Fig. 3. Effect of p-chlorophenoxyisobutric Z-YVAD-FMK (PCIB) on in vitro regeneration of Primulina dryas. PCIB (0, 20, 40 and 60 μmol L−1) was added to medium supplemented with TDZ (0 or 5 μM) and leaf explants were grown for 4 weeks. Bars with the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 4. Effect of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) on in vitro regeneration of Primulina dryas. TIBA (0, 20, 40 and 60 μmol L−1) was added to medium supplemented with TDZ (0 or 5 μM) and leaf explants were grown for 4 weeks. Bars with the same letter are mineralocorticoids not significantly different at P < 0.05.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.3. Growth and multiplication in liquid medium and greenhouse transplantation
Growth of Chirita sinensis in Liquid Lab™ Rocker systems for 3 months.MediaBiomass per container (g)Growth characteristicsLiquid52a*Large leaves, uniform growth, plants are easy to separateGelled/solid46aSmaller leaves, uneven growth, clump formation, difficult to separate*Data with the same letter are not significantly different at P < 0.05.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Fig. 2. Individual map according to the two first axes of the principal component analysis of NIR spectra for fruits analysed at harvest from the three growth pattern groups (GP1, GP2 and GP3). The ellipses present the confidence intervals of each group (P < 0.05).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Our results tended to show that growth pattern could be a good indicator for fruit textural quality at harvest and its evolution after cold storage. Absolute growth rate during cell division and cell CGP41251 and relative growth rate values during cell elongation seem to be good indicators. More specifically, relative growth rate seemed to be more determinate for juiciness at harvest and the onset of mealiness during cold storage. In this way fruit growth models such as the one by (Lakso et al., 1995) could be used to evaluate the growth parameter used in this study and evaluate or predict fruit quality attributes at harvest or after storage. However, while it seems to be a good possibility to use growth pattern as a new indicator for fruit quality, our results need to be confirmed with more data and other cultivars.
The green-leaf lettuce Batavia Rubia Munguía (L. sativa L. var. Capitata) (BRM) and the red-leaf lettuce Maravilla de Verano (L. sativa L. var. Capitata) (MV) were used in this study. Seeds of BRM and MV were surface sterilized by 10% bleach for 10 min and sown in a mixture of peat and sand (1:1, v:v). When seedlings had 2–3 fully developed leaves, they were transferred to 1.5 L pots (one plant per pot, 32 pots with BRM and 32 pots with MV thus making a total of 64 pots) filled with a mixture of vermiculite-sand-peat (2.5:2.5:1, v:v:v). Peat (Floragard, Vilassar de Mar, Barcelona, Spain) had a VE-821 of 5.2–6.0, 70–150 mg L−1 of nitrogen, 80–180 mg L−1 P2O5 and 140–220 mg L−1 K2O and it was previously sterilized at 100 °C for 1 h on three consecutive days. At transplanting, 16 pots with BRM and 16 pots with MV were inoculated with 13 g of the commercial inoculum AEGIS Endo Gránulo (+M plants). The application of this commercial inoculum was found to improve the quality of greenhouse-lettuce in previous studies ( Baslam et al., 2011 and Baslam et al., 2011) and its effectiveness for improving growth and inducing the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in lettuce plants was previously compared with that of Glomus fasciculatum (Taxter sensu Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe come from a pot culture with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as host plant and obtained in our lab ( Baslam et al., 2011 and Baslam et al., 2012). In addition, percentages of mycorrhizal colonization achieved in roots of BRM and MV after applying this commercial inoculum were always very similar despite the season of the year in which lettuces were cultivated (Baslam et al., 2013). The inoculum was a mixture of Rhizophagus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) Walker & Schüβler comb. nov. ( Krüger et al., 2012) and Funneliformis mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Walker & Schüβler comb. nov. ( Krüger et al., 2012) that contained around 100 spores and other infective propagules (mycelium, spores and roots) per gram of product. An inoculum filtrate was added to pots (16 pots with BRM and 16 pots with MV) that did not receive the mycorrhizal inoculum (−M plants) in an attempt to restore other soil free-living microorganisms accompanying AMF. The filtrate for each pot was obtained by passing 13 g of mycorrhizal inoculum in 20 mL of distilled water through a 15–20 μm filter paper (Whatman, GE Healthcare, UK).
It is also well known that salt stress triggers an oxidative stress. Increased accumulation of ascorbic Agarose GPG/LE and also antioxidant enzyme activities are involved in order to overcome NaCl-induced oxidative stress in lettuce (Eraslan et al., 2007). A key gene as galactose dehydrogenase (L-GalDH), involved in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid, was rapidly and consistently activated in lettuce in response to different abiotic stresses ( Oh et al., 2009). On the other hand, the significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown (Nautiyal et al., 2008). However, the same authors have shown induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and superoxidase dismutase, in edible parts of L. sativa, after inoculation with Bacillus lentimorbus B-30488. Thus, the possibility that Azospirillum inoculation could enhance L-GalDH and the expression of other genes involved in antioxidant activity in lettuce grown under saline (Table 2 and Fig. 3), should not be discarded.
Fig. 2. Evolution of the number of BILN-2061 and leaf area of 3 genotypes of Fragaria spp. subjected to three levels of salt stress (0, 30 and 60 mM NaCl). With the exception of the third sampling date (70 days after stress initiation), this procedure was done every 3 weeks. Bars on each data point indicate standard deviation. *Indicates statistically significant differences (α = 0.05). Note: different y-axis dimensions were used for Cucao as it’s leaf area developed on a much reduced scale.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Although ‘Cucao’ plants produced the greatest number of leaves, F. chiloensis f. patagonica is characterized by small plants with small leaves, rosette growth and smaller stature than ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Bau’ ( Fig. 1). For habitat disruption reason, the other morphological variables evaluated were significantly lower in ‘Cucao’ than the other two genotypes, and the scale of the graphs for these variables in ‘Cucao’ had to be amplified for a better display of the effects.
We also pay attention to our control variables. Consistent with Hudon (2010), we find that AG-014699 large MFIs seem to receive better ratings, suggesting that larger MFIs are better managed than smaller ones. Larger MFIs have potentially greater agency problems, and thus set up governance mechanisms that effectively mitigate agency risks. MFIs operating in countries with better institutions, that is, less corrupted countries, get better governance ratings. Better institutions help to overcome information asymmetries and promote the implementation of best governance practices in companies, including MFIs.
Table 7 reports the results of the pooled OLS with robust standard errors and with control for selection bias. Reported results provide strong support for Hypothesis 7. Findings suggest macrophages better governed MFIs serve a large number of borrowers. We find that governance ratings are significantly associated with outreach and the gross loan portfolio, suggesting that better governance help MFIs to achieve their social mission, that is, improving access of the poor to financial services and globally tending to provide sizable loans.
Fagbenle et al.  assessed the wind Tenovin-6 potential of Maiduguri and Potiskum, Nigeria using 21 years monthly mean wind data at 10 m height and found that Maiduguri was better site for standalone and medium scale wind power development. McIntyre et al.  estimated the wind potential of Guelph city in Ontario, Canada and concluded that an array of utility-scale turbines could potentially generate 29% of Guelph\’s 2005 total electricity demand, whereas one consisting of small-scale turbines could achieve 10% of that demand. Nor et al.  conducted techno-economic wind resource assessment in equatorial regions of Malaysia and concluded that there exist harness able sites for wind power deployment. Based on long-term (1945–1990) wind data from 19 meteorological stations and wind measurements at the sites, Katinas et al.  reported that the 10 km wide coastal strip near the Baltic Sea was the most suitable region for large scale wind farm development. Nordman  reported that around 29% of Kenya\’s tea factories could utilize the wind power potential to meet their power requirements. Weekes et al.  investigated a measure–correlate–predict (MCP) approach based on the bivariate Weibull (BW) probability distribution of wind speeds at pairs of correlated sites. Using the artificial wind data, the BW approach outperformed the regression approaches for all measurement periods. When applied to the real wind speed observations however, the performance of the BW approach was comparable to the regression approaches when using a full 12 month measurement period and generally worse than the regression approaches for shorter data periods.
Normalized heat loss Raltegravir defined asequation(3)Q˙loss,norm=Q˙lossW˙comp,el.
Fig. 15 shows the normalized heat loss for the test stand data as a function of discharge temperature and saturated suction temperature, which is within a range of 0–6%. Discharge temperature tends to correlate with an increase in heat loss.
Fig. 15. Normalized heat loss for test stand data sets (60 Hz only, calorimeter data marked).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 16 shows the heat loss for the in-system testing as a function of discharge temperature and saturated suction temperature. 69% of the data is within a range of 4–8% of normalized heat loss. The discharge temperature tends to decrease with increasing saturated suction temperature (= increasing pressure), while the normalized heat losses stay approximately constant due to the simultaneous reduction in compressor speed and mass flow rate. Some points have a higher heat-loss, four of these points are mapping points with a higher suction superheat, while the two points with the highest heat loss are points with reduced compressor speed.
Fig. 2. Methodology adopted for deciding values of solar multiple and design DNI.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
2.1. Selection of potential locations to be considered for analysis
In Sephin 1 recent study, Sharma et al.  have presented estimates of solar thermal power generation potential in India and identified considerable potential in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Based on the above mentioned study, 8 districts have been selected for the present analysis. These districts satisfy two conditions for the installation of MW scale grid connected solar thermal power plants: (a) sufficient wastelands in the suitable categories and (b) high DNI. Details of the locations along with annual DNI are extracellular digestion shown in Table 1.
Locations selected for the analysis along with corresponding annual values of the DNI.StateLocationLatitude (°N)Longitude(°E)Annual DNI (kWh/m2)RajasthanJaisalmer26.9170.952147Jodhpur26.373.062237Barmer25.7571.412248GujaratKachch22.5869.662143Surendranagar22.7171.712208MaharashtraSatara17.6974.002085Sangli16.8574.562105Andhra PradeshAnantpur14.6777.592139Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Number of daily pulses by using a ¾″ hose according to the selected temperature of pulses for the previous summer case.Temp. (°C)Pulses#40225013607703Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Number of daily pulses by using a ¾″ hose according to the selected temperature of pulses for the previous winter case.Temp. (°C)Pulses (#)Efficiency (%)403403565430963Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
It could be also possible that Anacetrapib the customer does not need much water, but the last feature could be further used in cloudy cold days. Fig. 6 compares the evolution of the basic hose and the pulsed (30 °C) hose during a winter day having a half (1.0 kWh/m2/day) of average solar resource. Here is observed that the pulsed collector exchanges three times its water inventory, meanwhile the basic hose barely remains at 30 °C at sunset.
Fig. 6. Daily evolution of water temperature (°C) for two ¾″ hoses during a cloudy winter day showing both, the basic hose and the pulsed flow configurations.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide