concerns around flow localization and crack formation due to DTWs [26], research has focused on decreasing or eliminating CTWs or DTWs by alloying or grain refinement methods [26], [37], [40] and [41]. However, the flow localization introduced by DTWs is critical for recrystallization at twin sites, since recrystallization does not occur in TTWs and TTW variants. If DTWs are eliminated from the microstructure, there would be no twin recrystallization. Furthermore, flow localization as a result of small CTWs or DTWs triggers the formation of shear bands [26], [41] and [42]. In dilute or fully solid solution treated Mg alloys, there is no particle stimulated recrystallization either. Only grain boundary nucleation would be available if CTWs and DTWs are suppressed. Grain boundary nucleation does not lead to significant texture modification from the deformed basal texture. Therefore, if CTWs or DTWs are restricted during deformation in Mg alloys without second phase particles, it will be difficult to weaken the basal texture. Lentz et al. [27] argued it is not DTWs themselves, but the absence of plastic relaxation mechanisms that results in failure. They reported that the plastic strain can be relieved by activation of c+a〉 pyramidal slip in a Mg-4wt%Li with copious DTWs, leading to a high compressive failure strain of 33%. They also provided evidence that the onset of DTW cannot trigger immediate cracking. Therefore, this side effect can be eliminated, and more related work needs to carry out to minimize the voids or cracks in the vicinity of DTWs. Only in this way can we produce Mg alloys with weakened texture and good mechanical properties.
5. Conclusions
In summary, the recrystallization process during static annealing were accurately tracked by using a quasi-in-situ EBSD method in this work. The initial formation of recrystallization grains, the subsequent growth and/or replacement was followed in a site specific manner. The evolution of DTWs recrystallization texture was monitored for the first time during the entire static annealing process. This has allowed the precise identification of the recrystallization mechanisms as a function of twin types, twin variants, and twin-twin and twin-grain boundary intersections. The following conclusions can be proposed:
All the tension twins and tension twin variants did not recrystallize during the whole annealing process and were consumed by the adjacent recrystallized grains during the grain growth stage, due to minimal accumulation of dislocations and consequentlty low elastic strain energy along twin boundaries.
The preferential nucleation site for recrystallization observed in this work was 10View the MathML source1 – 10View the MathML source2 double twins (DTWs). Nearly all recrystallized grains were from DTWs and DTW-GB intersections even after annealing for 18 min and all DTWs recrystallized during the early stage of annealing. However, during subsequent growth, the recrystallized grains within the individual DTW lamellae were constrained and consumed by the other recrystallized grains in the end. Thus, their contribution to the recrystallized texture was eliminated. In contrast, recrystallizating grains originating from DTW-DTW and DTW-GB intersections readily grew into the deformed parent grains and subsequently even into neighbouring deformed grains, extending quickly into regions of higher stored energy.

The phenomenon referred to as

The phenomenon referred to as blisters on blisters was encountered on samples which were recovered and dominantly on cold deformed samples (Fig. 3). The occurrence of blisters on blisters could actually be considered as a secondary stage in hydrogen induced blistering, since large blisters first need to form before this phenomenon occurs. This phenomenon was never encountered on the tested recrystallized material, even for long charging times where larger blisters formed. The formation of large blisters at the material surface leads to a hydrogen buildup in the material located just above such blisters [1], because hydrogen diffusion through the material is hindered by the presence of these long pressurized voids. When, additionally, numerous dislocations are present between the surface and the blister cavity, hydrogen gets trapped there. The hydrogen accumulation can then easily initiate a new blister. When no dislocations or reversible traps are present, hydrogen can more easily redistribute itself into the material, without initiating blisters above the large blisters. Additionally, the formation of large blisters leads to stress fields above them. A bending moment exists, where just above the blister a pressure field is formed and at the surface a tensile stress condition originates, which is also insinuated by the cracks present on the large blisters surfaces (Fig. 3). The order tegaserod field inhibits hydrogen diffusion in the material, while a larger amount of hydrogen can be located in the stressed regions.
Fig. 7 showed that precipitates play a certain role in crack initiation. Interface debonding resulted in the initiation of cracks. Tiegel et al. [10] proposed a mechanism which could explain the observed phenomenon. They stated that hydrogen accumulation occurs at the incoherent particle interfaces, causing interface failure. Subsequently, vacancy stabilization at the interfaces occurs thanks to the increased hydrogen concentration, as such providing space around the precipitates for hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen. The resulting internal pressure then drives the material to crack. The proposed mechanism is illustrated in Fig. 15, which is similar to what was observed in the samples (Fig. 7a). In cold deformed material, precipitates will exhibit an increased concentration of dislocation tangles at the interface with the matrix due to impingement. A resulting local increase in the hydrogen concentration as such exists at the interface, leading to enhanced crack initiation. Additionally, in cold deformed material a larger number of vacancies is present, which will equally accelerate the above mentioned mechanism.
Sketch of proposed mechanism for crack initiation by Tiegel et al. [10].
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Multiple features observed on the cross sections of the samples offer experimental validation of the internal pressure theory. With EBSD, local strains were visualized surrounding the HICs, especially in between the branches of the crack entities (Fig. 6). This was an indication of the high internal pressure build-up in the cracks, with resulting stress accumulation and plastic deformation of the surrounding regions. Also crack tip deflection towards the surface is a result of high internal pressures, which could be released by reaching the surface. Cracks which initiated close to the surface were therefore never large, since the pressure could easily be released when the surface was reached, which took away the driving force for crack propagation. Griesche et al. [1] used neutron tomography on blistered Armco iron to visualize the hydrogen distribution in the material. They found that cracks underneath the surface were not filled with hydrogen, while in enclosed cracks located further from the sample surface hydrogen could be found. Additionally, when non coplanar parallel cracks approached each other crack tip deflection was observed (Fig. 5). The shear stresses at the crack tips, which are intensified by the presence of approaching cracks, were relaxed by plastic deformation and crack propagation to relax the internal pressure [12] and [39].
4.2. Effect of charging conditions
With increasing current density a rise in number of blisters and a decrease in their size was observed (Fig. 10). Lee and Lee [17] equally found that the amounts of internal microcracks or microvoids are proportional to the charging current density. This observation implies that initiation was facilitated by higher current densities and additionally, initiation became more favorable than blister growth. A higher current density is related to a higher solubility of hydrogen in the material [17] and [40]. Thus, more hydrogen is simultaneously incorporated in the material at higher current densities, which activates more initiation sites instantaneously [2] and promotes hydrogen recombination [10].
Internal cracks showed a thinner appearance at higher current density, with especially thinner crack edges and less crack branching (Fig. 12). The occurrence of thinner cracks corresponded to the change from a well-defined dome-like shape to less well delineated, flatter, and non-circular features, i.e. plateau-like elevations (Fig. 11). The shape evolution implies a change in damaging mechanism at higher current densities. EBSD measurements illustrated that crack propagation evolved from transgranular to intergranular fracture mode in the initial stages of cracking when exposed to higher current densities (Fig. 8 and Fig. 13). At higher current densities HAGBs, which act as hydrogen traps [41], will most probably quickly be filled with a considerable amount of hydrogen, as such providing advantageous crack propagation paths for cracks. At low current densities the internal pressure determines the crack propagation path, while at a certain critical current density HAGBs play a significant role in propagation.

Marine autotrophic pico prokaryotes Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus not only play

Marine TL32711 Supplier pico-prokaryotes Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus not only play an essential role in global primary production ( Partensky et al., 1999b and Flombaum et al., 2013), but they are also an important part of marine food webs. Niche differentiation between Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus has been widely reported ( Partensky et al., 1999a and Zwirglmaier et al., 2008). Prochlorococcus dominate in oligotrophic oceanic waters, while Synechococcus are widely distributed in global ocean and are highly abundant in nutrient-rich environments, such as coastal waters and upwelling regions. In this study, we found that Prochlorococcus were the main picophytoplankton group in oligotrophic shelf and oceanic waters, whereas Synechococcus were the major picophytoplankton group in coastal and estuarine waters. Interestingly, more than 1.7×105 cells mL?1 of Prochlorococcus was recorded at station A5 in summer; however, this organism was generally absent at nearby station A9. This result indicates that Prochlorococcus are restricted in the shelf and oceanic waters of the NSCS. Chen et al. suggested that high concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals might be one of the reasons for the absence of Prochlorococcus in estuary and coast in the NSCS ( Chen et al., 2011). Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm which factors (biotic or abiotic factors) control the distribution of Prochlorococcus in the NSCS ( Zwirglmaier et al., 2008).
Seasonal variation of Synechococcus showed different pattern along the transect ( Fig. 2B). In coastal waters influenced by Pearl River plume, high abundance of Synechococcus occurred in summer, indicating temperature was the main factor controlling Synechococcus growth ( Jing et al., 2009 and Liu et al., 2014). In shelf, slope and oceanic waters, Synechococcus abundance was higher in winter than in summer, in contrary to the distribution pattern of Prochlorococcus ( Fig. 2). Previous studies reported that the highest productivity in both the shelf and deep basin of the SCS occurs in winter ( Liu et al., 2002 and Lee Chen, 2005). However, these studies might have underestimated the contribution of pico-phytoplankton as they only calculated the production of phytoplankton larger than 0.7 μm (the nominal retention size of GF/F filter) (Partensky et al., 1999b). Our study indicates that Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are the most important primary producers in coastal and oceanic waters of NSCS, respectively, during summer.

Thus here we present an important set of seawater

Thus, here we present an important set of 16 seawater profiles with respect to the Nd isotopic composition of the northern SCS and the Philippine Sea in order to (1) establish the Nd isotopic composition of water masses along the tropical western Pacific Ocean and the SCS which are still not well known, (2) to track hydrological exchange between the SCS and the Philippine Sea through the Luzon Strait and (3) to test, in the context of the semi-closed marginal sea (SCS), the possible impact of the processes related to the exchange between deep and mid-depth water entering the SCS as well as regarding exchange with sediments from the northwest margin of the northern SCS. In addition, several samples of seawater from nepheloid layers have been investigated in order to reveal the impact of re-suspended sediments, carried by strong deep-currents, on the Nd isotopic composition of seawater. In this fxr agonist study, we aim to demonstrate that the Nd isotopic composition of the PDW of the SCS is representative of western tropical Pacific water. This will ultimately allow to use the Nd isotopic composition of sediments in the SCS to reconstruct hydrological variability of the tropical Pacific deep water on time scales of centuries to millennia, which up to now remains unknown.
2. Hydrological setting
Fig. 1. Sample location map. The sampling sites are marked with blue diamonds (this study) and the white dots (Amakawa et al., 2004, Amakawa et al., 2013 and Piepgras and Jacobsen, 1988). On the upper panel, the purple and pink arrows indicate the deep-water currents and the intermediate currents, respectively. The orange arrows show the general circulation of the surface/subsurface water. The black arrows show the pathway of the bottom water. On the lower panel, the purple dotted and dashed arrows indicate deep-water flow from the Pacific Ocean to the SCS. The black and the red arrows indicate the seasonal winter monsoon and the summer monsoon. Pink circles stand for the upwelling water from lower layers to less than 3000 m. The circulations are based on Kawabe et al. (2009 and 2010), You (2003) and Suga et al. (2000). (For interpretation of the references to color in systematics figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

SSH was the environmental variable

SSH was the environmental variable that explained the highest percentage of deviance (22%) in the case of Atlantic bluefin, and between 28% and 5% for the rest of the species, except for albacore (<1%). In the case of MLD, the percentage explained was moderate, ranging between 10% (in the case of yellowfin) and 2% (in the case of skipjack). The percentage of null deviance explained by DCHL and ZOO was also generally moderate, between 8% and 1%.
The full GAMs explained between 45% (for bigeye) and 64% (for skipjack) of the null deviance (Table 2). For all species, the full GAMs selected with the AIC criteria included all the 5 environmental variables TEMP5, SAL, SSH, MLD and DCHL. They also generally included the three way stock:year:season interaction for fixed factors, except in the case of albacore where the interactions stock:year and stock:season were kept in the final model, and in the case of southern bluefin, with a single stock, where the year:season interaction was included.
In general, model predicted distributional ranges and relative densities matched well the observations (Fig. 2). However, some unexpected patterns were observed out of the range of observed values. The predictions for the buy dcb with most extensive data coverage (albacore, yellowfin, bigeye) were reasonable, with poor habitat predictions out of the observed range (e.g. north of 50°N and south of 50°S). In the case of southern bluefin, the models predicted suitable habitat also in the northern fringe (>40°N) of the planet (where there are no observations of southern bluefin), but middle latitudes would act as a barrier to potential expansion from south to north. In the case of Atlantic bluefin, the model identifies the Mediterranean and the northern Atlantic (>40°N) as most suitable, habitat suitability increasing further north beyond the northern range of the observations and decreasing towards the equator and southern hemisphere in spite of important catches that occurred in the past (Fromentin et al., 2014). In the case of skipjack (for which data were not available over the whole globe and is a bycatch species in longline fisheries), suitable habitat was predicted in areas with no observations, e.g. the Mediterranean, and at extreme latitudes around 60°S in the southern ocean and at around 60°N in the north Atlantic. The environmental variables in these areas are out of the ranges used in the skipjack model and thus the GAM predictions are unrealistic. However, skipjack model predictions within the observational range were reasonable.

Inhabited areas in the Arctic Megapattern Figure options

Inhabited areas in the Arctic (Megapattern 4).
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4. Discussion and conclusions
The combined results of the overlay maps were first drawn together using the grading scheme (Table 4) and evaluation features (Table 5). This is followed by a discussion linking the results with the megapatterns to further describe the specific locations which the analysis finds most likely to face increased pressure for economic utilization due to increased activities in oil/gas extraction, fishing, shipping, and mining. These areas, by offering economic opportunities, will be faced with important threats, which planners and policy makers need to take into account. Future research needs to delve more deeply into these areas to investigate the possible impacts on the environment and native populations.
4.1. Overlay map evaluation
The overlay maps, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, were used to identify five areas that buy BI 2536 appear to be most likely to be developed economically. These areas were graded using the scheme in Table 4 on the evaluation features in Table 5 and the grades presented in Table 6. The grades range from negative ?? to positive ++, according to the evaluated impact on the probability of future development, positive meaning more likely and negative meaning less likely.
This analysis (Table 6) suggests the most significant Arctic development area will be around the Barents Sea, which is within the EEZs of Norway and Russia. The major factors are the relatively shallow depth of the ocean and the high concentration of resources. The area has petroleum reserves and utilization has already started. It is also where the Northern Sea Route becomes less dangerous because of less sea ice. A transshipment hub for the route is likely to be either in Murmansk, Russia, or in Norway in either Kirkenes or Tromso. The Barents Sea has rich fishing grounds relative time could become even richer if certain stocks in the North Atlantic migrate further north with the continued warming of the ocean and climate (Drinkwater, 2005). In terms of existing infrastructure, the area is the most developed in the Arctic and with the 2011 border settlement on the overlapping EEZs of Norway and Russia there are no remaining disputed areas (Stimson, 2013).

How can a scenario practitioner ease these psychological barriers We

How can a scenario practitioner ease these psychological barriers? We know that the time horizon for politicians is rather short, while the policy execution needs to play out over a much longer period. This means that the environment around the policy execution, that is the task of bureaucrats, is ever more vulnerable to change with time. Hence, the methodological risk assessment of the implementation of the current plan must be in the bureaucrats’ interest. This paper is not arguing that the normative approach our bureaucrats so much like is inappropriate. A society can agree on its desired direction, for example a long-term transition to sustainable development, after which the government and individual bureaucrats move on to their own agenda of how they can influence such purchase guanidine hydrochloride a transition. On the other hand, as Grin, Rotmans, and Schot (2010) argue it purchase guanidine hydrochloride seems reasonable to say that some issues are open-ended and are best approached, or explored, with a mind-set that allows for the possibility of change.
A possible legitimisation for inviting scenario planning in Japanese officialdom might be to boldly demonstrate the unavoidable and uncertain nature of the future horizon by the bureaucrats themselves. Their scenario study will report the crude fact that any development of policy environment towards the future contains some uncertainty. A well-argued scenario framework could convince audiences to accept the need of an exploratory mind set and for being ready for future surprises. This means that by offering politicians a thinking framework in the scenario style, bureaucrats can establish their professional independence from the political decision process. In this setting, the choice will be made by the politicians for the preferred policies and plausible outcomes. In return bureaucrats can claim with pride that their role is only to offer several equally possible policy choices. They are now living in the realm of professionalism; however, can Capsid ever restrict their born ambition of being part of important political decisions?

Evolution of materials surfaces during

Evolution of materials surfaces during the in vitro bioactivity test. A) SEM …
Evolution of materials surfaces during the in vitro bioactivity test. A) SEM micrograph of solid S3 before soaking; B) S3 soaked in SBF for 72 h in absence of ALP; C) S3 soaked in SBF for 72 h in presence of ALP (inset: magnification × 35,000), D) FTIR spectra of solid S3 before and after being soaked in SBF for 72 h in the presence and absence of ALP. E) SEM micrograph of solid S5 before soaking., F) S5 soaked in SBF for 72 h in the absence of pronase, G) S5 soaked in SBF for 72 h in presence of pronase (inset: magnification × 35,000); H) FTIR spectra of solid S5 before and after being soaked in SBF for 72 h in the presence and absence of pronase.
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The inhibition of the bioactive behavior after the incorporation of the ATP gate could be related with the significant decrease of textural properties undergone by the MBG. The functionalization strategy used for the preparation of S3 was very efficient, as could be observed by NMR and porosimetry measurements. The capping of the mesopores would impede the ionic exchange with the surrounding SBF thus avoiding the subsequent nucleation and growth of the newly formed apatite phase. In order to find out the significance of this buy LY294002 effect, we analyzed the Ca2+-H+ exchange of this solid during the first stages of the bioactive process (Fig. S3). The Ca2+ release from solid S3 to the SBF is significantly decreased compared with MBG without capping. Ca2+ release is the first reaction required to initiate the bioactive process [48] ; buy LY294002 [49]. The inhibition of this stage seriously hiders the rest of the reactions that lead to the formation of an apatite-like phase similar to the mineral component of the bone. Another possible explanation could be the entrapping of Ca2+ by the phosphate groups of the ATP gate. It has been highly demonstrated that the affinity of phosphate groups for Ca2+ can inhibit its release (and consequently the bioactivity) by forming CaP nanoclusters that inhibit the Ca2+ dissolution. The CaP clusters formation has been widely studied within the walls of the MBGs [50]; [51]; [52] ; [53] and we hypothesize that the Ca2+ entrapment by phosphates could also occurs at the MBG surface due to the ATP presence. Independently of the mechanism that inhibits the bioactivity of S3, ALP open the ATP based gate and the MBG recovers its bioactivity.
3.4. Biological assessment of the gated materials
In order to test the stimuli-responsive properties of ATP-gated materials, the release of doxorubicin from S3-Dox solid was analyzed in the absence and presence of ALP (Fig. 8). A negligible drug release occurs in the absence of ALP, whereas a marked doxorubicin release was observed when ALP is added, pointing out that the enzyme opens the ATP gates.
Doxorubicin release studies carried out at 37°C with S3-Dox in the presence and …
Doxorubicin release studies carried out at 37 °C with S3-Dox in the presence and in the absence of ALP.
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The antitumoral activity of S3-Dox was studied with HOS cell cultures. HOS viability was measured in the presence of S3 and S3-Dox under absence and presence of ALP (Fig. 9). The cells in contact with S3 show a proliferative behavior very similar to those cultured on the polystyrene control. However, the cells cultured with S3-Dox clearly underwent a cytotoxic effect. In the absence of ALP, the HOS proliferation is significantly hampered after 24 h respect to the control. This result can be due to the small amount of doxorubicin released, even without the addition of ALP. It must be taken into account that HOS cells produce ALP by themselves and could facilitate the partial opening of the ATP gates. However, 48 h later HOS proliferate indicating that the doxorubicin released is not enough to inhibit the growth of HOS. On the contrary, in the presence of ALP, HOS cannot proliferate after 48 h of culture showing a significant viability decrease as a consequence of the released doxorubicin. Finally, the HOS viability was determined for longer exposure times. After 144 h of test, the HOS viability in the presence of solid S3 remains unaltered. However, in the case of doxorubicin loaded sample (S3-Dox), a significant decrease of HOS viability was observed under both conditions, i.e. ALP presence and absence. This fact can be attributed to the MBG solubility that allows the partial release of the antitumoral drug. However, it must be highlighted that doxorubicin release is still higher in the presence of ALP, pointing out that the stimuli-responsive behavior is present even after the partial degradation of the MBG matrix associated to the bioactive process.
HOS viability in contact with S3 and S3-Dox solids in the absence and presence …
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In a second scenario, the MBG solid capped with ε-poly-l-lysine was loaded with the antibiotic levofloxacin (solid S5-Levo) and the selective delivery of the antibiotic in the presence of bacteria was evaluated. For this study Escherichia coli, DH5α strain, was used as model bacteria. In a first step, the amount of cargo released from S5-Levo was determined in the presence and in the absence of bacteria. As shown in Fig. 10, a limited payload delivery (less than 20% after 25 h) was found in the absence of E. coli, whereas a remarkable cargo delivery was found when the bacteria were present. From these studies it was found that maximum amount of levofloxacin released from S5-Levo was of 0.322 ng of levofloxacin per mg of solid. Moreover, it was also observed that delivery of antibiotic levofloxacin was concomitant with a reduction of bacteria viability (vide infra).