In Pante et al. (2012), we validated an effective method to ascertain Oldowan carnivory as a key ecological transformation in human evolution. Over the last 25 years, we and our colleagues have produced four sets of independent and well-controlled feeding trace models for inferring the sequence of hominin and carnivore CP-466722 in fossil bone assemblages (Blumenschine and Marean, 1993, Selvaggio, 1994, Blumenschine, 1995 and Capaldo, 1995). We have produced two independent and largely concurrent assessments of mark frequencies on the FLK 22 assemblage (see Blumenschine and Pobiner, 2007) and those assessments are based on careful study of taphonomy\’s most extensive control collections along with blind testing to confirm analyst proficiency with mark identifications (Blumenschine et al., 1996). We have observations of free-ranging, captive and experimentally simulated interspecific interactions that produced the marks on hundreds of carcass samples (Blumenschine, 1987, Cavallo and Blumenschine, 1989, Blumenschine and Marean, 1993 and Capaldo, 1995), and we have produced a detailed, multidisciplinary reconstruction of the paleolandscape context of the FLK 22 site (Blumenschine et al., 2012) that in all ways accommodates the indications of the feeding trace models. And with Pante et al. (2012), we now have sound statistical inferences that validate the feeding trace models. No other research team has matched complete flower range and rigor of methodological components for a body of inference that links traces of hominin and carnivore feeding behavior to their past interactions. As such, the inferences substantiated by our bootstrapping analysis have withstood the tests in Domínguez-Rodrigo et al.\’s critique, thereby strengthening their likelihood of being an accurate reflection of hominin carnivory at FLK 22.
Application of lognormal distribution function to fitting and partitioning individual, polymodal grain-size distributions suggests that Beta-Lapachone the modern clastic sediments of Dali Lake contain five distinct grain-size components representing specific depositional processes and sedimentary environments within the lake, as those of Daihai Lake do. These components are, from fine to coarse modes, long-term suspension clay, offshore-suspension fine silt, offshore-suspension medium-to-coarse silt, nearshore-suspension fine sand and nearshore-saltation medium sand. In Dali Lake, by contrast, clastic materials entering the lake and the resultant components would be reworked more seriously during transportation within the lake due to higher-energy hydraulics of the lake generated by stronger and more frequent winds occurring in the lake region, thus resulting in further basinward transportation of the major components and better separations of two adjacent components.
The grain-size component–lake level status model generated from Dali Lake was applied to a sediment core from the lake where high percentages of the nearshore components in the core coincide with low precipitation reconstructed from the pollen profile of the same core. This relationship between two independent proxies not only demonstrates the validity of lognormal distribution function in partitioning polymodal sediments but also reveals the wide applicability of the grain-size component–lake level status model to paleohydrological reconstruction.
Recent molecular studies placed Cuon and Lycaon near the AT13387 of the Canis clade ( Lindblad-Toh et al., 2005), in contrast to morphological analysis suggesting that hypercarnivorous forms are at the terminal end of the canine phylogeny (Tedford et al., 2009). If the molecular relationship is correct, then records of Cuon and Lycaon are expected to be at least as old as, if not older than, that of Canis. The arrival of large wolves (genus Canis) in Europe is termed the “wolf event” ( Azzaroli, 1983). Although records of early wolves have been pushed back slightly ( Sardella and Palombo, 2007, Martínez-Navarro et?al., 2009 and Rook and Martínez-Navarro, 2010), the wolf event is essentially confined to the early Pleistocene (late Pliocene before recent redefinition; see Gibbard et al., 2010). The hypercarnivorous Sinicuon is more derived dentally and thus far its records tend to postdate the appearance of Canis. Our new Tibetan record demonstrates that hypercarnivorous canids may have predated the genus Canis.
Fig. 3. Four main morphotypes of the lower molar (M1) based on variety of the anteroconid pattern (shaded) of extant Lasiopodomys brandti (Radde, 1861): 1 – morphotype I; 2 – morphotype II; 3 – morphotype III; 4 – morphotype IV (in occlusal view).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
2. Materials and methods
The studied fossils of L. brandti, collected in Western Transbaikalia since 1962, Sirolimus housed in the Geological Institute of Siberian Branch RAS, Ulan-Ude. More than 50 localities with different amounts of fossils are known in Transbaikal ( Fig. 2). Some fossil sites located territorially close each other are included as one site. Moreover, in multilayered localities such as Tologoi and Dodogol, each horizon with fossil remains is counted as a separate site, for example number “4” (Tologoi) united sites – Tologoi 2.5, 2.6; Tologoi 3.1, 3.2, 3.3; Tologoi VIII; successive horizons included Brandt\’s vole fossils (Fig. 2). Specimens of Lasiopodomys probrandti discovered from Nihewan, Dongyaozitou site (DO-6) were studied in the collections of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology CAS in Beijing, China.
Radiocarbon data of the Middle Holocene is derived from different site types: open-air sites (all of them shell middens; n = 5), with high and low densities, and rock shelters (n = 6, but from 2 sites). Evidence of exploitation of marine resources was recorded in shell middens ( Zubimendi et?al., 2005, Castro et?al., 2007 and Castro et?al., 2011), and also in Alero El Oriental. In this SBI-0206965 last case, mollusc shells and bones of pinnipeds were identified in low densities (Ambrústolo et al., 2011). This would suggest that during the Middle Holocene, the coast and its resources (mainly molluscs) have been exploited by hunter–gatherers who occupied the area.
There is no evidence of previous human occupation to smooth muscle time, although according to various studies, during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition and prior to the mid-Holocene transgressive maximum at ca. 8000 cal BP, the Atlantic coast would have been several kilometres eastward from its current position (Codignotto et?al., 1992, Schellmann and Radtke, 2010 and Ponce et?al., 2011). Therefore, the evidence of coastal occupations could be under the sea today, or have been destroyed by erosion of the advancing sea (Bailey and Milner, 2002 and Favier Dubois, 2013).
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Guaraní archaeology; South American Lowlands; Late Holocene; GIS; Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dates
This article is focused on the study of the spatial and temporal distribution of the archaeological sites attributed to the Guaraní in the La Plata Basin and littoral zone of southern Brazil. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze continuous Guaraní expansion throughout the main waterways and the Atlantic coastline. In order to attain nondisjunction objective, an intense review of the 14C and thermoluminescence available dates of Guaraní sites was carried out. Then, a Geographic Information System (GIS) database was created to correlate the location and chronology of the recorded sites; resulting in temporal maps, modeling of the Guaraní dispersion routes, and the identification of major expansion pulses. Finally, the expansion model was compared with the previous expansion model proposed by Brochado\’s (1984).
2. Regional setting
Bukovynka Cave is situated in the southeastern part of the Podillja–Bukovynian karst area (Ukraine), in the middle part of the Prut River valley, close to the Romania and Moldova borders (Fig. 1A). The cave is developed in the upper part of the Upper Badenian gypsum strata (N1bd2), up to 35 m thick. The gypsum deposit in this Boc-D-FMK area consists of two lithofacies. The lower lithofacies are represented by stromatolitic gypsum with intercalations of clastic gypsum, and the upper one is represented by sabre and crystalline gypsum (Peryt, 2001). The sulphate bed is underlain by few meters of sand (with 0.5–1.0 m sandstone cap) of the Lower Badenian age. The top of gypsum layer is covered with up to 1 m of Ratyn Limestone and up to 8 m of the dark-gray clay of Kosiv Formation (N1ks), with abundant algae (Lithothamnion) limestone inclusions.
Quaternary deposits include river-terrace alluvium of the Prut River, composed of so-called ‘Carpathian Pebbles’ of Early Pleistocene, and grey sand, covered with Middle- and Late Pleistocene pale-yellow loess. Due to the different erosional opening of the massif, locally the Quaternary cover is directly on top of the Ratyn Limestone. The bedding of overlying deposits is strongly dislocated by slope failures, which involve both Quaternary deposits and the upper Neogene clays.