In all external walls of the fluid domain are applied the rigid wall boundary condition, n·∇p=0n·∇p=0.
The material properties of the structure are Young?s modulus of 1.0 GPa, density of 2700 kg/m3 and Poisson?s ratio of 0.3. And the fluid has density of 1.2 kg/m3 and the speed of sound in the media is 343 m/s.
The whole structure is considered to be the design domain. Considering that BTL-104 only 80% of the structural domain volume material can be used, the optimization is done at a constant volume. The initial guess design with 80% of the structural domain is shown at Fig. 15.
In the optimization process, the following parameters are used: Vi=Vf=0.80Vi=Vf=0.80, ER =0.005, rmin=0.02rmin=0.02 m, ARmax=0.005ARmax=0.005, τ=0.001τ=0.001, N=5 and p=1.5. The finite element mesh used for the analysis of the coupled system has 360,000 four-node quadrilateral elements.
The interface between the domains can be modified during the optimization process. The pressure distribution in the fluid domain can be seen in Fig. 16 for the initial design and the optimized topology found with the BESO method.
In a truly adaptive approach, after generating a new discretization, the data structures corresponding to the newly generated mesh are created, and the transfer of displacements and internal variables from the old mesh to the new one is performed. After the mapping, the internal variables are used together with the strain computed from the mapped displacements to update the internal state of each Dequalinium point on the new mesh (to achieve local consistency). Once the transfer has finished, the old discretization is deleted and the mapped configuration is Cenozoic Era brought into global equilibrium through iteration. Afterwards, the solution continues with the next incremental-iterative step.
Another possibility is to restart the analysis from the initial state after the new discretization is generated. This approach does not require the transfer of the current state from the old discretization to the new one, but from the computational point of view is less efficient than the truly adaptive approach, especially if the remeshing is done frequently.
Figure 1. Effect of adenosine on systolic tissue Doppler parameters. Statistically significant differences were noted in 5-BrdU mean annular S wave velocity at follow up at all walls compared to the initial evaluation.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Figure 2. Annular S wave velocity in the placebo group. No significant improvement was noted in any of the 6 walls at follow up compared to the initial evaluation.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.4. In-hospital clinical course
Eighteen patients had complete ST resolution (?70%) in the adenosine group, compared to 22 patients in the placebo group (90% vs. 55%, p < 0.01). The in-hospital clinical course was uneventful for most of the 60 patients. Only 1 patient (1.67%) had a stormy post PCI course and died after 14 days. No statistically significant differences were noted between the 2 treatment groups as regards the hospital events (Table 4). Early peaking of the total CK was observed in all patients after reperfusion, with significantly lower peak values in the adenosine group compared to the placebo group (Table 4).
Third, a remaining question that could not be considered with this data is the relative contributions of developmental history (trajectory group) and concurrent behavioral regulation. Understanding whether a child’s history of development has more or less predictive utility than their current score would have implications for BI-D1870 and practice. The data in the present study could not be used to address this question because concurrent behavioral regulation (Time 3) was used to form the trajectory groups. Therefore, putting both covariates in the regression analyses would be confounding. In future studies with larger samples, it would be possible to randomly divide the sample in half and examine the magnitude of the relation between developmental history and math and vocabulary scores for one half of the children, with the relation between concurrent behavioral regulation and math and vocabulary scores for the other half of the children. Finally, further research is needed to investigate the mechanism through which a “steady-then-increasing regulators” trajectory relates to low vocabulary skills, even at the end of the trajectories once children’s behavioral regulation level has increased. It is possible, for example, that children’s previously low behavioral regulation led to fewer opportunities to engage in learning experiences. Teaching practices may also be a mechanism linking behavioral regulation and academic skills to consider exploring in future research. In the present data, however, low intra-class correlation coefficients suggested that there was not enough variability across classrooms to pursue sieve elements line of inquiry. Despite these limitations, the findings from the present study highlight the presence of distinct developmental trajectories in Taiwanese children and impress the need for teachers to consider individualizing their teaching strategies based on a child’s trajectory group.
The parameters values are then obtained by identifying θidθid that minimizes the function Cu(θ)Cu(θ):equation(23)θid=argminθCu(θ)
Field umesumes is required and generally obtained using image correlation technique. The key idea is to minimize the gap between two successive images defined on Ω : f(x)f(x) at instant t, and g(x)g(x) at instant t+dtt+dt. The displacement field is chosen in a finite Ro3280 form at time t such that:equation(24)umes=argminu=NTU∫Ω[f(x)−g(x+u)]2dΩumes=argminu=NTU∫Ω[f(x)−g(x+u)]2dΩ
where NN is the matrix containing the finite element shape functions and UU the discrete displacement (nodal displacements) at instant t. Further details can be found on the image correlation technique in  and .
3.3. Minimization algorithm
We present in this subsection the algorithm we use for minimizing cost functions. It uses the bisection method (Algorithm 1). For simplicity, it is presented in the particular case of Saint-Venant Kirchhoff law with θ=(E,ν)θ=(E,ν).Algorithm 1.
Statistically significant positive correlation was found between the LVFP and the LVEDP both prior to Ibuprofen administration and at the end of the procedure (p < 0.001). Statistical significant agreement between the LVFP measured noninvasively and the LVEDP measured invasively was found. However this correlation is shown mainly in the patients with normal LVFP (E/è < 8) and those with elevated LVFP (E/è > 15). This was not the case in the group with LVFP (E/è = 8–15) in which the LVFP was shown to be inconclusive for the LVEDP as shown in ( Table 3 and Table 4).
Relation between LVFP (E/è) with LVEDP prior to contrast administration and at the end of the procedure.E/èχ2pκ<8 (n = 31)8 – < 15 (n = 41)>15No.%No.%No.%Prior to contrast<132787.11435.000.061.776?<0.001?0.50113–1813.21435.0413.8>1839.71230.02586.2End of procedure<132271.01025.000.045.440?<0.001?0.40213–18412.91025.026.9>18516.12050.02793.1χ2: Chi square test.κ: kappa test?Statistically significant at p ? 0.05.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Given their location, these CPPHA lesions are amongst the most difficult gliomas to operate on. Surgical resection of these lesions portends risk to CSTs, oculomotor nerve, and optic tracts. Because of their deep-seated location and close proximity to eloquent structures, TPGs were previously considered unresectable. However, advances in microneurosurgical techniques coupled with progress in neuronavigation, DTI-based tractography, and electrophysiologic monitoring (e.g., MEPs) have resulted in attempts to resect these tumors by neurosurgeons.
Different approaches have been described by different authors for these challenging tumors. The most important determinant for selection of the surgical approach is displacement of CSTs in relation to tumor. Thus, the role of DTI-based tractography in management of these lesions cannot be overstated. Several studies showed a correlation between tractography and clinical outcome in patients with supratentorial gliomas.13, 14, 15 and 16
Vandertop et al.7 described 12 patients with focal midbrain tumors, of which 6 were tegmental tumors. They used a subtemporal transtentorial approach for accessing the tumors and achieved extensive resection in 4 of these patients. None of the patients showed postoperative neurologic deterioration. These lesions were either exophytic or extended to the surface and into the ambient cistern.
In accordance with previous reviews, stimulation of the Gpi did not completely relieve the severe involuntary movements in our 2 patients with NA. We consider Gpi stimulation alone to be insufficient for treatment for NA that involves various types of involuntary movements, and to achieve the maximum effect of DBS. We performed combined stimulation the Gpi and another target. Some authors have reported that the Anacetrapib is a good target for reducing involuntary movements such as chorea and dystonia 11 and 14. Burbaud et al. (1) reported that high-frequency (130 Hz) stimulation of the thalamus improved trunk spasm and chorea. Nakano et al. found that Vo complex stimulation successfully reduced choric movement. In the thalamus, the ventralis oralis anterior is associated with the pallidothalamic pathway and the ventralis oralis posterior is part of the cerebello-thalamic pathway 7 and 10. Oropilla et al. (8) reported that stimulation of both the pallidum and the thalamus provided a moderate advantage over stimulation of the pallidum alone for a patient with myoclonic dystonia.
Comparison with Other Surgical Specialties
Results of NRW analyses were amenable for comparison with studies from other surgical literature. Available criteria T0901317 presented descriptively in Table 4.
Comparison of Website Content by Surgical SpecialtyAuthors, YearSurgical SpecialtyNumber of ProgramsNumber of Websites% of ProgramsDescriptionFaculty ListResident ListResearch InterestERAS LinkOperative Case ListingAlumni ContactRozenthal et al., 2001 (13)Ortho15411381584239422312Reilly et al., 2004 (12)General2511679371335031541Silvestre et al., 2014 (16)Plastics63571009367613792Svider et al., 2014 (17)Ear, nose, and throat10099–8874375518–Skovrlj et al., 2015Neuro1031031001009487722413Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
This study did not find differences in NRWs\’ comprehensiveness on the basis of geographic location. However, appendix did reveal that programs with a greater number of faculty and residents correlated with more comprehensive websites. Furthermore, affiliation with a ranked institution according to U.S. News & World Report predicted greater online content. Similar findings were reported in the otolaryngology and plastic surgery literature 11 and 17. This discrepancy may suggest that larger programs have more resources to focus toward online development. However, it is unlikely that the financial cost of development and maintenance of a website is the reason why smaller, unranked programs have more underdeveloped NRWs.
EER/SEER (in %) and d-Prime results of face-and-finger fusion on MF63 test set varying the number m of spoofed samples.Method(S)EERd-Primem=0m=1m=2m=3m=4m=5m=0m=1m=2m=3m=4m=5Sum rule02.325.717.5210.3812.242.912.622.272.111.891.67Product rule03.357.619.4812.6415.726.443.402.312.031.691.42Median rule0.420.871.203.916.7410.032.382.372.312.141.891.68Median filtering (?=1σ?=1σ)01.713.655.228.0210.602.662.452.192.061.871.69Median filtering (?=0.5σ?=0.5σ)01.032.043.506.239.532.292.172.011.901.751.691-Median filter0.470.811.161.391.711.8184.108.40.206.113.103.08Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
4.8. Rejection of spoofing samples
Conflict of interest
AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the EU FASTPASS project under Grant agreement 312583.
Biometrics; Palmprint recognition; LBP; Local descriptor; Line feature
Among all kinds of local image descriptors, it is well-known that LBP is a popular and powerful one, which has been successfully adopted for many different applications such as face recognition, texture classification, object recognition, and scene recognition . Huang et al.  has made a survey on LBP and its applications to facial image analysis. Based on original LBP, a lot of variants have been proposed including local ternary pattern (LTP) , dominant LBP (DLBP) , center-symmetric LBP (CSLBP) , local derivative pattern (LDP) , and completed LBP (CLBP) , etc. In order to extract spatial structure of an object, some researcher proposed methods combining Gabor wavelet representation and LBP. Zhang et al.  proposed a LBP descriptor in Gabor transform domain (LGBP). Then, Zhang et al.  proposed to combine Gabor phase information with LBP (LGPP). Later, Xie et al.  proposed local XOR pattern integrating with Gabor transform (LGXP).