The YD was probably initiated by freshwater input from ice-sheet melting into the North Atlantic causing a slow-down of the North Atlantic deep-water circulation and reduced northward heat transport (e.g. Broecker et?al., 2010 and Thornalley et?al., 2011). This resulted in a marked decrease in SSTs to <4 °C both in the northern (Ebbesen and Hald, 2004) and southern Norwegian Sea (Koç et al., 1993). Cold polar water replaced the warmer Atlantic water along the Norwegian coast (Ko? et?al., 1993 and ?lubowska-Woldengen et?al., 2008). In addition, fresh meltwater froze as sea ice over most of the Norwegian Sea. The effects of these GS967 processes were most marked in the southern Norwegian Sea. In northern Norway terrestrial Allerød and YD temperatures were similar (Fimreite et?al., 2001, Birks et?al., 2005 and Birks et?al., 2012) implying lymphocytes the impact in the north was dampened by the abundant sea ice and cold temperatures during Allerød time. The polar front was relatively close throughout the entire deglaciation (?lubowska-Woldengen et al., 2008). A similar small YD response is also seen in proxy reconstructions from Svalbard (Mangerud and Landvik, 2007) and south Greenland (Björck et al., 2002). The influence of sea ice on temperatures over the adjacent land decreased eastwards in arctic continental areas, such as northern European Russia (V?liranta et?al., 2006, Wohlfarth et?al., 2007 and Sepp? et?al., 2008), where cooling related to sea ice and proximity to the ice sheet were reduced, Thus the high summer insolation had a stronger effect, making the YD relatively warm.
Within the changing interstadial/stadials the Bode River must have started to erode around 386 a.s.l. at Rübelandquite quickly due to the rapidly (less than 10,000 years) retreating and melting glaciers/ice field. The Rübeland Cave entrances were all closed completely in the Post-LGM in the Baumman\’s and Hermann\’s Caves by further frost breccias, whereas the ceiling collapses seem to fall mainly into this period. Also the main collapse in the Unicorn Cave falls into the LGM time. Young speleothem dates from the Rübeland Caves between 12,000 and 24,000 BP on blocks support this reconstruction. Neither weather larger animals nor humans were able to use the caves inside anymore. An exception seems to be a large cold SCR 7 brown bear subspecies of Ursus arctos, that seems to have hibernated somehow in the “2nd entrance area”, the Lower Fluvial Cave (middle level), which indicates a small access during the LGM-post-LGM over a deeper 2nd former entrance over the ponor cave gravels. At this time the active ponor was already deeper on the today\’s Holocene level. Bode River gravels were washed into this lowermost cave system of the Rübeland Caves. If the wolverine, polar fox and eagle owl dens partly date into this period can be speculated, but needs absolute dating verification. In the Harz foreland loess accumulated about 2 m thick also on river terrace sediments surrounding the Harz. The loess in Westeregeln e.g. is indirectly dated by starting decalcification, which calcite built caliche concretions around hyena coprolites and bones in the underlaying layers. These are dated between 16,847 ± 316 BP (Coelodonta bone sample) 14,100 ± 70 BP (hyena coprolite sample) representing not the date of the bone/excrement, but of the time of carbonate migration, whereas the date falls with the Meiendorf Interstadial period, where loess decalcification is expected. Around 13–12,000 BP reinder hunter humans finally resettled with Epipalaeolithics, the Harz region, but they were only able to use rock shelters, large caves were closed due to the climate changes as mentioned.
Previous studies have focused, for instance, on plant-wax stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) and/or pollen assemblages to reconstruct hydrologic changes at the Sahara–Sahel transition (Dupont, 1993, Zhao et?al., 2003 and Casta?eda et?al., 2009). Sedimentary plant-wax δ13C records are primarily controlled by relative contributions of plants with different preferences for more humid (C3 type) and more arid (C4 type) conditions (e.g., Huang et al., 2000). Thus, a hydrologic assessment of a certain catchment area, based on vegetation changes reflected in plant-wax δ13C, is usually achieved as implication. In contrast, the stable hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of plant waxes provides a more direct view on past continental hydrology, due to its closer link to the water source that PRIMA-1MET is utilized by plants (Sachse et al., 2012 and references therein). Recent studies on African paleoenvironments have proven the interpretive strength of combined plant-wax-specific hydrogen and carbon isotopes, in both marine and lacustrine sediments, to decipher substantial shifts in hydrology (via δD) and vegetation (via δ13C) (Schefu? et?al., 2005, Schefu? et?al., 2011, Tierney et?al., 2008, Niedermeyer et?al., 2010, Berke et?al., 2012, Magill et?al., 2013a and Magill et?al., 2013b). However, the isotopic records off NW Africa are still scarce and the sole continuous plant-wax δD record so far spans the time interval of the past 44 ka and seems to reflect Intra-Sahelian climate and vegetation variability (Niedermeyer et al., 2010). Therefore, we investigated the abundance of plant-wax lipids and their isotopic composition (δD, δ13C) in a marine sediment core from the deep-sea Cape Verde Plateau off Mauritania, spanning the Last Glacial cycle (i.e., 130 ka). As the temporal resolution (∼3 ka sample spacing) does not resolve millennial-scale climatic events, we limit our investigation to the evaluation of general changes in NW African hydrology and vegetation. For this, a comparison is made with similar data sets from NW Africa to capture the spacial and temporal pattern of environmental changes. In order to assess the underlying forcing mechanisms, the plant-wax-specific biomarker and isotope records are compared with (1) alkenone-based SST estimates generated from the same sample material, (2) deep water circulation changes indicated by the δ13C signature of benthic foraminifera (Sarnthein and Tiedemann, 1989), (3) major element ratios (terrigenous vs. marine sediment input, continental weathering intensity) in high resolution obtained by X-ray fluorescence scanning, (4) the dust (=carbonate-free sediment) record (Tiedemann et al., 1994) and (5) variations in solar insolation (Berger, 1978).
Taphonomic analyses on accumulations of small mammal faunas (including abundant lagomorphs remains) discovered in Lower and Middle Paleolithic sites (Caune de l’Arago, Terra Amata and Lazaret, Cueva Negra) have shown that “small game,” in the form of occasional hunting of rabbit and hare, was practiced since the Lower Paleolithic (Desclaux, 1992, El Guennouni, 2001, Desclaux et?al., 2011 and Walker et?al., 2013). Data provided by small ONO 4817 accumulations in Middle Paleolithic sites has confirmed the persistence of this practice (Costamagno and Laroulandie, 2004). Nevertheless, the hunting and consumption of small animals are not widespread in the Middle Paleolithic and are more common with denser Upper Paleolithic populations (Stiner et?al., 1999 and Stiner et?al., 2000). However, there are exceptions in the Middle Paleolithic. At Bolomor Cave (Spain), small prey (mostly rabbits) exceeds 50% of the MNI in some levels and were processed by Neanderthals (Blasco and Fernández Peris, 2012). At this site, as at Abri du Maras, carnivore activity is rare on the faunal accumulations, which suggests that Neanderthals had access to a large spectrum of prey around the site, small and large, with a low degree of competition. Similar results were recently published for Layer 4 at Les Canalettes where faunal remains are dominated by rabbits (Cochard et al., 2012). The presence of cutmarks and shaft cylinders suggests that humans were the accumulating agent. Unlike these sites, the Abri du Maras displays a very low abundance of small game suggesting that Neanderthals did not heavily exploit pheromones ecological niche. Nevertheless, at the Abri du Maras, we have cut-marked rabbit and hare bones and possible rabbit hairs on stone tools, providing two lines of evidence for rabbit exploitation. While we wish to heed our own advice and not generalize to all Neanderthals, the growing number of Neanderthal sites with demonstrated exploitation of leporids suggests that this activity, while not always common, was certainly within the behavioral repertoire of numerous Neanderthal groups.
Fig. 2. Leeds Point Core 10 (LP-10). The abundance of the three most common species of RG7112 is represented by horizontal bars; M. petila abundance is also shown. Stable carbon isotope concentrations (δ13C) for bulk sediment are parts per thousand (‰) relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) standard. Values corresponding to modern salt-marsh (less depleted than −18.9‰) and highest salt-marsh (more depleted than −22.0‰) environments dominated in New Jersey by C4 and C3 plants respectively are denoted by gray shading. Paleomarsh elevation (PME) was reconstructed using a transfer function applied to foraminifera preserved in core samples, SWLI = Standardized Water Level Index. Filled circles and error bars are sample-specific reconstructions of PME and uncertainty from the transfer function. Dashed lines display the error that was trimmed from the final reconstruction on the basis of δ13C values. Minimum dissimilarity was measured using the Bray–Curtis metric between each sample in the core and its single closest analogue in a training set of modern salt-marsh foraminifera from New Jersey. Vertical dashed lines mark thresholds for interpreting dissimilarity and were derived from pairwise analysis of the modern training set. The site of the closest analogue is shown by symbol shading. GB = Great Bay sites, EH = Egg Harbor Sites, BB = Brigantine Barrier, CMC = Cape May Courthouse. Goodness-of-fit to tidal elevation was measured as the squared residual fit of core samples in comparison to thresholds (vertical dashed lines) established from the modern dataset.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Second, there is a link between the arboreal versus grassland cover and fire activity. Generally, the mFI was longer whilst woodlands were SB939 (7100–4000 cal yr BP, mFI = 317 years), whereas the mFI was shorter (<150 years) during the prevalence of more open woodlands with abundant grasslands (10,700–7100 and 4000–0 cal BP (Fig. 5). This is more evident in the woody cover estimates based on the REVEALS model (Fig. 7) that corrects for biases in taxon-specific pollen productivities and dispersal and basin type (Feurdean et al., in prep.). Dry forests with grasslands provide both abundant fine grass fuel in addition to coarse wood, a fuel mix favourable for ignition and high flammability (Whitlock et?al., 2010, Krawchuk and Moritz, 2011 and Hoffmann et?al., 2012). The threshold for a shift from highly flammable, dry forest to less flammable, dense forest has been found to be governed by the ability of tree cover to reach a sufficient density to exclude the highly flammable grasses (Hoffmann et al., 2012). This shift occurs under cooler and more humid climate conditions. Results from our study suggest DNA polymerase the occurrence of more frequent fires in the dry climate of the early Holocene has kept the landscape open, promoted grassland abundance and sustained a more flammable ecosystem. Conversely, the decline in fire risk under cooler and wetter climate conditions (8000 cal yr BP), favoured the tree cover increase at the expense of grasses, further accentuating the decline in fire frequency brought by wetter climate conditions.
Fig. 8. Left panel. Estimated relative contribution of the three identified end-members reported versus 12MC sample depth. North American margin supplies are represented by the MacKenzie SPM signature (data from Goldstein et?al., 1984, Millot, 2002 and Millot et?al., 2004), the crustal Eurasian margin supplies by the Lena SPM signature (data from Rachold, 1999, Millot et?al., 2003 and Porcelli et?al., 2009) and the volcanic province by the Okhotsh-Chutoka Arc (data from Porcelli et al., 2009). Mixing calculation PJ34 based on the mean [Nd], [Pb], ?Nd and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of the three end-members. The scale on the right gives the tentative position of the marine isotopic stages (MIS). Right panel. Ten %- increment mixing grid (plain line) used to estimate the relative contribution of the three end-members in each MC12 samples. A mixing grid taking into account the Siberian craton (data from GEOROC, 2003 database) rather than the Lena SPM is incomplete dominance shown for comparison (dashed line). See text for further explanation.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The baseline survey (September to October 2008) included 1264 patients who Entinostat were then entered into the present analysis.
Details of the baseline survey variables are explained in a previous report . We obtained the following clinical data from participants’ medical files: age, sex, height, family history, presence of metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia), end-organ damage related to cardiovascular disease, whether or not home blood pressure measurement instruction had been provided, and duration of antihypertensive drug treatment. Follow-up surveys collected hypertension-related information, which included whether or not patients continued visiting medical institutions, systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, and medication histories, including use of calcium channel blockers, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-adrenergic receptor blockers, α-adrenergic receptor blockers, diuretics, and others.
As to reclassification adjustments, the procedures described in the Inventories are similar and concern to: (i) capital injections in State-owned corporations–analysing whether they Tubastatin A HCl meet the requirements of a financial transaction (not considered in the deficit/surplus) or of a non-financial transaction, considered in the deficit/surplus)8; (ii) dividends paid to GGS – according to ESA Manual on Government Deficit and Debt, each transaction is analysed in order to determinate whether the whole amount received from dividends can be considered as an income with positive impact on the deficit; (iii) military equipment expenditures (time differences adjustments regarding time of payment and time of delivery) and EU grants (time adjustments to assure neutrality of the Community grants).
Nevertheless, in this paper the research focuses on differences related to recognition criteria, namely concerning taxes and social contributions, accounts receivable/payable and interest paid/accrued. This focus is justified because material GA-NA differences relating to these criteria seem to exist – as NA collects micro data from several institutional sectors, dicots is necessary to make some adjustments, e.g. in order to harmonise the moment when transactions are recorded (Keuning and Tongeren, 2004 and Lande, 2000; Lüder, 2000).
Sample information, cosmogenic isotope concentrations and site cosmogenic production rates.Sample namePhaseAlt (m)Boulder size (L  Nanaomycin A × W) × H (m)a10Be (atoms/g-Q) (× 106)b26Al (atoms/g-Q) (× 106)b26Al/10Be ratioShielding correctiocDepth correctioncScaling factord10Be Site production rate (at/g/yr)eDR-1A9880(2 × 2) × 1.00.127 ± 0.0081.037 ± 0.1208.17 ± 1.080.9780.9742.0397.668DR-1B880(1.2 × 0.8) × 0.70.141 ± 0.0071.005 ± 0.0707.15 ± 0.610.9780.9562.0397.532DR-2A908(1.5 × 1.5) × 2.00.141 ± 0.0070.930 ± 0.1186.60 ± 0.890.9780.9612.0857.737DR-2B910(3 × 4) × 1.60.130 ± 0.0050.785 ± 0.0666.03 ± 0.560.9780.9482.0887.647DR-3A8940(1 × 0.5) × 0.60.135 ± 0.0061.084 ± 0.0998.00 ± 0.820.9910.9652.1388.077DR-3B942(2 × 3) × 1.50.138 ± 0.0060.954 ± 0.0766.94 ± 0.630.9910.9562.1428.018DR-4A7805(1 × 1.1) × 1.00.129 ± 0.0060.760 ± 0.1095.89 ± 0.890.9880.9481.9207.103DR-4B805(1 × 1.1) × 1.00.120 ± 0.0050.870 ± 0.0667.25 ± 0.630.9880.9481.9207.103DR-5B5790(3 × 3) × 10.945 ± 0.0256.445 ± 0.4956.82 ± 0.560.9890.9561.8977.087DR-5A790(3 × 3) × 10.878 ± 0.0226.169 ± 0.4167.03 ± 0.510.9890.9401.8976.963DR-6A4660(1.5 × 1.5) × 1.21.388 ± 0.0449.147 ± 0.5626.59 ± 0.461.0000.9651.7076.505DR-6B660(2.5 × 2) × 1.00.573 ± 0.0254.427 ± 0.3307.73 ± 0.671.0000.9481.7076.390aMinimum height of sampled boulder above local ground level. Sampling area at latitude 42.33° S and longitude 146.17°E (see Fig. 1 for detailed map location).bMeasured concentrations at site location. Uncertainty represents quadrature addition of 1σ errors in final AMS isotope ratio, masses, Al assay (±4%) and a 2% systematic variability in repeat measurement of AMS standards. AMS 10Be ratios normalized to NIST-4325 with a nominal value of 27,900 × 10−15. AMS 26Al ratios normalized to PRIME Lab Z93-0221 with a nominal value of 16,800 × 10−15.cCorrection factors to site production rate due to sample exposure geometry from horizon shielding (using m = 2.3) and sample thickness (∼2–6 cm) with Λ = 150 gm cm−2 and ρ = 2.7 gm cm−3.dAltitude and latitude scaling factors derived from Stone (2000).eSite production rate of 10Be based on sea-level high latitude spallogenic plus muon production rates of 10Be (spall) = 3.85 ± 0.12 ( ± 3%) atoms/g.y (Putnam et?al., 2010a and Putnam et?al., 2010b; see text) and 26Al(spall) = 26.0 ± 2.6 (±10%) atoms/g.y based on assumed production rate spallation ratio of 6.75 (see Balco et al., 2008). Total muon production rate of 10Be is filtration normalized to 0.10 atoms/g/y and scaled independently as given in Stone (2000). Production rates do not include paleo-magnetic corrections.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV